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Pipi

In: Business and Management

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Chapter 13—Managing Diversity

TRUE/FALSE

1. Today, organizations recognize that diversity is a business imperative and perhaps the single most important factor of the twenty-first century for organization performance.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 420 OBJ: LO: 13-01 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

2. The genuine efforts to accept and manage diverse people in North America are a phenomenon that emerged in the 1800s.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 421 OBJ: LO: 13-01 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

3. Today's workforce is growing older with an average age of 40.8 years in 2006 and it is expected to increase to 42.1 years in 2016.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 421 OBJ: LO: 13-01 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

4. In 1970, Joseph Searles became the first African American member of the New York Stock Exchange.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 422 OBJ: LO: 13-01 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

5. In 2010, PepsiCo appointed its first female CEO.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 422 OBJ: LO: 13-01 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

6. Because employees with different backgrounds bring different options and ideas to the table, a diverse workforce may lead to increased conflict, anxiety, and misunderstanding.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 423 OBJ: LO: 13-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

7. The aging population phenomenon is a huge factor in the United States and Canada. On other continents, the workforce is actually becoming younger.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 423 OBJ: LO: 13-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

8. The traditional dimension of diversity can be acquired or changed throughout one's lifetime.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 426 OBJ: LO: 13-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

9. Age, race, and gender are included in the primary dimension of diversity.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 426 OBJ: LO: 13-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

10. Nationality and work style are included in the inclusive dimension of diversity.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 426 OBJ: LO: 13-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

11. Traditional dimensions of diversity such as work style, communication style, and educational or skill level are particularly relevant in the organizational setting.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 426 OBJ: LO: 13-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

12. Managing diversity means creating a climate in which the potential advantages of diversity for organizational or group performance are maximized while the potential disadvantages are minimized.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 426 OBJ: LO: 13-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

13. According to MANAGER'S SHOPTALK in Chapter 13, the best managers are good at leveraging the differences in their workforce.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 427 OBJ: LO: 13-01 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

14. According to MANAGER'S SHOPTALK in Chapter 13, the best managers treat all employees equally and do not accept different perspectives on problems and issues.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 427 OBJ: LO: 13-01 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

15. A diverse workforce is better able to anticipate and respond to changing consumer needs.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 428 OBJ: LO: 13-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

16. Homogeneous top management teams tend to be broadminded in their perspectives.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 428 OBJ: LO: 13-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

17. One of the consequences of diversity in the workplace is that there is a decreased quality of team problem solving.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 428 OBJ: LO: 13-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

18. Unfortunately, companies that foster a diverse workforce increases turnover, absenteeism, and the risk of lawsuits.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 428 OBJ: LO: 13-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

19. Discrimination is the tendency to view people who are different as being deficient.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 429 OBJ: LO: 13-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

20. A rigid, exaggerated, irrational belief associated with a particular group of people defines prejudice.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 430 OBJ: LO: 13-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

21. Stereotype threat describes the psychological experience of a person who, usually engaged in a task, is aware of a stereotype about his or her identity group suggesting that he or she will not perform well on that task.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 430 OBJ: LO: 13-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

22. Stereotyping is based on cultural differences verified by scientific research methods.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 430 OBJ: LO: 13-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

23. Stereotypes assume that all members of a group have the same characteristics.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 430 OBJ: LO: 13-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

24. An organization which accommodates several subcultures, including employees who would otherwise feel isolated and ignored refers to pluralism.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 433 OBJ: LO: 13-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

25. The belief that your group and subculture is not as good as other groups and subcultures is ethnocentrism.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 433 OBJ: LO: 13-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

26. A culture that accepts only one way of doing things and one set of values and beliefs, produced by ethnocentrism, is known as monoculture.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 433 OBJ: LO: 13-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

27. The belief that ethics are not absolute but instead need to be evaluated relative to the situation refers to ethnorelativism.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 433 OBJ: LO: 13-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

28. Most organizations make a conscious effort to shift from a pluralism perspective to one of monoculture.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 433 OBJ: LO: 13-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

