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MUSIC



Quarter III

Quarter III: CONTEMPORARY
PHILIPPINE MUSIC

CONTENT STANDARDS
The learner demonstrates understanding of...
1. Characteristic features of contemporary music.

PERFORMANCE STANDARDS
The learner...
1. Sings contemporary songs.

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LEARNING COMPETENCIES

The learner...
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Listens perceptively to excerpts of major contemporary works.
Describes characteristics of traditional and new music.
Gives a brief biography of selected contemporary Philippine composers. Sings selections of contemporary music with appropriate pitch, rhythm, style, and expression.
Explores ways of creating sounds on a variety of sources.
Improvises simple vocal/instrumental accompaniments to selected songs. Creates a musical on the life of a selected contemporary Philippine composer. Evaluates music and music performances using knowledge of musical elements and style.

From the Department of Education curriculum for MUSIC Grade 10 (2014)

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Contemporary Philippine Music

CONTEMPORARY
PHILIPPINE MUSIC

A

ccording to National Artist Ramon Santos, PhD, “contemporary music in the
Philippines refers to compositions that have adopted ideas and elements from 20th century art music in the west, as well as the latest trends and musical styles in the entertainment industry.”
The modern Filipino repertoire consists of musical pieces that have been written in 20th century idioms that have evolved out of such stylistic movements as impressionism, expressionism, neo-classicism, as well as avant garde and new music.
New music are compositions which are improvisational works such as the early compositions of Dr. Ramon Santos, Radyasyon and Quadrasyon; Josefino “Chino”
Toledo’s Samut-Sari, Pintigan and Terminal Lamentations, and Jonathan Baes’ Wala and Banwa.

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20th CENTURY

TRADITIONAL COMPOSERS

W

ith Spain and then America having colonized the Philippines from the early 1500s to the late 1800s, it was unavoidable that Western compositional techniques found their way into the works of Filipino composers. Yet, even 20th century Filipino composers have managed to retain some traditional elements in their assimilation of Western techniques. In fact, they have become the strongest foundations of what we now know as Philippine music.
Among the major Philippine contemporary composers are Francisco Buencamino Sr.,
Francisco Santiago, Nicanor Abelardo, Antonio Molina, Hilarion Rubio, Col.
Antonino Buenaventura, Rodolfo Cornejo, Lucio San Pedro, Rosendo Santos Jr.,
Alfredo Buenaventura, and Ryan Cayabyab.

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MUSIC



Quarter III

FRANCISCO B. BUENCAMINO SR.
(1883 – 1952)
Francisco Beltran Buencamino Sr. was born on November
5, 1883 in Bulacan. He was the son of a musically inclined couple. His father was Fortunato Buencamino, a church organist and band master. His mother was Luisa Beltran, a noted singer. He studied music composition and harmony at
Liceo de Manila. Unfortunately, he was not able to finish.
He taught at the Ateneo de Manila, and at Centro Escolar de
Señoritas whose Conservatory of Music he founded. He also created the Buencamino Music Academy in 1930 where
Nicanor Abelardo was one of his students. Expanding his career, he ventured into musical directing and scoring, and composing film music for
Sampaguita Pictures, LVN, and Excelsior.
Buencamino’s compositions include Harana, Pandanggo ni Neneng, Collar de
Sampaguita, Dulces las Horas, Mayon (Fantasia de Concierto), My Soul’s Lament,
Larawan, Mazurka, Boholana, Mi Bandera, Princesa ng Kumintang, Maligayang Bati,
Ang Bukang Liwayway, Pandanggo ni Neneng, Ang Bagong Balitaw, Himig ng Nayon,
Damdamin (Romance), and Pizzicato Caprice.

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Many of his piano works have become a staple part of the Philippine repertoire of today’s young students, especially Mayon, Larawan, and Maligayang Bati. He also wrote several zarzuelas and kundimans. He passed away on October 16, 1952 after which a posthumous award honored him with the title “Outstanding Composer.”
LARAWAN
Francisco Buencamino Sr.

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Contemporary Philippine Music

Francisco Santiago
(1889 – 1947)
Francisco Santiago is known as the “Father of the Kundiman” and belongs to the “Triumvirate of Filipino Composers.” He finished his music specialization at the American Conservatory of Music in Chicago, where he obtained his Doctorate Degree in 1924.
Santiago’s music was Romantic in style, incorporating Western forms and techniques with folk materials. He composed several works such as kundiman, symphonies, piano concertos, and other music pieces for the piano, violin, and voice.
Among his famous works are Pakiusap, Madaling Araw, Sakali Man, Hibik ng Pilipinas,
Ano Kaya ang Kapalaran, and Kundiman (Anak Dalita). This piece was sung before the Royal Court of Spain upon the request of King Alfonso II. He was also a musical director for films. Among the films whose music he supervised are Kundiman, Leron
Leron Sinta, Madaling Araw, Manileña, and the movie inspired by his own composition
Pakiusap. He became the first Filipino Director of the UP Conservatory of Music.

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PILIPINAS KONG MAHAL
Francisco Santiago

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MUSIC



Quarter III

NICANOR ABELARDO
(1893 – 1934)
Nicanor Abelardo is one of the “Triumvirate of Filipino
Composers” which includes Antonio Molina and Francisco
Santiago. He studied music at the Chicago Music College and was influenced by the musical styles of Schoenberg, Hindemith and Stravinsky.
Abelardo developed a style that combined European romanticism with chromaticism. His compositions contain hazy tones, dissonance and unusual chordal combinations found in such works as Cinderella Overture, Panoramas, and a violin sonata.
Although a 20th century modern composer in style, he is also considered a composer in the Romantic style. His best-known compositions include Mutya ng Pasig, Nasaan Ka Irog, Cavatina for Violoncello, and Magbalik Ka Hirang.

ANTONIO J. MOLINA
(1894 – 1980)
National Artist for Music

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Antonio Molina, the first National Artist for Music, is considered one of the “Triumvirate of Filipino Composers” which includes Nicanor Abelardo and Francisco Santiago. He began his music career as an orchestral soloist at the Manila
Grand Opera House.
He served as Dean of the Centro Escolar University
Conservatory of Music from 1948 to 1970. He was also a faculty member of the University of the Philippines’
Conservatory (now College) of Music.
Molina was a product of both the Romantic and Impressionist schools of thought. He was fascinated by the dynamics and harmonies of Debussy, but retained much of the
Romantic style in his melody. A characteristically impressionist work is his piano work
Malikmata (Transfiguration). The mysteriously exotic chords of this piece gradually lead to a lyrical melody, with the traditional harmonies abruptly returning to the initial mood.
Molina wrote several compositions for piano, violin, and voice as well as a Spanish-style opera form known as the zarzuela.

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Contemporary Philippine Music

He is best known for his poignantly romantic serenade for violin and piano Hatinggabi.
Subsequent transcriptions of this piece were written for the cello, flute, piano, and guitar.
Other works by Molina include orchestral music - Misa Antoniana Grand Festival Mass,
Ang Batingaw, Kundiman-Kundangan; chamber music - String Quartet, Kung sa Iyong
Gunita, Pandangguhan; and vocal music - Amihan, Awit ni Maria Clara, and Larawan
Nitong Pilipinas. He received the National Artist for Music award in 1973. He passed away on January 29, 1980.

MUTYA NG PASIG
Music and Lyrics by Nicanor Abelardo

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Quarter III

HATINGGABI (Excerpt)
Antonio J. Molina (Music) / Levi Celerio (Lyrics)

SA UGOY NG DUYAN (Excerpt)
Lucio San Pedro (Music) / Levi Celerio (Lyrics)

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PANDANGGO SA ILAW (Excerpt)
Antonino Buenaventura (Music) / Levi Celerio (Lyrics)

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Contemporary Philippine Music

HILARION RUBIO Y FRANCISCO
(1902 – 1985)
Hilarion Rubio was born on October 21, 1902 in Bacoor, Cavite. A composer, music teacher, conductor, and clarinetist, he created substantial works for the orchestra. He served as conductor for opera, ballet, dance recitals, and movie music.
His early interest in music came from the influence of his uncle who was then playing with the Bacoor Band. His first music lessons in music theory and clarinet were with Fr.
Amando Buencamino who taught him solfeggio and some musical instruments. When he was eight years old, he was accepted as a member of the Bacoor Band as a clarinetist. At that time, he made his first composition Unang Katas for his concert with the band.In his high school years at the North High School (now Arellano High School), Rubio became a member of several orchestras. He performed with various movie house bands and orchestras. He was also a member of the Lyric Theater Orchestra, Trozo Band in Benavides
Street, and the Band Moderna in Tondo. After he graduated from high school in 1930, he co-founded the Anak Zapote Band. He later became a bandleader and conductor of the ROTC Band of the Conservatory of Music, University of the Philippines (UP) and played the violin and timpani with the UP Junior Symphony Orchestra.

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After his student years, Rubio became a conductor of opera at the Manila Music School in 1936. He became the choirmaster and choral conductor of the Choir Islanders. Also, he assumed the position of instructor at the Conservatory of Music, University of the
Philippines. He was also a lecturer at the Buencamino Music Academy, La Concordia
College, College of the Holy Spirit, Santa Isabel College, Laperal Music Academy, Manila
Music School, St. Theresa’s College, and the Valencia Academy of Music. He became full professor of the UP Conservatory of Music from 1936-1937. He was appointed director of the Conservatory of Music, Centro Escolar University in 1944-1945.

During the Second World War, Rubio composed and arranged many works and conducted many military and civilian brass bands. After the war, he was appointed conductor of the Manila Municipal Symphony Orchestra. He held various positions, including as Vice
President of the PASAMBAP (Pambansang Samahan ng mga Banda sa Pilipinas), the
National Band Association, board and charter member of the League of Filipino composers, and the first President of the Philippine Bandmaster’s Association. He was conductor of the National Opera Company for 23 years from 1937 to 1960.
Rubio’s compositions include: Bulaklaken, Theme and Variations for Band, Dance of the Nymphs Rondo, Florente at Laura ( verture), Halik, Danza, Unang Katas, Twoo part Invention (piano), Ang Konsyerto (ballet), Ang Magsasaka, Bukang Liwayway,
Concertino in C (marimba and piano), Filipinas Kong Mahal, Hatulan Mo Ako,
Ginintuang Araw, In a Tropical Sea, Light, Narra, Mutya ng Silangan, To the Filipino
Youth, Nela, National Heroes Day Hymn, and Salamisim. He passed away on December
28, 1985.
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MUSIC



Quarter III

COL. ANTONINO BUENAVENTURA
(1904 – 1996)
National Artist for Music
Col. Antonino Ramirez Buenaventura was a renowned composer, conductor, and teacher. His father Lucio was the chief musician of the Spanish artillery band in Intramuros and founder of Banda Buenaventura. As a young boy, he had already demonstrated a passion for music while learning the rudiments of music and solfeggio and becoming a proficient clarinet player.
Col. Buenaventura further developed his musical abilities at the Conservatory of Music, University of the Philippines (UP) at the age of 19. He received a Teacher’s Diploma in Science and Composition at UP. Nicanor Abelardo and Francisco
Santiago were among his famous mentors. At the University, Buenaventura led the UP
ROTC Band and established the UP Junior Orchestra which was the first collegiate orchestra in the country. He pursued further studies at the Institute of International
Education in New York. He was also awarded a study grant by the UNESCO in 1949.
He was a delegate to the general assembly of the International Society for Music Education held in Montreux, Switzerland in 1976. He represented the country at the general meetings of the International Music Council (IMC) in Rome (1962) and Hamburg (1964).

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Buenaventura was actively involved with the various military bands which ultimately earned him his military rank of Colonel. He was a music instructor and band conductor of the Philippine Military Academy (PMA). Later, he restored the Philippine Constabulary
Band in 1945, which was reputedly likened to a symphony orchestra. It was considered as “one of the best military bands in the world.” It would later be renamed the Philippine
Army Band. He also founded the San Pablo Music Academy in Laguna.
Buenaventura was a faculty member of the UP Conservatory of Music. Later, he became the music director of the Conservatory of Music, University of Santo Tomas (UST) in
1961. After retiring from the military, he became the music director at the School of
Music and Arts, University of the East (UE) in 1964. He promoted Philippine music through his extensive use of folk materials which he had recorded around the country with Ramon Tolentino and National Artist for Dance Francisca Reyes Aquino.
Buenaventura composed the music and folk dance notations for the dance researches of
Aquino. As a multi-awarded musician, he composed Minuet, Mindanao Sketches,
Divertimento for Piano and Orchestra, Variations and Fugue, and Greetings based on
Philippine folk music. Pandanggo sa Ilaw, one of his most popular compositions, remains a favorite performance repertoire of many folk dance companies. He was declared National
Artist for Music in 1988 and passed away in 1996.