29. An invisible barrier that separates women and minorities from advancement to important lateral movement within the organization defines the glass ceiling.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 434 OBJ: LO: 13-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

30. In a recent survey, 37 percent of highly qualified women report that they voluntarily left or "opted-out" of the workforce at some point in their careers.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 434 OBJ: LO: 13-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

31. Research shows that companies with several senior-level women underperform financially and organizationally in comparison to those without senior-level women.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 434 OBJ: LO: 13-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

32. Many people believe that men make better managers because of their more collaborative, less hierarchical, relationship-oriented approach that is in tune with today’s global and multicultural environment.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 436 OBJ: LO: 13-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

33. The most important component of a successful diversity strategy is management commitment, leadership, and support.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 437 OBJ: LO: 13-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

34. A successful diversity plan leads to a workforce that demonstrates cultural competence in the long run.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 437 OBJ: LO: 13-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

35. Workforce diversity refers to hiring people from different geographic regions of the country but of same nationality.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 437 OBJ: LO: 13-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

36. Uncovering diversity problems, strengthening top management commitment, choosing solutions to fit a balanced strategy, and demanding results are all steps to implementing a diversity plan.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 437 OBJ: LO: 13-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

37. The first step in diversity skills training is to help people learn how to communicate and work effectively in a diverse environment.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 438 OBJ: LO: 13-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

38. Diversity training is special training which can help people become aware of their own biases and stereotypes, and is used by many organizations.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 439 OBJ: LO: 13-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

39. A higher ranking, senior organizational member who is committed to providing upward mobility and support to a protégé's professional career is known as a sponsor.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 440 OBJ: LO: 13-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

40. The mentoring relationship is an excellent way to overcome the problem of a glass ceiling.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 440 OBJ: LO: 13-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

41. Research indicates that women and minorities are more likely than men to develop mentoring relationships.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 440 OBJ: LO: 13-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

42. Mentoring programs are not consistent with the Civil Rights Act of 1991 that requires the diversification of middle and upper management.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 440 OBJ: LO: 13-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

43. The five major steps in implementing a change for a program to develop a truly diverse workplace is to: (1) change structures and policies, (2) focus on diversity recruiting, (3) establish mentor relationships, (4) accommodate special needs, and (5) offer training and education.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 440-441 OBJ: LO: 13-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

44. Sexual harassment in the workplace is a violation of Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 441 OBJ: LO: 13-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

45. Solicitation with the promise of reward is the highest level of sexual harassment.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 441 OBJ: LO: 13-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

46. According to the U.S. Supreme Court, sexual harassment does not include harassment by the same sex.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 441 OBJ: LO: 13-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

47. Today, minorities account for about two-third of the U.S. population.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 441 OBJ: LO: 13-01 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

48. Multicultural teams are made up of members from diverse national, racial, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 441-442 OBJ: LO: 13-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

49. An important characteristic of network groups is that they are created informally by employees, not the organization, and membership is voluntary.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 442 OBJ: LO: 13-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. _____ serves as invisible barriers to important horizontal movement within the organization. a. | Barriers to entry | b. | Affirmative action | c. | Equal opportunity | d. | The glass wall | e. | The glass ceiling |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 421 OBJ: LO: 13-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

2. Which workforce generation category is characterized as ambitious but lacking loyalty to the organization? a. | Generation X | b. | Generation Y | c. | Baby boomers | d. | Teeny boppers | e. | Generation A |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 421 OBJ: LO: 13-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

3. All of the following are changes that are reshaping our workforce EXCEPT: a. | aging workforce. | b. | growth in Hispanic and Asian workers. | c. | women outnumbering men | d. | growth in foreign-born population. | e. | younger workforce. |

ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 423 OBJ: LO: 13-01 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

4. Which racial or ethnic category currently represents the largest and fastest growing minority group? a. | White | b. | African American | c. | Asian | d. | Hispanic | e. | Native American |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 423 OBJ: LO: 13-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

5. The average U.S. worker, today, is _____ than ever. a. | more likely to be married | b. | younger | c. | older | d. | more likely to be male | e. | uneducated |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 423 OBJ: LO: 13-01 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

6. Which of the following group is expected to grow the most in employment from 2008 to 2018? a. | Hispanic | b. | Asian | c. | African American | d. | European | e. | White |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 423 OBJ: LO: 13-01 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

7. _____ is defined as all the ways in which people differ. a. | Multiplicity | b. | Diversity | c. | Seniority | d. | Culture | e. | Variation |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 425 OBJ: LO: 13-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

8. Traditional model dimensions of diversity include: a. | income. | b. | race. | c. | parental status. | d. | education. | e. | religious beliefs. |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 425-426 OBJ: LO: 13-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

9. Inclusive dimensions of diversity include: a. | income. | b. | nationality. | c. | pay level. | d. | work style. | e. | all of these. |

ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 426 OBJ: LO: 13-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

10. All of the following are traditional model dimensions of diversity EXCEPT: a. | age. | b. | sexual orientation. | c. | religious beliefs. | d. | physical ability. | e. | all of these are primary dimensions of diversity. |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 426 OBJ: LO: 13-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

11. All of these are inclusive dimensions of diversity EXCEPT: a. | parents. | b. | lifestyle. | c. | income. | d. | military experience. | e. | sexual orientation. |

ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 426 OBJ: LO: 13-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

12. Inclusive dimensions of diversity: a. | have a greater impact than do primary dimensions. | b. | are inborn. | c. | can change throughout one's lifetime. | d. | include such factors as gender. | e. | none of these. |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 426 OBJ: LO: 13-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

13. Hopetech Industries has a corporate diversity plan that limits diversity to areas that do not change throughout a person’s lifetime, such as race, gender, age, and disability. Hopetech’s diversity plan follows which model of corporate diversity? a. | Inclusive model | b. | Exclusive model | c. | Traditional model | d. | Learning model | e. | Static model |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 426 OBJ: LO: 13-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Application

14. According to MANAGER'S SHOPTALK in chapter 13, which of the following is not a characteristic used to help foreign managers understand Americans? a. | Americans are formal. | b. | Americans value punctuality. | c. | Americans believe in work. | d. | Americans are independent and individualistic. | e. | Americans are competitive. |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 427 OBJ: LO: 13-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

15. Which of the following is not a dividend of workplace diversity? a. | Reduced costs associated with high turnover, absenteeism, and lawsuits. | b. | Increased understanding of the marketplace. | c. | Better use of employee talent. | d. | Increased costs associated with high turnover, absenteeism, and lawsuits. | e. | Enhanced quality of team problem solving. |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 428 OBJ: LO: 13-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

16. Smileline Inc. has an onsite daycare facility and provides employees fulltime daycare at a very low cost. The company implemented this years ago when managers realized that childcare responsibilities were contributing to high turnover and absenteeism. This example highlights which dividend of workplace diversity? a. | Better use of employee talent | b. | Increased understanding of the marketplace | c. | Increased quality of team problem solving | d. | Enhanced breadth of understanding in leadership positions | e. | Reduced costs associated with high turnover, absenteeism, and lawsuits |

ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 428 OBJ: LO: 13-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Application

17. In a family where both parents work, which of the following may be helpful to accommodate the parents’ needs? a. | Childcare | b. | Flexible work schedule | c. | Home-based employment | d. | Maternity or paternity leaves | e. | All of these |

ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 428-429 OBJ: LO: 13-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

18. _____ means creating a climate in which the potential advantages of diversity for organizational or group performance are maximized while the potential disadvantages are minimized. a. | Managing diversity | b. | Maxi-Min approach | c. | Managing differentiation | d. | Advantageous approach | e. | Maximum benefit approach |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 429 OBJ: LO: 13-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

19. _____ is a rigid, exaggerated, irrational belief associated with a particular group of people. a. | Label | b. | Prejudice | c. | Typecast | d. | Discrimination | e. | Stereotype |

ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 430 OBJ: LO: 13-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