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Contemporary Philippine Music

RODOLFO S. CORNEJO
(1909 – 1991) was born on May 15, 1909 in Singalong,
Manila. Inspired by his mother’s genuine support, the young
Cornejo started formal music lessons at the age of six. He performed on stage after only two years of music studies. During this time, he was also invited as organist of the Pasay Catholic
Church. His first composition at age 10 was a piano piece entitled Glissando Waltz. It was followed three years later by a military march entitled Salute. At the age of 14, 26 of Cornejo’s compositions were already listed by the United Publishing
Company Inc.
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Cornejo graduated with a Teacher’s Diploma in Pianoforte and a Teacher’s Diploma in
Science and Composition at the Conservatory of Music, University of the Philippines
(UP) in 1930. He received his Bachelor of Music degree major in piano and theory from the Chicago Musical College of Roosevelt University, USA in 1932. He received a Master of Music degree major in composition and conducting at the Chicago Musical College of
Roosevelt University, USA in 1933. He was conferred a Doctor of Music degree honoris causa in 1954. He received his Doctor of Philosophy degree major in composition from the Neotarian College of Philosophy in Kansas City, USA in 1947.

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Cornejo taught at the UP Conservatory of Music and became the researcher and official composer of the Philippine government-in-exile. He was appointed by then President
Manuel L. Quezon. He was commissioned to write a symphony and an opera and compose the music for the documentary film on President Quezon’s funeral. He served as pianistdirector of a USO concert unit that entertained the Allied Forces at the E.T.O., the
Marianas, and the Hawaiian Islands during World War II.

Cornejo was the soloist of the Manila Symphony Orchestra, Filipinas Youth Symphony
Orchestra, and UP Symphony Orchestra. Later on, he became the musical director of the
Sampaguita and Vera-Perez Movie Companies. Since 1978, he held concerts in the United
States. He appeared as composer-conductor at the Seattle Opera House and the Seattle
Playhouse. He is listed in “The International Who’s Who in Music.”
Cornejo was also known for his extemporaneous thematic improvisations based on the letters of people’s names. His compositional output includes A la Juventud Filipina,
Bailes de Ayer, Caprice on a Folksong, Cello Sonata, Ibong Adarna, Kandingan, Malakas at Maganda, Overture, Okaka, Oriental Fantasy, Ibong Adarna, Piano Concerto Nos.
1,2,3, Ruby, and Song of the Miners. He passed away on August 11, 1991.

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MUSIC



Quarter III

FELIPE PADILLA DE LEON SR.
(1912 – 1992)
National Artist for Music
Felipe Padilla de Leon was born on May 1, 1912 in Barrio Papaya
(now General Tinio) in Penaranda, Nueva Ecija. He is the son of
Juan de Leon and Natalia Padilla. Felipe de Leon married pianist
Iluminada Mendoza with whom he had six children. Bayani and
Felipe Jr., are two of his children. Bayani is a well-known composer, and Felipe Jr. is a writer and the chairman of the National
Commission for Culture and the Arts (NCCA).
De Leon’s talent in painting and drawing was discovered during his school days and admired by his uncle, peers. People asked him to make illustrations and sketches and was paid for them. When he was studying at the Nueva Ecija High School, he went on trips with his hometown band and wrote short pieces for them. He took up Fine Arts at the University of the Philippines in 1927, but he had to stop schooling in order to make a living. He played the trombone in dance orchestras which performed in cabarets, circuses and bodabil (vaudeville). Then, he worked as an assistant conductor of the Nueva Ecija High School Orchestra where he started doing musical arrangements. Later on, he wrote music for the zarzuela.

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He decided to study formally and enrolled at the Conservatory of Music, University of the Philippines, where he studied under National Artists Col. Antonio Buenaventura and
Antonio Molina. He contributed articles to the school paper and vernacular magazines.
Later, he wrote music columns for the Manila Times (then known as Manila Tribune) and Taliba. He graduated with a music teacher's diploma, major in conducting in 1939.
Much later, he took advanced studies in composition under Vittorio Giannini of the
Julliard School of Music in New York, USA. De Leon received many awards, such as
Composer of the Year (1949), Manila Music Lovers Society, Musician of the Year (1958),
UP Conservatory of Music, and others. He was conferred an honorary degree, doctor of philosophy in the humanities, by the University of the Philippines in 1991.

De Leon wrote piano compositions, hymns, marches, art songs, chamber music, symphonic poems, overtures, band muic, school songs, orchestral works, operas, kundiman, and zarzuelas. He was known as a nationalist composer who expressed the Philippines' cultural identity through his compositions. Two operas which are considered his masterpieces are the Noli Me Tangere (1957) and El Filibusterismo (1970). These two operas have been staged in the Philippines and abroad. He also wrote a march during the Japanese regime entitled Tindig, Aking Inang Bayan, and another march Bagong Lipunan during the martial law. He wrote the popular Christmas carols Payapang Daigdig (1946), Noche
Buena, and Pasko Na Naman, both in 1965. Felipe de Leon received a posthumous award as National Artist for Music in 1997. He died on December 5, 1992.

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Contemporary Philippine Music

LUCIO SAN PEDRO
(1913 – 2002)
National Artist for Music
Lucio San Pedro was born on February 11, 1913 in Angono,
Rizal. Since his elementary days, he started composing. He studied the banjo which inspired him to become a serious musician. He later pursued his music degree at the University of the Philippines and the Juilliard School in New York, USA.
Upon returning to the Philippines, he became a professor of theory and composition at the University of the Philippines’
College of Music.
San Pedro is known as a “romantic nationalist.” He incorporated Philippine folk elements in his compositions with Western forms and harmony. His chords have a rich expressive tonality, as represented in his well-loved Sa Ugoy ng Duyan, a lullaby melody sung by his mother.
His orchestral compositions are best represented by the Suite Pastorale (1956), a poetic aural description of his hometown Angono, and his nationalistic symphonic poem Lahing
Kayumanggi (1962). Other compositions include songs, pieces for violin, cello, and chorus.
His works for the symphonic band was where he was most prolific and productive both as composer and conductor.

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His musical prowess was internationally recognized when he was invited to be a judge at the prestigious Van Cliburn International Piano Competition in 1980. He was declared
National Artist for Music in 1991 and passed away on March 31, 2002.

ROSENDO E. SANTOS JR.
(1922 – 1994)
. was born on September 3, 1922 in
Cavite City. At age 11, he started composing band marches, instrumental, and vocal scores, as well as music for Catholic masses. R

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He studied in Cavite schools and later graduated from the UP
Conservatory of Music where he eventually became a faculty member. He also pursued a Master of Music degree in theory and composition from the Catholic University of America in
Washington, D.C. After which, he also served on its faculty as well as in West Virginia University and Howard University.
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As a UNESCO scholar, Santos was awarded the “Philippine Composer of the Century” after receiving the “Composer of the Year Award” in Manila in 1956 and 1957. He joined the faculty at Wilkes University, Pennsylvania in 1968. He performed as timpanist, pianist, and conductor with several orchestral groups. He conducted church choirs in Maryland,
New Jersey, Lehman, Huntsville, and Shavertown United Methodist Churches in
Pennsylvania, USA. He composed the background music for J. Arthur Rank Films at
Pinewood Studios in London, England, where he worked with British composers Malcolm
Arnold and Muir Mathieson. Among Santos’ teachers were famous composers Aaron
Copland, Irving Fine, Humphrey Searle, and conductor Norman Del Mar.
A prolific composer, he had composed several piano concerti, sonatas, symphonies, symphonic poems, five operas in Filipino, numerous band overtures, and more than 200 marches. He had also written 50 masses in Latin and 20 in English. He has more than
1,000 musical compositions in the library of the University of the Philippines. Santos’ last musical work and only ballet composition, Melinda’s Masquerade, was performed in 1995, a year after his death. Santos passed away on November 4, 1994 in Swoyersville,
Pennsylvania, USA.

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ALFREDO BUENAVENTURA
(1929 –
)

Dr. Alfredo Santos Buenaventura, composer, conductor and teacher, was born in Sta. Maria, Bulacan on October 14, 1929.
He grew up in a musical environment and became a band member in his hometown at a young age. He was drawn by his fascination with trumpets and trombones and became one of its arrangers and conductors. He was one of twenty boy sopranos of Tiples at Sto. Domingo Church from where he received his first significant musical training. At that time, he also wrote his first composition, Danza.

A prolific composer, Buenaventura has composed over 50 major works including five full-length operas, operettas, dance dramas, cantatas, symphonies, concertos, ballets, overtures, prelude, fugues, and chamber music. His compositions and other creative works have transcended territorial, racial, and language barriers as these have been performed abroad by international virtuosi and religious groups. Many of his compositions are based on Filipino heroes, legends, and epics. He uses native songs, both tribal and folk, as themes of his music compositions. A number of his compositions are accompanied by Filipino indigenous instruments.
Some of his major works include the operas Maria Makiling (1961), Diego Silang
(1966), Prinsesa Urduha (1969), cantatas Ang Ating Watawat (1965), Pasko ng Barangay
(1964), three piano concertos subtitled Celebration, Determination, and Exultation, and
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Contemporary Philippine Music

symphonies such as Dakilang Lahi (1971), Gomburza (1981), and Rizal, the Great
Malayan Antagonist (1990). His minor works numbering more than 50 cover mostly religious songs and hymns for specific celebrations such as the Sixteenth Centenary of
St. Augustine, Mass for the 400th Year of the Augustinian Recollect, and the Philippine
Music Festival. His other creative musical works have been commissioned by the Cultural
Center of the Philippines, Metropolitan Theater, and the National Music Competitions for Young Artists (NAMCYA).
Buenaventura’s compositional style rests mainly on his own set of musical ideas, wherein he creates a combination of contemporary and conventional materials. He keeps his melodies simple and understandable but with contemporary harmonies that enhance their complexity. He became an official organist of the Manila Cathedral in 1960. He became the Dean of the College of Music, Centro Escolar University. He is a member of the
League of Filipino Composers. He received a number of awards in the music industry.
He was twice an awardee of the Republic Cultural Heritage Award and the The Outstanding
Filipino Award (TOFIL) for Music in 1995.

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CIPRIANO “RYAN” CAYABYAB
(1954 –
)

Ryan Cayabyab is a popular contemporary composer who also has classical compositions to his credit, such as Misa,
Four Poems for Soprano and Piano, and Te Deum. His compositional style makes much use of syncopation, extended chords, and chromatic harmony.

Among his numerous compositions are the award-winning
Kay Ganda ng Ating Musika (1978), as well as the modern zarzuela Alikabok (2003), the opera Spoliarium with libretto by Fides Cuyugan-Asensio, and a variety of choral pieces and song cycles. He also produced a number of recordings, including the memorable album One, where he personally sang the unaccompanied songs on different tracks to produce 16 voices.
Cayabyab was born on May 4, 1954 in Manila. He obtained his Bachelor of Music degree at the University of the Philippines’ College of Music. After which, he became a faculty member for Composition at the same University. He also served as the Executive and
Artistic Director of the San Miguel Foundation for the Performing Arts, which oversaw the operations and programming of the San Miguel Philharmonic Orchestra and the San
Miguel Master Chorale. At present, he continues to be a much sought-after professor, musical director, composer, arranger, and conductor in the Philippine concert and recording scenes. 101
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SUMMARY
With the European and American influences brought by our colonizers, it was inevitable that the musical styles of 20th century Western composers found their way into Philippine compositions. Francisco Buencamino founded the Centro Escolar de Señoritas, Conservatory of Music.
He also created the Buencamino Music Academy in 1930. Nicanor Abelardo was one of his students. Expanding his career, Buencamino also ventured into musical direction and scoring, composing music for Sampaguita Pictures, LVN, and Excelsior. He also wrote several zarzuelas and kundiman. Francisco Santiago is known as the “Father of the
Kundiman” and belongs to the “Triumvirate of Filipino Composers.”
Nicanor Abelardo developed a style that combined European romanticism with chromaticism. He belongs to the “Triumvirate of Filipino Composers” together with
Francisco Santiago and Antonio Molina. The Tanghalang Nicanor Abelardo (Main
Theater) of the Cultural Center of the Philippines and the Abelardo Hall of the College of
Music, University of the Philippines are named after him. Antonio Molina came to be known as the “Father of Philippine Impressionist Music,” while composer Lucio San
Pedro integrated indigenous musical forms, conventions, and instruments in his works in the modern nationalistic style.