20. Stephanie is nervous about giving a presentation at the marketing firm where she works. One of her male coworkers told her, “Don’t be such a girl, attack that presentation!” Now Stephanie is so concerned about appearing tough that she can barely concentrate on the content of the presentation. Stephanie’s anxiety stems from: a. | stereotype | b. | ethnocentrism | c. | plurality | d. | glass ceiling threat | e. | the female advantage |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 430 OBJ: LO: 13-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Application

21. Which of the following refers to special training to help people identify their own cultural boundaries, prejudices, and stereotypes and to develop the skills for managing and working in a diverse workplace? a. | Globalization training | b. | Human resource training | c. | Cultural training | d. | Diversity training | e. | Empathy training |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 430 OBJ: LO: 13-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

22. _____ is a psychological experience of a person who, usually engaged in a task, is aware of a stereotype about his or her identity group suggesting he or she will not perform well on that task. a. | Typecast threat | b. | Discriminatory threat | c. | Labeling | d. | Stereotype threat | e. | Classified threat |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 432 OBJ: LO: 13-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

23. _____ reflects the belief that one's own group is superior to other groups. a. | Ethnorelativism | b. | Ethnocentrism | c. | Pluralism | d. | Geocentricism | e. | Regiocentrism |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 432 OBJ: LO: 13-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

24. An ethnocentric perspective leads to: a. | a monoculture. | b. | diversity in the workplace. | c. | pluralism. | d. | ethnorelativism. | e. | a global perspective. |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 433 OBJ: LO: 13-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

25. Phlex Plastic has a very strong set of corporate values. In fact, Phlex has been known to discourage the emergence of alternative values. Phlex is most likely: a. | a diverse organization. | b. | an organization that encourages pluralism. | c. | a monoculture. | d. | geocentric. | e. | minority-owned organization. |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 433 OBJ: LO: 13-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Application

26. _____ is the belief that groups are inherently equal. a. | Ethnorelativism | b. | Ethnocentrism | c. | Pluralism | d. | Geocentricism | e. | Monoculture |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 433 OBJ: LO: 13-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

27. Which of the following means that an organization accommodates several subcultures? a. | Monoculturalism | b. | Pluralism | c. | Ethnorelativism | d. | Geocentricism | e. | Ethnocentrism |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 433 OBJ: LO: 13-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

28. A culture that accepts only one way of doing things and one set of values and beliefs is referred to as a(n) _____. a. | primary culture | b. | preferred culture | c. | dominating culture | d. | monoculture | e. | pluralism |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 433 OBJ: LO: 13-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

29. Most organizations _____ shift from a monoculture perspective to one of pluralism. a. | can never | b. | naturally | c. | must make a conscious effort to | d. | can easily | e. | are against a |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 433 OBJ: LO: 13-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

30. Which of the following is an invisible barrier that separates women and minorities from top management positions? a. | The barrier to entry | b. | Affirmative action | c. | Equal opportunity | d. | The glass ceiling | e. | The glass wall |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 434 OBJ: LO: 13-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

31. Women make up less than 16 percent of all Fortune 500 executives. This could be due to: a. | barriers to entry. | b. | affirmative action. | c. | equal opportunity. | d. | the glass wall. | e. | the glass ceiling. |

ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 434 OBJ: LO: 13-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

32. Trouser's Inc. top management is exclusively made up of older white males. Trouser's promotes from within and top management is most comfortable with individuals who are similar to them. Women and minorities at this company who wish to be promoted are likely to experience _____. a. | cultural diversity | b. | the glass ceiling effect | c. | rapid promotion and advancement | d. | ethnorelativism | e. | all of these |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 434 OBJ: LO: 13-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Application

33. _____ implies that women's commitment to their children limits their commitment to the company or their ability to handle the rigors of corporate management. a. | Balancing family priorities | b. | Invisible minorities | c. | Opt-out trend | d. | Family commitment | e. | Cost of diversity |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 434 OBJ: LO: 13-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