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Hilarion Rubio was a Filipino composer, music teacher, conductor, and clarinetist. His name was closely identified with his works for the orchestra, conductor for opera, ballet, dance recitals, and music for movies. Col. Antonino Buenaventura promoted Philippine music by extensively using folk materials in his works. He recorded folk and dance music around the country with Ramon Tolentino and National Artist for Dance Francisca Reyes
Aquino. Buenaventura composed the music and did the notations for the folk dances as researched by Aquino.
Rodolfo S. Cornejo was considered “the first Filipino composer who received an honory degree from a government recognized music school in the United States.” He was known for his “pianistic and compositional talent” by extemporizing a piano composition at the spur of the moment. Felipe P. de Leon wrote piano compositions, hymns, marches, art songs, chamber music, symphonic poems, overtures, band muic, school songs, orchestral works, operas, kundimans and zarsuelas. He was known as a nationalist composer who expressed the Philippines' cultural identity through his compositions.
Lucio San Pedro is known as a “romantic nationalist.” He incorporated Philippine folk elements in his compositions with Western forms and harmony. His chords have a rich expressive tonality, as represented in his well-loved Sa Ugoy ng Duyan, a lullaby melody sung by his mother. Rosendo Santos Jr. is listed in the “New Groves Dictionary of
Music and Musicians.” A prolific composer, his works include concerti, sonatas, symphonies, symphonic poems, five operas in Philippine dialect, numerous band overtures,
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Contemporary Philippine Music

and more than 200 marches. He wrote 50 masses in Latin and 20 in English. He has more than 1,000 musical compositions in the library of the University of the Philippines.
Alfredo Buenaventura is among the few composers in the Philippines who composed five full-length operas. He has his own set of ideas about music and composition. He created a combination of contemporary and conventional, kept his melodies simple and understandable, but he used contemporary harmonies to suit the intellectuals.
Contemporary composer and conductor Ryan Cayabyab spans both popular and classical worlds with his pop, ballads, operas, zarzuela, orchestral, and choral compositions.

WHAT TO KNOW
1.

Discuss the lives and musical contributions of the following 20th century Filipino composers: a.
Francisco Buencamino Sr.
g. Rodolfo Cornejo
b.
Francisco Santiago
h.
Felipe Padilla de Leon Sr.
c.
Nicanor Abelardo
i.
Lucio San Pedro
d. Antonio Molina
j.
Rosendo Santos Jr.
e.
Hilarion Rubio
k. Alfredo Buenaventura
f.
Col. Antonino Buenaventura
l.
Ryan Cayabyab

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2.

Point out the characteristics of the musical style of the above-mentioned Filipino composers. Composer

Characteristics of the Musical Style

________________

_____________________________________________

________________

_____________________________________________

________________

_____________________________________________

________________

_____________________________________________

________________

_____________________________________________

________________

_____________________________________________

________________

_____________________________________________

________________

_____________________________________________

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Quarter III

WHAT TO PROCESS
A.

Listening Activity
1.

Your teacher will play excerpts of recordings of any (one composition) of the following works by Filipino song composers:
a. Antonio Molina

b.
c.

d.

- Hatinggabi, Misa Antoniana, Grand Festival
Mass, Ang Batingaw, Kundiman- Kundangan;
String Quartet, Kung sa Iyong Gunita,
Pandangguhan, Amihan, Awit ni Maria Clara,
Larawan Nitong Pilipina
Lucio San Pedro - Sa Ugoy ng Duyan, Suite Pastorale, Lahing
Kayumanggi
Ryan Cayabyab - Misa, Four Poems for Soprano and Piano, Te
Deum, Kay Ganda ng Ating Musika, Limang
Dipang Tao, Da Coconut Nut, Alikabok,
Spoliarium, Kumukuti-kutitap
Col. Antonino
Buenaventura
- Minuet, Mindanao Sketches, Divertimento for
Piano and Orchestra, Variations and Fugue, and Greetings, Pandanggo sa Ilaw, Princesa ng Kumintang, Pandanggo ni Neneng
Alfredo
Buenaventura
- Maria Makiling (1961), Diego Silang(1966),
Prinsesa Urduha (1969); Ang Ating Watawat
(1965), Pasko ng Barangay (1964); Dakilang
Lahi (1971), Gomburza (1981), and Rizal, the
Great Malayan Antagonist (1990.
Rodolfo Cornejo - A la Juventud Filipina, Bailes de Ayer, Caprice on a Folksong, Cello Sonata, Cello Sonata,
Ibong Adarna, Kandingan, Malakas at
Maganda Overture, Okaka, Oriental Fantasy,
Ibong Adarna, Piano Concerto Nos. 1,2,3,
Ruby, Song of the Miners,
Hilarion Rubio - Bulaklaken, Dance of the Nymphs Rondo,
Florente at Laura, Halik, Danza, Ang
Konsyerto (ballet), Ang Magsasaka, Bukang
Liwayway, Concertino in C (Marimba and piano), Filipinas Kong Mahal, Hatulan Mo
Ako, Ginintuang Araw, In a Tropcal Sea,
Filipino Youth, Nela, Light, Narra, Mutya ng
Silangan

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e.

f.

g.

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Contemporary Philippine Music

h. Rosendo Santos Jr. Melinda’s Masquerade
i. Nicanor Abelardo - Nasaan Ka Irog?, Bituing Marikit, Mutya ng
Pasig, Paskong Anong Saya, Cavatina,
Kundiman ng Luha, Magbalik Ka Hirang
j. Francisco Santiago- Kundiman (Anak Dalita), Himutok, Pakiusap,
Madaling Araw, Sakali Man, Pilipinas Kong
Mahal, Ano Kaya ang Kapalaran?
k. Felipe de Leon Sr. - Bulaklak Alitaptap, Bagong Lipunan,
Payapang Daigdig, Pasko na Naman, Noche
Buena, Kay Tamis ng Buhay, Sapagkat Mahal
Kita
l. Francisco Buencamino - Harana, Pandanggo ni Neneng, Collar de
Sampaguita, Dulces las Horas, Mayon
(Fantasia de Concierto), My Soul’s Lament,
Larawan, Mazurka, Boholana, Mi Bandera,
Princesa ng Kumintang, Maligayang Bati,
Ang Bukang Liwayway, Pandanggo ni Neneng,
Ang Bagong Balitaw, Himig ng Nayon,
Damdamin (Romance), and Pizzicato Caprice.

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2.
3.
4.

B.

Listen carefully to each excerpt and recognize the different musical styles of the composers.
Analyze the music. Take note of the elements of music present: rhythm, melody, tempo, dynamics, texture, harmony, form, and timbre.
Choose a composition that you like. Write a short reaction paper on it in relation to its musical elements.

Evaluation of Listening Activity
“Name the Composer, Title of the Music, Musical Style, and Description”
1.

2.
3.

4.

After the above Listening Activity, your teacher will prepare selected excerpts of compositions by Lucio San Pedro, Antonino Buenaventura, Alfredo
Buenaventura, Antonio Molina, Rodolfo Cornejo, Francisco Buencamino,
Hilarion Rubio, Rosendo Santos Jr, Francisco Santiago, Nicanor Abelardo,
Felipe Padilla de leon Sr., and Ryan Cyabyab.
The class will be divided into four teams, with each team forming a line.
As your teacher plays a few measures of the first excerpt, the first student in each line goes to the board and writes the name of the composer. The second student will write the title of the music. The third student will write the musical style. Then, the fourth student will write a description of the music in one phrase.
The team that writes the correct answers first, scores four (4) points.
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Quarter III

5.
6.
7.

The same procedure goes on until all the students in the line have had their turn. One student will be assigned as the scorer. The team with the highest score is the winner. In case of a tie, the first team to finish is the winner.
The scorer will announce the winners and then asks them this question:
What was the most significant thing that you have learned from this activity?

WHAT TO UNDERSTAND: SOLO, DUET, TRIO, QUARTET, QUINTET
1.
2.
3.

4.

Compose a simple song. Write the lyrics and the music.
You may adapt a certain melody from the compositions of the traditional composers that you like. Write the new lyrics to fit the music.
You may include an accompaniment such as guitar, flute, recorder, keyboard, drums, tambourine, maracas or improvise musical instruments from the environment. You may sing it a capella (without accompaniment) or with accompaniment.
Perform your composition or your song adaptation in class.
What motivated you to compose or adapt the music of that song?

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5.

WHAT TO PERFORM
A.

Singing Activity

Individual or in groups: Sing any of the compositions of Lucio San Pedro, Col.
Antonino Buenaventura, Alfredo Buenaventura, Antonio Molina, Rodolfo
Cornejo, Francisco Buencamino Sr., Hilarion Rubio, Rosendo Santos Jr., Nicanor
Abelardo, Francisco Santiago, Felipe Padilla de Leon, and Ryan Cayabyab.
If individual activity, choose one composition that you will perform.
If group activity, do the following procedure:
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.

Your teacher will divide the class into four groups.
Your group will choose any traditional composer. Research further on his compositions, if needed.
Select one composition that you like best or you are familiar with, or you may learn a new song. Choose your group’s musical director.
Sing the song in class with your groupmates interpreting the music with appropriate pitch, rhythm, style, timbre, dynamics, melody, texture, harmony, and expression.
You may add instrumental accompaniment like guitar, flute, recorder, maracas, tambourine, or keyboard.

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Contemporary Philippine Music

6.

You may bring a minus one music in CD, or from your mobile phone or on
USB.
7. You may improvise simple vocal or instrumental accompaniment/s to the songs you have chosen.
8. You may explore ways of creating sounds as instrumental accompaniment to the song from a variety of sources or from the environment.
9. Your teacher will choose the “Best Singing Group” based on musicianship
(musical elements) 60%, presentation impact and showmanship 20%, ensemble coordination and organization 20%.
10. All students will evaluate by rating each other’s performance and their own performance. Evaluation of Singing Activity
Rating Scale:

5 - Very Good
4 - Good
3 - Fair

2 - Poor
1 - Needs Follow up

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Rating the other performers (if individual activity):
1.
2.
3.

How well did the performers express the message of the songs?
How well did the performers pronounce the lyrics of the songs?
How well did the performers sing based on musical elements and style:
a.
pitch
b.
rhythm
c.
style
d. expression
e.
dynamics
f.
melody
g. timbre
h.
texture
i.
harmony

__________
__________

__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________

Rating the group members (if group activity):
1.
2.
3.

How well did the group members express the message of the songs?
How well did the group members sing?
How well did the group members participate?

__________
__________
__________

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MUSIC

B.



Quarter III

Creating and Performing Activities: Musical
1.

Your teacher will divide the class into four groups. Each group choose a traditional composer that was discussed in class. Research further on his life and works.

2.

Create a contemporary musical on the life of your chosen composer.
Incorporate some of his compositions (melodic fragments) in the musical and story.

3.

Improvise simple vocal or instrumental accompaniments (example: guitar, keyboard, percussion) for the songs that you have chosen.

4.

Explore ways of creating sounds as accompaniment on a variety of sources or from the environment for the creation of the musical.

5.

Perform the musical in class. Your teacher will choose the “Best Group
Musical Performance” based on musicianship (musical elements) 50%, audience impact and showmanship 20%, ensemble coordination and organization 20%, stage discipline or deportment 10%.

DEPED COPY
Evaluation of Creating and Performing Activities: Musical
Rating Scale:

5 - Very Good
4 - Good
3 - Fair

2 - Poor
1 - Needs Follow up

Rating the other performers / groups:
1.

2.

How well did the performers express the message of the musical?

__________

How well did the performers act in the musical based on the following:
a.
voice quality
b.
expression
c.
stage presence
d. audience impact
e.
mastery of the musical
g. musical elements (rhythm, melody, dynamics)
h.
technique
i.
showmanship

__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________

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Contemporary Philippine Music

Rating your own group members:
1.
2.
3.
4.

How well did your group members express the message of the musical?
How well did your group members perform?
How well did your group members coordinate with each other during the performance in the ensemble?
How well did your group organize yourselves in the ensemble?

__________
__________
__________
__________

Rating myself:
1.
2.
3.
4.

How well did I express the message of the musical?
How well did I perform with my group?
How well did I coordinate with the other members during the performance in the ensemble?
How well did I cooperate in the ensemble?

__________
__________
__________
__________

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Quarter III

NEW MUSIC COMPOSERS

C

omposers of experimental New Music in the Philippines include Jose Maceda,
Lucrecia Kasilag, Ramon Santos, Manuel Maramba, Jerry Dadap, Francisco
Feliciano, Josefino “Chino” Toledo, and Jonas Baes. They retained the Filipino spirit by incorporating traditional music forms as well as indigenous rhythms and instruments in their compositions.

JOSE MACEDA
(1917 – 2004)
National Artist for Music
Jose Maceda was born in Manila on January 17, 1917. He started his music studies at the Academy of Music in Manila.
Later, he went to Paris to study with Alfred Cortot. He eventually pursued advanced studies in the USA with E. Robert
Schmitz and earned a Doctorate Degree in Ethnomusicology from UCLA.

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Maceda’s musical style changed when he encountered the music of the indigenous tribes of Mindoro in 1953. He then embarked on his life’s work, dedicated to the understanding and preservation of Filipino traditional music. His extensive research and fieldwork resulted in an immense collection of recorded music taken from the remote mountain villages and far-flung inland communities in the
Philippines. Although his compositional approach tended to be Western in style, Maceda combined sounds of the environment with ethnic instruments. His compositions were usually for large groups of musicians. Among his works are Ugma-Ugma (1963), a work for voice and ethnic instruments; Agungan (1975), a piece for six gong families; Pagsamba
(1968), a musical ritual for a circular auditorium using several ethnic percussion instruments; Cassettes 100 (1971), a composition for 100 cassette tape recorders; and
Ugnayan (1974), an ethnic piece played at the same time over several radio stations.
Considered as the first Filipino avant garde composer, he also worked at a recording studio in Paris in 1958 which specialized in musique concrète. During this period, he met
Pierre Boulez, Karlheinz Stockhausen, and Iannis Xenakis, considered the musical giants of this musical genre.Maceda served as Professor of Piano and Musicology at the College of Music, University of the Philippines from 1952 to 1990. He was appointed Executive
Director of its Center for Ethnomusicology in 1997. In the same year, he was conferred the honor of National Artist for Music. He passed away in Manila on May 5, 2004.

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Contemporary Philippine Music

UDLOT-UDLOT (Excerpt)
Jose Maceda

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LUCRECIA R. KASILAG
(1918 – 2008)
National Artist for Music
Lucrecia R. Kasilag was born in San Fernando, La
Union on August 31, 1918. She went to Manila to pursue a degree in Music at the Philippine Women’s
University. She then obtained her Master’s degree from the Eastman School of Music in New York, USA.
Her compositions were influenced by her professors
Irving McHose and Wayne Barlow. Kasilag’s compositions demonstrated a fusion of Eastern and
Western styles in using instruments, melody, harmony, and rhythm. She is particularly known for incorporating indigenous Filipino instruments into orchestral productions. 111
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MUSIC



Quarter III

Among Kasilag’s many compositions are Toccata for Percussion and Winds (1959), composed for indigenous Muslim instruments and Western instruments; The Legend of the Sarimanok (1963), composed for chamber orchestra and Philippine ethnic instruments;
Divertissement and Concertante (1960), compositions for piano and orchestra combining
Western and Eastern forms, harmonies, and intervals; and Dularawan (1969), a musical drama combining a dance solo with a chorus and an ethnic orchestra. Her other works include compositions for piano, instrumental ensemble, and chorus.
She was equally admired in the academe as a former Dean of the College of Music and
Fine Arts, Philippine Women’s University. In the cultural field, she was the President of the Cultural Center of the Philippines. In the dance circles, she was the President and
Music Director of the Bayanihan Dance Company. She also served as Chairman of the
Asian Composers’ League and the League of Filipino Composers.
She is credited for having written more than 200 musical works, ranging from folksongs to opera to orchestral works, which she continued to compose for the rest of her life. For all these outstanding achievements, she was conferred the title of National Artist for
Music in 1989. She passed away in Manila in August 2008.

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DIVERTISSEMENT (Excerpt)
Lucrecia R. Kasilag
Edited

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Contemporary Philippine Music

RAMON P. SANTOS
(1941 –
)
National Artist for Music
Ramon P. Santos was born in Pasig on February 25,
1941. He completed his Bachelor of Music degree at the College of Music, University of the Philippines.
He finished his Master of Music degree at Indiana
University, USA. He received his Doctor of
Philosophy degree in Composition at the State
University of New York, USA. He had also pursued graduate studies in Ethnomusicology at the University of Illinois, USA.
Santos’ compositional style features chromaticism, music seria, and electronic components, combined with indigenous Philippine music elements. His works include Ding Ding Nga
Diyawa, Nabasag na Banga at Iba’t iba pang Pinag-ugpong-ugpong na Pananalita sa
Wikang Pilipino para sa Labing Anim na Tinig, and L’BAD. He had done extensive research on the gamelan music of Java as well as the traditional music of the Ibaloi,
Maranao, Mansaka, Bontoc, Yakan, and Boholano tribes in the Philippines.

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Santos held the position of Dean of the UP College of Music from 1978 to 1988. At present, he is the head of the UP Center of Ethnomusicology and was appointed Professor
Emeritus of the same institution. He was conferred the title of National Artist for Music in 2014.
L’BAD
Ramon P. Santos

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MUSIC



Quarter III

FR. MANUEL MARAMBA, OSB
(1936 – )

Fr. Manuel Perez Maramba, OSB is one of the most accomplished musicians and liturgists in the Philippines emerging during the second half of the 20th century. He was born on July
4, 1936 in Pangasinan.
When he was 11 years old, he gave his first public performance at the Bamboo Organ in Las Piñas. He became the official accompanist of the Las Piñas Boys Choir at 14 years old. He was the youngest finalist to participate in the National Music
Competitions for Young Artists (NAMCYA) piano competition in 1978. Immediately after high school, he was sent on full scholarship to the University for Music and Performing Arts in Graz, Austria. There, he earned with distinction the degree of Master of Arts in Church Music. He also received a Teacher’s Certificate in
Organ. His musical career led him to the United States, where he performed at Carnegie
Hall at the age of 19.

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After finishing his Bachelor of Music degree major in Piano at the Conservatory of Music,
University of Sto. Tomas (UST), Fr. Maramba pursued his studies abroad where he received his Master of Music degree, Artist Diploma, Bachelor of Music degree in
Composition, and Teacher’s Certificate in Theory from the Peabody Conservatory of
Johns Hopkins University, USA. He received a Master’s degree of Musical Arts in
Performance from Yale University’s School of Music, USA. He also studied sacred music at the Kirchenmusikschule in Regensburg, Germany. He took further lessons in piano, organ, and the harpsichord at the Hochschule fur Musik in Vienna, Austria.

Fr Maramba is a monk at Our Lady of Montserrat Abbey in Manila. He was the former director of the Paul VI Institute of Liturgy in Malaybalay, Bukidnon during which he composed the music for the papal mass. A prominent canon lawyer, he served on the
National Appellate Matrimonial Tribunal. He was also a faculty member at the UST
Conservatory of Music, St. Scholatica’s College, and Sta. Isabel College.
He has composed operas like Aba!, Sto. Nino, La Naval, and Lord Takayama Ukon. His other major compositions are the music for Awakening which was commissioned by
Ballet Philippines and music for Philippine Ballet Theater’s production of Seven Mansions; three masses – Papal Mass for World Youth Day, 1995; Mass in Honor of St. Lorenzo
Ruiz, and the Mass in Honor of the Sto. Nino; three cantatas – St. Lorenzo Ruiz, St.
Benedict, and St. Scholastica; Three Psalms; A hymn in honor of St. Lorenzo Ruiz, and the official hymn of the 1996 National Eucharistic Congress; a zarzuela entitled Ang
Sarswela sa San Salvador, and three orchestral works – Pugad Lawin, The Virgin of
Naval, and Transfiguration.
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Contemporary Philippine Music

JERRY DADAP
(1935 – )
Jerry Dadap, the first Filipino composer to conduct his own works at the Carnegie Recital Hall in New York City, was born on November 5, 1935 in Hinunangan, Southern Leyte. He earned his Bachelor’s Degree in Music, major in Composition at the Conservatory of Music, University of the Philippines
(UP) in 1964.
In 1968, he went to the USA on a study-observation grant from the Music Promotion Foundation of the Philippines. While there, he received a full scholarship grant from the United
Presbyterian Church of USA from 1969 to 1971. During that time, he obtained his Postgraduate Diploma in Composition at the Mannes College of
Music in New York, USA. Upon his return to the Philippines in 1971, he taught composition, ear training, and orchestration at the Sta. Isabel College of Music in Manila.
Dadap started composing when he was still studying at Silliman University in the southern city of Dumaguete. Among his numerous compositions are The Passionate and the Wild
(1960), Mangamuyo I (1976) and Mangamuyo II (1977), The Redemption (1974), Five
Little Fingers (1975), Tubig ng Buhay (1986), Dakilang Pagpapatawad (1986), Andres
Bonifacio, Ang Dakilang Anak Pawis, Ang Pag-ibig ng Diyos, Balitaw Nos. 1-7, Lamang Epic, Lorenzo Ruiz, Chorale Symphonic Ode Nos. 1 and 2, Aniway at Tomaneg,
Song Cycle, Nos. 1-4, Choral Cycle Nos. 1-3, and Diyos Ama ay Purihin. His major works as composer-conductor were performed at the concert “LAHI” that featured works by local major composers.

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FRANCISCO F. FELICIANO
(1942 – 2014)
National Artist for Music
Francisco F. Feliciano, avant garde composer and conductor for band and chorus, was born on February 19, 1942 in
Morong, Rizal. His first exposure to music was with the Morriz
Band, a brass ensemble established and owned by his father, Maximiano Feliciano. He started his music career in the high school band where he had played the cymbals and the clarinet. Feliciano obtained his Teacher’s Diploma in Composition and
Conducting at the Conservatory of Music, University of the
Philippines (UP) in 1964, and a Bachelor of Music degree
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Quarter III

major in Composition in 1967. Subsequent degrees include a Master in Music Composition from the University of the Philippines, a Diploma in Music Composition from the
Hochschule der Kunst in Berlin, Germany, and a Master of Musical Arts and Doctorate in Music Composition from Yale University School of Music, USA. He studied composition with Jacob Druckman, Isang Yun, H.W. Zimmerman and Krystof Penderecki.
Feliciano became the choir conductor and instructor in music fundamentals at St. Andrews
Seminary in Quezon City. He became an instructor at the UP Conservatory of Music and conducted the UP Symphony Orchestra. He was the musical director of the movie Ang
Bukas ay Atin and provided orchestration for a number of musical productions including
My Fair Lady and various Philippine productions. Feliciano composed more than 30 major works, including the musical dramas Sikhay sa Kabila ng Paalam, Ashen Wings, and the monumental three-act opera La Loba Negra (1984). He also wrote music for the orchestra such as Prelude and Toccata (1973), Fragments (1976), Life of Wartime Filipino
Hero Jose Abad Santos, and the ballet Yerma (1982).
Among his other large works are Transfiguration and Missa Mysterium for orchestra and large chorus. He has composed several prize winning works such as Pokpok Alimpako,
(a favorite piece of choirs in international choral competitions), Salimbayan, Umiinog, and Walang Tinag (Perpetuum I mobile) which was premiered at the ISCM Festival in
New York City, USA. His latest choral works, Pamugún and Restless, have been performed by Filipino choirs in various choral festivals in Europe. In 1977, he was given a John D.
Rockefeller III Award in Music Composition.

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Feliciano composed hundreds of liturgical pieces, mass settings, hymns, and songs for worship. He founded the Asian Institute for Liturgy and Music (AILM) in Quezon City, a school for church musicians, and supervised the publication of a new Asian hymnal containing mostly works of Asian composers. He was conferred the title of National
Artist for Music in 2014. He died on September 19, 2014.

JOSEFINO TOLEDO
(1959 – )
Josefino “Chino” Toledo is a recognized figure in the Asian contemporary art music scene. He received his Master of Music degree from the Cleveland Institute of Music, USA. Among his awards are the following: “Ten Outstanding Young Men”
(TOYM); “International Award for the Arts”; “Civitella Ranieri
Fellowship in Italy”; and the “Chancellor Awards for Outstanding
Musical Works,” University of the Philippines.

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Contemporary Philippine Music

Toledo served at the Pangkat Kawayan (a bamboo orchestra) from 1966 to 1979 and the
Philippine Youth Orchestra (PYO) in 1977-1978. A principal percussionist of the Manila
Symphony Orchestra in 1980-1983, he later became music director and principal conductor in 1985. He attended the 1984 International Computer Music Conference in France. He was the country’s representative to the 1980 Young Composers Conference in HongKong, the ASEAN Composers Forum on Traditional Music in 1989 (Philippines) and 1993
(Singapore), the 1995 ASEAN Composers Workshop (Indonesia), and the 1996
International Composers Workshop (Gaudeamus, Amsterdam). He was also a fellow at the 1990 Pacific Music Festival and Pacific Composers Conference (Japan).
Toledo is a Music Professor at the College of Music, University of the Philippines (UP).
He is the founding music director of the Metro Manila Community Orchestra, the UP
Festival Orchestra, and the Crosswave Symphony Orchestra. He is noted for conducting the premiere performances of the works of Filipino composers as well as other Asian composers. His own music, including works for chorus, orchestra, chamber ensemble, solo instrument, and music theater have been performed by well-known international artists and ensembles.
AUIT

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(Excerpt)
Josefino Toledo

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Quarter III

JONAS BAES
(1961 –
)
Jonas Baes was born in Los Baños, Laguna in 1961. He enrolled at the College of Music, University of the Philippines
(UP) in 1977 as a student of Ramon P. Santos.While at UP, he encountered the works of Jose Maceda and attended several seminar-workshops of visiting lecturers. He researched on the music of the Iraya-Mangyan people of Mindoro, which later became the inspiration for his compositions. From 19921994, he studied with Mathias Spahlinger in Freiburg,
Germany.
Baes is known for writing music utilizing unorthodox musical instruments such as beanpod rattles, leaves, iron-nail chimes, and various Asian instruments such as bamboo scrapers, bamboo flutes, and vocal music using Asian vocal techniques. His early works in the 1980s were influenced by Maceda in the use of large numbers of performers.

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In the 1990s, he experimented with various methods by which the audience became integral in the performance. It was also typical for social theory to influence the work of
Baes who has made a mark on contemporary music and cultural politics in the Asian region. Some of Baes’ musical compositions include: Imagined Community, after Benedict
Anderson for four bamboo scrapers, bamui trail caller, sarunai for oboe, khaen for mouth organ, and about a hundred iron nail chimes distributed among the audience;
1997/2001; WALA (Nothingness) for seven or hundreds of men’s voices 1997/2001;
DALUY (Flow)interval music for five animator-percussionists and about a hundred bird whistles distributed among the audience, 1994; IBO-IBON (birdwoman) for dancer wearing small bells, two large wind chimes passed around the audience, four animatorcallers, and iron nail chimes played by the audience (1996); SALAYSAY, for solo voice, three percussionists, and pairs of pebbles distributed among the audience; PATANGISBUWAYA (and the crocodile weeps) for four sub-contrabass recorders or any blown instruments 2003; PANTAWAG (music for calling people) for 15 bamboo scrapers, 15 palm leaves, and 20 muffled “forest” voices 1981; and BASBASAN (blessing) for 20 bean-pod rattles and 20 muffled men’s voices 1983.
Baes received the Gawad Chancellor para sa Pinakamakusay na Mananaliksik (Hall of
Fame, 2003) from the University of the Philippines. He is currently an Associate Professor in Composition and Theory at the UP College of Music as well as an ethnomusicologist, cultural activist, and writer.

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Contemporary Philippine Music

SUMMARY
Jose Maceda’s musical style shifted when he encountered the music of the indigenous tribes of Mindoro in 1953. He then embarked on his life’s work, dedicated to the understanding and preservation of Filipino traditional music. His extensive research and fieldwork resulted in an immense collection of recorded music taken from the remote mountain villages and far-flung inland communities in the Philippines.
Lucrecia Kasilag’s compositional style demonstrated a fusion of Eastern and Western styles in using instruments, melody, harmony, and rhythm. She is particularly known for incorporating indigenous Filipino instruments into orchestral productions.
Ramon Santos’ compositional style features chromaticism, music seria, and electronic components, combined with indigenous Philippine music elements.
Fr. Manuel Maramba OSB, one of the most accomplished musicians in the Philippines, is best known as a liturgical composer whose body of works lean towards religious figures and events. His versatility as a pianist, composer, arranger, theorist, and teacher is widely recognized in the local musical scene.

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Jerry Dadap, the first Filipino composer to conduct his own works at the Carnegie
Recital Hall in New York City,

Francisco Feliciano is one of Asia’s leading figures in liturgical music, having composed hundreds of liturgical pieces, mass settings, hymns, and songs for worship. At the Asian
Institute for Liturgy and Music, a school for church musicians which he founded, he supervised the publication of a new Asian hymnal containing mostly works of Asian composers. Josefino Toledo is the founding music director of the Metro Manila Community Orchestra, the UP Festival Orchestra, and the Crosswave Symphony Orchestra. He is noted for conducting the premiere performances of the works of Filipino composers as well as other Asian composers. His own music has been performed by well-known international artists and ensembles.
Jonas Baes, Associate Professor in Composition and Theory, ethnomusicologist, cultural activist, and writer, has explored innovative territories and unusual musical treatments in his works.

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MUSIC



Quarter III

WHAT TO KNOW
1.

Research and describe the characteristics of New Music.

2.

Discuss the lives and works of following 20th century Filipino composers and performers: a.
b.
c.
d.

3.

Jose Maceda
Lucrecia Kasilag
Ramon Santos
Fr. Manuel Maramba, OSB

e.
f.
g.
h.

Jerry Dadap
Francisco Feliciano
Josefino Toledo
Jonas Baes

Point out the characteristics of the musical style of the above-mentioned Filipino composers. Composer

Characteristics of the Musical Style

________________

_____________________________________________

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________________

_____________________________________________

________________

_____________________________________________

________________

_____________________________________________

________________

_____________________________________________

________________

_____________________________________________

________________

_____________________________________________

________________

_____________________________________________

________________

_____________________________________________

________________

_____________________________________________

________________

_____________________________________________

________________

_____________________________________________

________________

_____________________________________________

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Contemporary Philippine Music

WHAT TO PROCESS
A.

Listening Activity
1.

Your teacher will play excerpts of recordings of any (one composition) of the following works by Filipino new music composers:
a.

Jose Maceda - Ugma-Ugma; Agungan ; Pagsamba; Ugnayan; Udlot
Udlot

b.

Lucrecia Kasilag - Toccata for Percucssion and Winds; The Legend of the Sarimanok; Divertissement and Concertante; Dularawan

c.

Josefino Toledo - 2nd Og-og; Abe; Ako ang Daigdig; Alitaptap; Aliwiw; Awiting Bayan; Barasyon; Asia; Kah-non; Humigit Kumulang;
Lima; Mi-sa; Missa de gallo; Oyog-Oyog; Musika para sa; Pasyon at Buhay; Pompyang; Pintigan; Pilipino Komiks; Sigaw; Tatluhan;
Auit, Ub-og; Ug-nay; Tula-li

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d.

Francisco Feliciano - Sikhay sa Kabila ng Paalam; Ashen Wings;
La Loba Negra; Prelude and Toccata ; Fragments; Yerma; The life of wartime Filipino hero, Jose Abad Santos; Transfiguration; Missa
Mysterium; Pokpok Alimpako; Salimbayan; Umiinog, Walang Tinag;
Pamugún and Restless

e.

Jerry Dadap - The Passionate and the Wild; Mangamuyo I) and
Mangamuyo II; The Redemption; Five Little Fingers; Tubig ng
Buhay; Dakilang Pagpapatawad; Andres Bonifacio, Ang Dakilang
Anak Pawis; Ang Pag-ibig ng Diyos; Balitaw Nos. 1-7; Lam-ang
Epic; Lorenzo Ruiz; Chorale Symphonic Ode Nos. 1 and 2; Aniway at Tomaneg; Song Cycle, Nos. 1-4; Choral Cycle Nos. 1-3; Diyos
Ama ay Purihin; Lam-ang Epic; Mangamuyo I and II; Five Little
Fingers; Tubig ng Buhay; The Redemption.

f.

Fr. Manuel Maramba - Aba!, Sto. Nino; La Naval; Lord Takayama
Ukon; Awakening ; Seven Mansions; Papal Mass for World Youth
Day, 1995; Mass in Honor of St. Lorenzo Ruiz; Mass in Honor of the
Sto. Nino; cantatas St. Lorenzo Ruiz, St. Benedict, and St. Scholastica;
Three Psalms—A hymn in honor of St. Lorenzo Ruiz, and the official hymn of the 1996 National Eucharistic Congress; Ang Sarswela sa
San Salvador; Pugad Lawin; The Virgin of Naval; and
Transfiguration.

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Quarter III

g.

Ramon Santos - Ding Ding ng a Di ya wa ; Nab as ag n a B an ga a t Ib a’t i ba p an g P in ag - ug po ng -u g po ng n a Pananalita sa Wikang Pilipino para sa labing anim na tinig, and L’BAD

h.

Jonas Baes - WALA (Nothingness); DALUY (flow); IBOIBON (Birdwoman) SALAYSAY; PATANGIS-BUWAYA ; PANTAWAG ;
;
BASBASAN (Blessing).

2.

3.

Analyze the music focusing on the elements of music present, such as rhythm, melody, tempo and dynamics, texture and harmony, form, and timbre.

4.

B.

Listen carefully to each excerpt and be able to recognize the different musical elements and styles of the composers.

Choose a composition that you like. Write a reaction paper on it

Evaluation of Listening Activity
“Name the Composer, Title of the Music, Musical Style, and Description”

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1.

After the above ListeningActivity, your teacher will prepare selected excerpts of compositions by the following: Josefino Toledo, Ramon Santos, Jose
Maceda, Fr. Manuel Maramba, Lucrecia Kasilag, Francisco Feliciano, Jerry
Dadap, and Jonas Baes.

2.

The class will be divided into four teams, with each team forming a line.

3.

As your teacher plays a few measures of the first excerpt, the first student in each line goes to the board and writes the name of the composer. The second student will write the title of the music. The third student will write the musical style. Then, the fourth student will write a description of the music in one phrase.

4.

The team that writes the correct answers first, scores four (4) points.

5.

The same procedure goes on until all the students in the line have had their turn. 6.

One student will be assigned as the scorer. The team with the highest score is the winner. In case of a tie, the first team to finish is the winner.

7.

The scorer will announce the winners and then asks them this question:
What was the most significant thing that you have learned from this activity?

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Contemporary Philippine Music

WHAT TO UNDERSTAND: SOLO, DUET, TRIO, QUARTET, QUINTET
1.
2.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Your teacher will divide you into groups.
Compose a simple song incorporating indigenous music and folksongs or you may adapt a certain melody from the compositions of the New Music composers that you like. Write the new lyrics to fit the music.
You may include an accompaniment or improvised musical instruments.
Sing it a capella (without accompaniment) or with accompaniment.
Perform your composition or song adaptation in class.
Choreograph dance movements by interpreting the music of the new composer that you have chosen, if needed.
Perform in class.
Write a reaction papaer on “How did you feel in our incorporating our indigenous music to your compositions or song adaptations.” Submit it in class next meeting.

WHAT TO PERFORM

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Creating and Performing Activities: Musical
1.

2.

3.
4.
5.

Your teacher will divide the class into four groups. Each group choose a traditional composer that was discussed in class. Research further on his life and works.
Create a contemporary musical on the life of your chosen composer.
Incorporate some of his compositions (melodic fragments) in the musical and story.
Improvise simple vocal or instrumental accompaniments (example: guitar, keyboard, percussion) to the songs that you have chosen.
Explore ways of creating sounds as accompaniment on a variety of sources or from the environment for the creation of the musical.
Perform the musical in class. Your teacher will choose the “Best Group
Musical Performance” based on musicianship (musical elements) 50%, audience impact and showmanship 20%, ensemble coordination and organization 20%, stage discipline or deportment 10%.

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MUSIC



Quarter III

Evaluation of Creating and Performing Activities: Musical
Rating Scale:

5 - Very Good
4 - Good
3 - Fair

2 - Poor
1 - Needs Follow up

Rating the other performers / groups:
1.
2.

How well did the performers express the message of the musical?
How well did the performers sing and act in the musical based on the following:
a.
voice quality
b.
expression
c.
stage presence
d. audience impact
e.
mastery of the musical
f.
pitch
g. rhythm
h.
style
i.
acting

__________

__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________

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Rating your own group members:
1.
2.
3.

How well did your group members express the message of the musical?
How well did your group members perform?
How well did your group members participate?

__________
__________
__________

Rating myself:
1.
2.
3.
4.

How well did I express the message of the musical? __________
How well did I perform with my group?
__________
How well did I coordinate with the other members during the performance in the ensemble? __________
How well did I cooperate in the ensemble?
__________

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Contemporary Philippine Music

SONG COMPOSERS

T

he 20th century Filipino song composers/lyricists include Levi Celerio, Constancio de Guzman, Mike Velarde Jr., Ernani Cuenco, Restie Umali, George Canseco,
Angel Peña, Leopoldo Silos Sr., Santiago Suarez. Together, they had produced a memorable output of traditional Filipino love songs, music for the movies, and materials for contemporary arrangements and concert repertoire.
LEVI CELERIO
(1910 – 2002)
National Artist for Literature and Music
Prolific lyricist and composer Levi Celerio was named
National Artist for Music and Literature in 1997. Also a violinist, he had written the lyrics for over 4,000 songs in his lifetime, including many for film. A great number of kundimans and Filipino love songs have lyrics written by him, most notable of which are Dahil sa Iyo, Buhat, and
Ang Pasko ay Sumapit.

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Celerio was known for creating music with a mouth-blown leaf

Celerio was born in Tondo on April 30, 1910. He studied at the Academy of Music in
Manila under a scholarship. Later, he went on to join the Manila Symphony Orchestra.
Aside from writing his own lyrics, he also translated and re-wrote the lyrics of folksongs to traditional melodies like Maliwanag Na Buwan from Ilocos, Ako ay May Singsing from Pampanga, and Alibangbang from the Visayas.
His achievements include a citation in the Guinness Book of World Records for being the only person to make music with a mouth-blown leaf. He will forever be remembered through his lyrics for songs such as Ang Pipit (music by Lucio D. San Pedro); Bagong
Pagsilang (music by Felipe Padilla de Leon); Sa Ugoy ng Duyan (music by Lucio D. San
Pedro); Misa de Gallo (music by J. Balita); Itik-itik (folk song); Tinikling (folk song), among others. Celerio passed away on April 2, 2002.

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MUSIC



Quarter III

CONSTANCIO DE GUZMAN
(1903 – 1982)
Constancio Canseco de Guzman was born on November 11,
1903 in Guiguinto, Bulacan. He grew up in Manila where he studied piano and composition under Nicanor Abelardo. At the prodding of his father, he went to law school but switched to pursue and finish a BS Commerce degree at Jose Rizal College in 1928. He passed the certified public accountants (CPA) board examinations in 1932. After he took the CPA board exam, he started working for the movies.
Acknowledged as the “Dean of Filipino Movie Composers and
Musical Directors,” De Guzman became the music director of movie production companies like Sampaguita, LVN, Royal,
Excelsior, Lea, and Tagalog Ilang-Ilang Productions. His “unexpected” hit music,
Panaginip, paved the way for him to record hundreds of songs, principally under Villar and Columbia Records.

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In 1948, his song Ang Bayan Ko and Kung Kita’y Kapiling won the gold medal at the
Paris International Fair. Bayan Ko was later adopted as the symbolic song of the People
Power Movement of 1986. The same song won for him the Awit Award for Best Filipino
Lyricist. Some of De Guzman’s notable compositions include Babalik Ka Rin, Ang Tangi
Kong Pag-ibig, Birheng Walang Dambana, Maalaala Mo Kaya, and Sa Piling Mo. De
Guzman passed away on August 16, 1982.

MIGUEL “MIKE” VELARDE JR.
(1913 – 1986)
Miguel “Mike” Guison Velarde Jr, composer, conductor, movie actor, and musical director was born in Manila on October 23, 1913 as the second of two children of Dr.
Miguel Velarde, Sr. and Dolores Guison. His family moved to Zamboanga when he was only one year old and where he spent the succeeding eighteen years of his life. His exposure to the unaffected and unpretentious environment of Basilan and Zamboanga had influenced his creative imagination, mainly nurtured by his mother who became his first music teacher in piano and violin when he was six years old.
Velarde studied at the Zamboanga Normal School, where he became a member of the school orchestra and graduated as valedictorian. He then went to Manila to pursue medicine at the University of the Philippines, but later realized that it was music that he truly loved. He learned the basics of harmony and composition from Antonio Molina and Ariston Avelino as he further deepened his musical knowledge through self-study.

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Contemporary Philippine Music

Later, when his father however objected to his plans to pursue a music career, he went on to support himself as a bus conductor to realize his dream. He later got a job at a radio station where he was featured as singer and jazz composer in its morning and evening programs. He also opened a jazz school and became song editor for the Philippines Free
Press.
Velarde eventually went into writing Tagalog songs, composing the song Ugoy-Ugoy
Blues which opened opportunities for him in the movies. He had a jazz band known as
“Mike Velarde’s Jazztocrats.” He became editor of the Literary Song Movie Magazine.
Velarde composed musical scores for Sampaguita Films’ movie productions and managed its advertising department. Among his most important works were Luksang Tagumpay, which received the FAMAS (Filipino Movie Arts and Sciences) Award for Best Picture
(1960) and for which he wrote its story and screenplay, and Alaala Kita for Best Director
(1961). He attributes substantive influence from American composer and songwriters
Irving Berlin and Cole Porter.
In subsequent years, Velarde created his own style as he composed highly melodious and romantic songs such as Ikaw, Lahat ng Araw, Habang Buhay, Minamahal Kita , Ikaw ay
Akin, and Dahil Sa Iyo. In 1970, he won the Best Conductor award at the First International
Popular Song Contest in Japan with his composition As Long as Forever. He received the Cultural Achievement Award in Popular Music from the Philippine Government
Cultural Association in 1975 and the Gawad CCP Para Sa Sining in 1986. His other compositions include Buhat, Ikaw, Bituing Marikit, Minamahal Kita, Dating Sumpaan,
Dalisay, Eternally Yours, and Gabi at Araw. Velarde passed away in 1986.

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SANTIAGO SUAREZ
(1901 – 1964)
Santiago Suarez was born in Sampaloc, Manila. He learned how to play the piano from his grandmother who was also a competent harpist, while his grandfather played the flute. He attended the Conservatory of Music, University of the Philippines and the Ateneo de Manila in Intramuros. He took private music lessons from Caetano Jacobe, Pedro
Floriaga, and Nicanor Abelardo.
Suarez’s compositions are a mixture of the soulful kundiman style and the lively strains of the countryside. The melodies are tonal and catchy, while the rhythms follow the regular meter with minimal tempo changes. His harmonies follow the traditional classical progression, making his compositions easy to understand without the complexities of form and structure. Some of his works are quite popular and heard even with today’s classical singers, pop singers, and choral groups. They include the following: Ligaya Ko,
Pandanggo ni Neneng, Dungawin mo Hirang, Bakya Mo Neneng, Caprichosa, Sa Libis ng Nayon, Harana, Kataka-taka, Labandera Ko, Lakambini, Kamia, Ikaw ang Buhay
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MUSIC



Quarter III

Ko!, Kay Lungkot nitong Hating-Gabi, and Mutya Niyaring Puso. Suarez passed away in 1964.

RESTITUTO “RESTIE” UMALI
(1916 – 1998)
Restituto Aquino Umali was born in Paco, Manila on June 16, 1916. His early exposure to music was due to the influence of his father who taught him violin as well as his exposure to the regular family rondalla. He was also taught solfeggio and score reading at the Mapa High School where he became an active member of the school glee club and orchestra. Umali played the E-flat horn, trombone, and tuba when he was part of the UST (University of Santo Tomas) Band. He also taught choral arranging and orchestration at the UST
Conservatory of Music. He majored in Composition and Conducting at the Conservatory of Music, University of the Philippines (UP) and Commerce at the Jose Rizal College.
He even passed an electrician’s course at the Philippine School of Arts and Trades before embarking on a rewarding career as musical scorer for movies.

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During World War II, Umali took lessons in harmony from Felipe Padilla de Leon. Shortly after the war, he performed with the Manila Symphony Orchestra. He continued his studies in composition and conducting even while teaching at the UP Conservatory of
Music. He was under the tutelage of noted composers such as Lucrecia Kasilag, Antonio
Buenaventura, and Ramon Tapales.
Umali arranged the Philippine national anthem and the local classic Kataka-taka for the
Boston Pops Orchestra when it performed for the Philippine Independence Night in
Boston in 1972. He composed approximately 120 movie theme songs and more than
250 scores for movies. His musical scoring career was capped by a Universal Pictures’ production of No Man Is An Island starred by Jeffrey Hunter and Barbara Perez. His musical scores for the movies Sa Bawat Pintig ng Puso (1964), Pinagbuklod ng Langit
(1969), Mga Anghel na Walang Langit (1970), and Ang Alamat (1972) won for him
“Best Musical Score” honors at the Filipino Academy of Movies Arts and Sciences
(FAMAS Awards). He also garnered the “Best Music Awards” for Bitter-Sweet at the
1969 Manila Film Festival and Ang Agila at Ang Araw at the 1973 Olongapo Film Festival.
Among Umali’s most popular songs are Saan Ka Man Naroroon, Alaala ng Lumipas,
Ang Pangarap Ko’y Ikaw, Sa Libis ng Barrio, Di Ka Nag-iisa, and Paano Kita Lilimutin.
He had arranged the performance of Maestro Federico Elizalde’s Manila Little Symphony aired on radio stations DZRH and DZPI, apart from his stint as musical director fof
Sampaguita Pictures.

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Contemporary Philippine Music

BAYAN KO (Excerpt)
Constancio de Guzman, music / Corazon de Jesus, lyrics

DAHIL SA IYO (Excerpt)
Mike Velarde Jr., music / Dominador Santiago, lyrics

/

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BAKYA MO NENENG (Excerpt)
Santiago Suarez

SAAN KA MAN NAROROON (Excerpt)
Restie Umali, music / Levi Celerio, lyrics

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MUSIC



Quarter III

ANGEL PEÑA
(1921 – 2014) is a classical and jazz composer, arranger, and bass player. He is widely considered by modern Filipino jazz musicians as “one of the founders of traditional jazz in the Philippines.”
A

n

g

e

l

M

a

t

i

a

s

P

e

ñ

a

He was born was born on April 22, 1921 to a musical family.
Peña learned solfeggio from his mother Rosario Velarde
Matias. His mother was a schoolteacher who studied voice at the University of the Philippines. His father, Gregorio
Cid Peña, played the violin. His grandfather was a respected guitar player. He grew up in Malabon which was then famous for its musicians and marching bands. At the age of 11 when his mother passed away, he was discouraged by his father to continue his musical pursuits. But, the boy persisted and proceeded to study music theory and composition.
Peña wrote his first original jazz composition just before World War II erupted. He also wrote kundimans for the young women he would be courting. After the war, he became one of the most sought-after musical arrangers in Manila. He had also switched from guitar to bass. This switch led him to write orchestral background music for various musical ensembles.

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He also wrote musical scores for film companies, most notably LVN Pictures. As his interest in classical composition grew more intense, he formed a big band in 1956 for the
Upsilon Sigma Phi’s traditional concert at the University of the Philippines. During that time, he composed Bagbagtulambing, a landmark in Philippine music.

In 1959, the University of Santo Tomas launched a national symphonic composition contest open to Filipino composers. Peña’s entry Igorot Rhapsody won first prize the following year. Since then, he moved effortlessly between the jazz and classical idioms.
In the mid-1960s during his 3-year stint in Hongkong, he earned a Licentiate with the
Royal School of Music in London.
Peña auditioned for the Honolulu Symphony Orchestra. He was immediately accepted as bassist and later as arranger in 1969. He would spend the next 28 years in Hawaii, where he continued to write his own music. As farewell homage, the Manila Symphony
Orchestra performed his Concerto for Double Bass and Orchestra. In 1981 on the occasion of the 75th anniversary of Filipino presence in Hawaii, the Honolulu Symphony premiered his Concerto for Jazz Quartet and Orchestra with an all-star Filipino jazz quartet.
The following year, the Cultural Center of the Philippines performed a concert of his classical works in his honor. Despite of his absence from Manila, local jazz groups
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Contemporary Philippine Music

continued to play his compositions. The seeds that he had sown began to bear fruit. Now, a new generation of Filipino musicians are starting to discover the composer. When he finally came back to the Philippines, he started teaching scholars in Double Bass as an adjunct faculty member of the UP College of Music. He started collaborating with the
UP Jazz Ensemble on a number of concerts.
In 1998, a House Resolution from the State of Hawaii’s House of Representatives was passed to honor Peña for his contributions in the field of music as a world renowned jazz musician, musical arranger, and Hawaii’s own living classical composer. The Jazz Society of the Philippines-USA further gave him a Lifetime Achievement Award at the Third
Annual Fil-Am Jazz Festival in Hollywood. Pena passed away on December 22, 2014.

ERNANI CUENCO
(1936 – 1988)
National Artist for Music

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Ernani Joson Cuenco, composer, film scorer, musical director and music teacher, was conferred the National Artist
Award for Music in 1999. His works embody a Filipino sense of musicality that contain the classical sound of the kundiman.

Cuenco was born on May 10, 1936 in Malolos, Bulacan. As a boy, he was encouraged to learn the violin. He was mentored by his mother, his godmother Doña Belen Aldaba Bautista, and his first teacher, Jovita Tantoco. He earned his Bachelor’s
Degree in Music, major in Piano at the UST Conservatory of
Music in 1956. A UST scholarship grant in the same year enabled him to study the cello under Professor Modesto Marquiz, which he finished in
1965. In 1968, he completed his Master of Music degree at the Sta. Isabel College.
From 1960 to 1968, Cuenco was a cellist at the Manila Symphony Orchestra under Dr.
Hubert Zipper. Likewise, he played for the Filipino Youth Symphony Orchestra and the
Manila Chamber Soloists from 1966 to 1970.

His career as a musical director began in 1960 when he was discovered by then actor
Joseph Estrada while he was playing as part of a band he had formed with friends at an exclusive restaurant in Makati. In 1963, Cuenco was sent as a delegate to the International
Music Conference in Tokyo, Japan. Aside from being a composer and musical director, he was also a faculty member at the UST Conservatory of Music until his death on July
11, 1988.

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Quarter III

To this day, Cuneco’s compositions are popular and well-loved, especially Gaano Ko
Ikaw Kamahal and Bato sa Buhangin which he composed for films in honor of his wife.
Aside from these signature pieces, Cuenco’s other songs include Nahan, Kahit na Magtiis,
Diligin Mo ng Hamog ang Uhaw na Lupa, Pilipinas, Inang Bayan, Isang Dalangin, and
Kalesa.

GEORGE CANSECO
(1934 – 2004)
George Masangkay Canseco was born on April 23, 1934 in
Naic, Cavite. He graduated with a Liberal Arts degree at the
University of the East. After graduation, he worked for the
Philippines Herald and the Associated Press as a journalist. He also worked as a “free-lance scriptwriter for hire” in Manila.
Canseco was considered as “a nationally acclaimed composer of numerous popular classics.” He was commissioned by
Former First Lady Imelda R. Marcos to compose a national tribute hymn entitled Ako Ay Pilipino (I Am A Filipino). He wrote the classic Kapantay Ay Langit, a theme from the awardwinning motion picture of the same title, sung by Amapola. Its
English version entitled You’re All I Love containing some Tagalog lyrics was sung by
American singer Vic Dana. The song won the Manila Film Festival “Best Song of the
Year Award” in 1972. He followed it with an English song entitled Songs exclusively for
Songs and Amapola under the Vicor Music Corporation Pioneer Label.

DEPED COPY
One of his best-known compositions was Child, the English-language version of Freddie
Aguilar’s signature song Anák. He wrote songs for the country’s top popular singers such as Sharon Cuneta, Basil Valdez, Regine Velasquez, Zsa Zsa Padilla, Pilita Corrales,
Martin Nievera, and Kuh Ledesma.
Canseco credited film producer and Vicor Music Corporation owner Vic del Rosario for giving him his biggest break in the music industry. He was elected President of the Filipino
Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers, Inc. (FILSCAP) in 1973. He was also elected as Councilor for the First District of Quezon City in 1988.
His legacy as a composer include approximately 120 song titles including Ikaw, Kailangan
Kita, Dito Ba, Hiram, Tubig at Langis, Hanggang sa Dulo ng Walang Hanggan,
Sinasamba Kita, Kastilyong Buhangin, Minsan Pa Nating Hagkan ang Nakaraan,
Ngayon at Kailanman, Saan Darating ang Umaga, Sana Bukas Pa ang Kahapon, Dear
Heart, Gaano Kadalas ang Minsan, Paano kita Mapapasalamatan, and Kahapon
Lamang. He passed away on November 19, 2004 in Manila.

132
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Contemporary Philippine Music

GAANO KO IKAW KAMAHAL (Excerpt)
Ernani Cuenco, music / Levi Celerio, lyrics

DAHIL SA ISANG BULAKLAK (Excerpt)

DEPED COPY
Leopoldo Silos Sr., music / Levi Celerio, lyrics

133
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MUSIC



Quarter III

LEOPOLDO SILOS Sr.
(1925 – 2015)

Leopoldo Silos Sr. was born on March 6, 1925.
He was a composer, singer, and arranger. He composed and recorded a number of romantic songs, the most famous of which were two of his well known hits, Dahil Sa Isang Bulaklak
(Because Of One Flower) and Hindi Kita
Malimot (I Can’t Forget You). He was also the award-winning musical director of the longrunning television musical program, Aawitan
Kita, which starred Armida Siguion-Reyna.
Accordingly, the music of Silos touches the sentiment quite deeply. His lyrical melodies are complemented by exotic harmonies. His melodies were made more appealing through their extended chords, diminished intervals, and secondary dominants. Thus, that enriched the otherwise basic chordal patterns accompanying a tonal melody. Although not as widely performed as other mainstream love songs and kundimans, his music always impresses the listener with its melodic sincerity and elegantly crafted accompaniments. The other notable compositions of Silos include Aling Kutsero, Ay Anong Saklap, Basta’t Mahal
Kita, Diyos Lamang ang Nakakaalam, Hindi Ko Malilimutan, Lagi kitang Naaalala,
Langit sa Lupa, Halina Halina, Lihim na Pag-ibig, and Mundo Ma’y Mawala. He died on March 10, 2015.

DEPED COPY
SUMMARY
Song composers became popular with their musical compositions used as musical background or theme songs in movies and films.
Levi Celerio made it to the Guinness Book of World Records for being the only person to make music with a leaf. He received numerous awards for his musical achievements in film. Constancio de Guzman was acknowledged as the “Dean of Filipino movie composers and musical directors.” He is the composer of the nationalistic song Bayan Ko.
Mike Velarde Jr. was a composer, conductor, and musical director. He composed the popular song Dahil Sa Iyo in 1938. In 1975 the Philippine Government Cultural
Association awarded him the Cultural Achievement Award in Popular Music. He received the Gawad CCP Para Sa Sining in 1986.

134
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Contemporary Philippine Music

Ernani Cuenco was a composer, film scorer, musical director, and music teacher. He was hailed as a National Artist in Music in 1999. His works embody the Filipino sense of musicality. The classical sound of the kundiman is evident in some of his ballads. Up to this day, his compositions are popular and well-loved.
Restie Umali was a composer, teacher, and musical arranger. He arranged the Philippine national anthem and the local classic Kataka-taka for the Boston Pops Orchestra when it performed for the Philippine Independence Night in Boston in 1972. He wrote a total of more or less120 movie theme songs. He composed more than 250 scores for movies which was capped by a Universal Pictures production of No Man Is An Island starred by
Jeffrey Hunter and Barbara Perez.
George Canseco was considered “a nationally acclaimed composer of numerous popular
Filipino classics.” He composed songs for Filipino singers and movie stars.
Angel Peña is a classical and jazz composer, musical arranger, and bass player. He is widely considered by modern Filipino jazz musicians as “one of the founders of traditional jazz in the Philippines.”

DEPED COPY
Leopoldo Silos Sr. was a composer, singer, and musical arranger. He composed and recorded romantically soulful songs. He was the award winning musical director of the television musical Aawitan Kita.
Santiago Suarez was an accomplished composer of traditional Filipino love songs. His popular works include Dungawin Mo Hirang, Bakya Mo Neneng, Caprichosa, Sa Libis ng Nayon, and Kataka-taka.
WHAT TO KNOW

1.

Discuss the lives and musical contributions of the following 20th century
Filipino song composers
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

2.

Levi Celerio
Constancio de Guzman
Mike Velarde Jr.
Ernani Cuenco
Restie Umali

f.
g.
h.
i.

George Canseco
Angel Peña
Leopoldo Silos Sr.
Santiago Suarez

For each of the composers named above, give the title of any of his compositions. 135
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MUSIC



Quarter III

Composer

Title of Any Composition

________________

_____________________________________________

________________

_____________________________________________

________________

_____________________________________________

________________

_____________________________________________

________________

_____________________________________________

________________

_____________________________________________

________________

_____________________________________________

________________

_____________________________________________

________________

_____________________________________________

DEPED COPY
WHAT TO PROCESS
A.

Listening Activity

1.

Your teacher will play excerpts of recordings of any of the following works by Filipino song composers:
a. Levi Celerio

b. Constancio de Guzman

- Ang Pipit; Sa Ugoy ng Duyan; Misa de Gallo;
Itik-itik (folk song); Tinikling (folk song); and Ang
Pasko ay Sumapit.

- Bayan Ko, Babalik Ka Rin, Ang Tangi Kong Pagibig, Birheng Walang Dambana, Maalaala Mo
Kaya, Sa Piling Mo, Ang Langit ko’y Ikaw

c. Mike Velarde Jr. - Buhat, Ikaw, Bituing Marikit, Minamahal Kita,
Dating Sumpaan, Dalisay, Eternally Yours, Gabi at Araw, Dahil sa Iyo

136
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Contemporary Philippine Music

d. Ernani Cuenco

- Nahan, Kahit na Magtiis, Diligin Mo ng Hamog ang Uhaw na Lupa, Pilipinas, Inang Bayan, Isang
Dalangin, Kalesa, Gaano Ko Ikaw Kamahal, Bato sa Buhangin

e. Restie Umali

- Saan Ka Man Naroroon, Alaala ng Lumipas, Ang
Pangarap Ko’y Ikaw, Sa Libis ng Barrio, Di Ka
Nag-iisa, Paano Kita Lilimutin

f. George Canseco - Ikaw, Kailangan Kita, Dito Ba, Hiram, Langis at
Tubig, Hanggang sa Dulo ng Walang Hanggan,
Sinasamba Kita, Kastilyong Buhangin, Minsan pa nating hagkan ang Nakaraan, Ngayon at
Kailanman, Saan Darating ang Umaga, Sana
Bukas Pa ang Kahapon, Dear Heart, Gaano
Kadalas ang Minsan

DEPED COPY
g. Angel Peña

- Bagbagtulambing, Igorot Rhapsody, Concerto for
Double Bass and Orchestra, Concerto for Jazz
Quartet and Orchestra

h. Leopoldo Silos Sr. Dahil sa Isang Bulaklak, Hindi Kita Malimot,
Aling Kutsero, Ay Anong Saklap, Basta’t Mahal
Kita, Diyos lamang ang nakakaalam, Hindi ko
Malilimutan, Lagi kitang Naaalala, Langit at
Lupa, Halina Halina, Lihim na Pag-ibig, Mundo
Ma’y Mawala
i.

2.

Santiago Suarez - Ligaya Ko, Pandanggo ni Neneng, Dungawin Mo
Hirang, Bakya Mo Neneng, Caprichosa, Sa Libis ng Nayon, Harana, Kataka-taka, Labandera Ko,
Lakambini, Kamia, Ikaw ang Buhay Ko!, Kay
Lungkot Nitong Hating-Gabi, Mutya Niyaring
Puso

Listen carefully to each excerpt and be able to recognize the different musical styles of the composers.

137
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MUSIC



Quarter III

3.

4.

B.

Analyze the music and take note of the elements of music present, such as rhythm, melody, tempo and dynamics, texture and harmony, form, and timbre. Choose a composition that you like. Write a reaction paper on it.

Evaluation of Listening Activity
“Name the Composer, Title of the Music, Musical Style, and Description”
1.

2.
3.

After the above Listening Activity, your teacher will prepare selected excerpts of compositions by the following: Celerio, De Guzman, Velarde, Cuenco,
Umali, Canseco, Peña, Silos, and Suarez.
The class will be divided into four teams, with each team forming a line.
As your teacher plays a few measures of the first excerpt, the first student in each line goes to the board and writes the name of the composer. The second student will write the title of the music. The third student will write the musical style. Then, the fourth student will write a description of the music in one phrase.
The team that writes the correct answers first, scores four (4) points.
The same procedure goes on until all the students in the line have had their turn. One student will be assigned as the scorer. The team with the highest score is the winner. In case of a tie, the first team to finish is the winner.
The scorer will announce the winners and then asks them this question:
What was the most significant thing that you have learned from this activity?

DEPED COPY
4.
5.
6.
7.

WHAT TO UNDERSTAND: SOLO, DUET, TRIO, QUARTET, QUINTET
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.
6.
7.
8..

Compose a simple song. Write the lyrics and the music.
You may adapt a certain melody from the compositions of the song composers that you like. Write the new lyrics to fit the music.
You may include an accompaniment such as guitar, flute, recorder, keyboard, drums, tambourine, maracas or improvise musical instruments from the environment. You may sing it a capella (without accompaniment) or with accompaniment.
Do some dance movements of the music.
Perform your composition or your song adaptation and the dance movements. What motivated you to compose or adapt the music of that song?
How did you feel about this activity?

138
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Contemporary Philippine Music

WHAT TO PERFORM
A.

Singing Activity: Song Medley
Sing any of the compositions of Celerio, De Guzman,
Velarde, Cuenco, Umali, Canseco, Peña, Silos, and Suarez.
I

n

d

i

v

i

d

u

a

l

o

r

i

n

g

r

o

u

p

s

:

For group work, do the following:
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.

Your group will choose any song composers. You research further on his compositions, if needed.
Select three compositions that you like best or you are familiar with or you may learn a new song. Choose your musical director.
Sing the three (3) minutes medley in class with your groupmates interpreting the music with appropriate pitch, rhythm, style, timbre, dynamics, melody, texture, harmony, and expression.
You may bring an instrumental accompaniment like guitar, flute, recorder, maracas, tambourine, or keyboard.
You may bring a minus one music in CD, or from your mobile phone, or
USB.
You may improvise simple vocal or instrumental accompaniment/s to the songs you have chosen.
You may explore ways of creating sounds as instrumental accompaniment to the song from a variety of sources or from the environment.
Your teacher will choose the “Best Singing Group” based on musicianship
(musical elements) 60%, presentation impact and showmanship 20%, ensemble coordination and organization 20%.
All students will evaluate by rating each other’s performance and their own performance. DEPED COPY
6.
7.
8.

9.

B.

Creating and Performing Activities: Musical
1.

2.

3.
4.

Your teacher will divide the class into four groups. Each group choose a song composer that was discussed in class. Research further on his life and works. Create a contemporary musical on the life of your chosen composer.
Incorporate some of his compositions (melodic fragments) in the musical and story.
Improvise simple vocal or instrumental accompaniments (example: guitar, keyboard, percussion) to the songs that you have chosen.
Explore ways of creating sounds as accompaniment on a variety of sources or from the environment for the creation of the musical.

139
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MUSIC



Quarter III

5.

Perform the musical in class. Your teacher will choose the “Best Group
Musical Performance” based on musicianship (musical elements) 50%, audience impact and showmanship 20%, ensemble coordination and organization 20%, stage discipline or deportment 10%.

Evaluation of Creating and Performing Activities: Musical
Rating Scale:

5 - Very Good
4 - Good
3 - Fair

2 - Poor
1 - Needs Follow up

Rating the other performers / groups:
1.

2.

How well did the performers express the message of the musical?

__________

How well did the performers sing and act in the musical based on the following:
a.
voice quality
__________
b. expression __________
c.
stage presence
__________
d. audience impact
__________
e. mastery of the musical
__________
g. musical elements (rhythm, melody, dynamics) __________
h.
technique
__________
i. showmanship __________
j.
acting
__________

DEPED COPY
Rating your own group members:
1. How well did your group members express the message of the musical?
2. How well did your group members perform?
3. How well did your group members coordinate with each other during the performance in the ensemble?
4. How well did your group organize yourselves in the ensemble?
Rating myself:
1. How well did I express the message of the musical?
2. How well did I perform with my group?
3. How well did I coordinate with the other members during the performance in the ensemble?
4. How well did I cooperate in the ensemble?

__________
__________
__________
__________

__________
__________
__________
__________

140
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Physics

...now considered to be untrue) is his dropping balls of varing mass of the Leaning Tower of Pisa by which he showed that, contrary to Aristotle’s account, the speed of a falling object is independant of its mass. It is precisely this power — to overturn wrong ideas, even if though they have been believed true for centuries, and to suggest a more complete understanding — that makes experimentation so central to all of the sciences. This experimental focus was not the last development in the physics that we’ll be looking at, though it did help pave the way for it. This next and final (for our purposes) leap was due to Newton — using mathematics to describe physics. After that, classical mechanics was essentially complete, with “only” quite a few decades of improvements and polishing before the introduction of relativity and quantum mechanics. It is physics at this level, the state of the art of classical mechanics circa the mid 19th century, that we’ll be studying in this course. . Physics Timeline Dates | Characters | Theories and discoveries | 500 – 1 BC | Archimedes, Aristotle | Heliocentric theory, geometry | 1 – 1300 AD | Al-hazen, Ptolemy in Egypt | Optics, geocentric theory | 1301 – 1499 | Leonardo de Vinci, Nicolas Cusanus | Earth is in motion,Occam’s Razor | 1500 – 1599 | Nicolaus Copernicus,Tycho Brahe | Heliocentric theory revived, astronomy | 1600 – 1650 | Galileo Galilei, Johannes Kepler | Telescope,laws of planetary...

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Physics

...movement over the 6.0-meter distance? 1) 6.0 J 2) 90. J 3) 30. J 4) 15 J 2) F 81 3) 9F 4) 81F 13. Which quantity is a measure of the rate at which work is done? 1) momentum 2) energy 3) power 4) velocity Version 18 Midterm 2012 14. The diagram shows two bowling balls, A and B, each having a mass of 7.00 kilograms, placed 2.00 meters apart. 18. A force of 1 newton is equivalent to 1 1) kg 2 × m 2 s2 2) kg × m 2 s2 3) kg × m What is the magnitude of the gravitational force exerted by ball A on ball B? 1) 8.17 × 10 –10 N 3) 8.17 × 10 –9 N 2) 1.17 × 10 –10 N 4) 1.63 × 10 –9 10 –3 3) 1.5 × m 2) 6.6 × 10 2 m 4) 1.5 × 10 8 4) kg × m 2 N 15. At an outdoor physics demonstration, a delay of 0.50 seconds was observed between the time sound waves left a loudspeaker and the time these sound waves reached a student through the air. If the air is at STP, how far was the student from the speaker? 1) 1.7 × 10 2 m s2 m Base your answers to questions 19 and 20 on the information below. A stream is 30. meters wide and its current flows southward at 1.5 meters per second. A toy boat is launched with a velocity of 2.0 meters per second eastward from the west bank of the stream. 19. What is the magnitude of the boat’s resultant velocity as it crosses the stream? 1) 2.5 m/s 16. Which type of wave requires a material medium through which to travel? 1) sound 2) radio 3)......

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Physics

...COURSE PHYSICS 1 (CORE MODULES) Coordinators Dr. Oum Prakash Sharma Sh. R.S. Dass NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF OPEN SCHOOLING A-25, INSTITUTIONAL AREA, SECTOR-62, NOIDA-201301 (UP) COURSE DESIGN COMMITTEE CHAIRMAN Prof. S.C. Garg Former Pro-Vice Chancellor IGNOU, Maidan Garhi, Delhi MEMBERS Prof. A.R. Verma Former Director, National Physical Laboratory, Delhi, 160, Deepali Enclave Pitampura, Delhi-34 Dr. Naresh Kumar Reader (Rtd.) Deptt. of Physics Hindu College, D.U. Dr. Oum Prakash Sharma Asstt. Director (Academic) NIOS, Delhi Prof. L.S. Kothari Prof. of Physics (Retd.) Delhi University 71, Vaishali, Delhi-11008 Dr. Vajayshree Prof. of Physics IGNOU, Maidan Garhi Delhi Sh. R.S. Dass Vice Principal (Rtd.) BRMVB, Sr. Sec. School Lajpat Nagar, New Delhi-110024 Dr. G.S. Singh Prof. of Physics IIT Roorkee Sh. K.S. Upadhyaya Principal Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya Rohilla Mohammadabad (U.P.) Dr. V.B. Bhatia Prof. of Physics (Retd.) Delhi University 215, Sector-21, Faridabad COURSE DEVELOPMENT TEAM CHAIRMAN Prof. S.C. Garg Former Pro-Vice Chancellor IGNOU, Delhi MEMBERS Prof. V.B. Bhatia 215, Sector-21, Faridabad Prof. B.B. Tripathi Prof. of Physics (Retd.), IIT Delhi 9-A, Awadhpuri, Sarvodaya Nagar Lucknow-226016 Sh. K.S. Upadhyaya Principal Navodaya Vidyalaya Rohilla Mohammadabad, (U.P.) Dr. V.P. Shrivastava Reader (Physics) D.E.S.M., NCERT, Delhi EDITORS TEAM CHAIRMAN Prof. S.C. Garg Former Pro-Vice Chancellor IGNOU, Delhi MEMBERS Prof. B.B. Tripathi Prof. of Physics......

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... PHYS 1313 S06 Prof. T.E. Coan Version: 16 Jan ’06 Introduction Physics makes both general and detailed statements about the physical universe and these statements are organized in such a way that they provide a model or a kind of coherent picture about how and why the universe works the way it does. These sets of statements are called “theories” and are much more than a simple list of “facts and figures” like you might find in an almanac or a telephone book (even though almanacs and telephone books are quite useful). A good physics theory is far more interested in principles than simple “facts.” Noting that the moon appears regularly in the night sky is far less interesting than understanding why it does so. We have confidence that a particular physics theory is telling us something interesting about the physical universe because we are able to test quantitatively its predictions or statements about the universe. Indeed, all physics (and scientific) theories have this “put up or shut up” quality to them. For something to be called a physics “theory” in the first place, it must be falsifiable and therefore must make quantitative statements about the universe that can be then quantitatively tested. These tests are called “experiments.” The statement, “My girlfriend is the most charming woman in the world,” however true it may be, has no business being in a physics theory because it simply cannot be quantitatively tested. If the experimental......

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