34. Josephine would like to become part of an elite manager network at her company so she can get access to general and line management experience to help her succeed within the company. However, she learns that the manager network is made up exclusively of men. This demonstrates which factor affecting women’s careers? a. | Female advantage | b. | Opt-out trend | c. | Glass ceiling | d. | Glass wall | e. | Opaque ceiling |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 434 OBJ: LO: 13-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Application

35. Riya was a highly successful manager at Optics International. After ten years with the company, she decided to leave and become a fulltime mother and caregiver to her ailing father. This example demonstrates which factor affecting women’s careers? a. | Female advantage | b. | Opt-out trend | c. | Glass ceiling | d. | Glass wall | e. | Opaque ceiling |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 434 OBJ: LO: 13-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Application

36. Pattie's Pancakes recently held a series of focus groups to gather information on employee perceptions of women and minorities in the workplace. In particular, Pattie's was interested in learning about the myths, values, and beliefs that currently exist in their organization. This is an example of: a. | sensitivity training. | b. | building a corporate culture that values diversity. | c. | changing the current organizational design. | d. | changing the current organizational structure. | e. | none of these. |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 437 OBJ: LO: 13-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Application

37. During the first step of the diversity development process, managers may conduct a ___________ to uncover diversity problems in the organization. a. | reports audit | b. | financial audit | c. | cultural audit | d. | diversity audit | e. | special needs audit |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 437 OBJ: LO: 13-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

38. The ability to interact effectively with people of different cultures refers to _____. a. | ethnocentrism | b. | ethnorelativism | c. | pluralism | d. | stereotyping | e. | cultural competence |

ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 437 OBJ: LO: 13-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

39. _____ involves exposing traditional managers to nontraditional peers to help break down stereotypical beliefs. a. | Revelation | b. | Exposure | c. | Publicity | d. | Innovative breakdown | e. | Cultural barrier breakdown |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 438 OBJ: LO: 13-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

40. Rebecca, a human resource manager at WorldPlus Corp., regularly establishes numerical goals tied to diversity, such as tracking salaries, rates of promotion, and managerial positions for women and minorities. This involves which step for developing diversity and cultural competence? a. | Demanding results and revisiting goals | b. | Maintaining momentum to change the culture | c. | Choosing solutions to fit a balanced strategy | d. | Uncovering diversity problems in an organization | e. | Strengthening top management commitment |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 438 OBJ: LO: 13-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Application

41. Paying a woman less than a man for the same work is an example of:: a. | gender discrimination | b. | ethnic discrimination | c. | stereotyping | d. | sexual harassment | e. | prejudice |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 439 OBJ: LO: 13-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

42. Which of the following is the most common diversity initiative, according to Fortune 1000 respondents? a. | Community outreach | b. | Mentor relationships | c. | Accommodating special needs | d. | Training and education | e. | Diversity-focused recruiting |

ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 439 OBJ: LO: 13-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

43. With most new employees in the late twenties or early thirties, Albertson & Sons Inc. has learned that helping new employees secure home loans has been a valuable service that pays off in the long term. This is an example of what type of diversity initiative or program? a. | Expanding recruitment efforts | b. | Establishing mentor relationships | c. | Accommodating special needs | d. | Providing diversity skills training | e. | Increasing awareness of sexual harassment |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 439 OBJ: LO: 13-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Application

44. TickTock Clock Corporation is attempting to develop a truly diverse workplace. TickTock's president assigned the human resources department the task of determining the demographics of the local area labor market. This is an attempt to change existing _____ within the organization. a. | cultures | b. | structures and policies | c. | developments | d. | bureaucracies | e. | training |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 440 OBJ: LO: 13-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Application

45. The major steps involved in building a truly diverse workplace include: a. | building a corporate culture that values diversity. | b. | changing structures and policies so that they support diversity. | c. | diversity training. | d. | all of these. | e. | none of these. |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 440 OBJ: LO: 13-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

46. Organizations must find ways to eliminate the glass ceiling effect. One effective way to do this has been: a. | through targeted recruitment. | b. | through affirmative action. | c. | to develop mentoring relationships. | d. | top management speeches. | e. | to hire only white males. |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 440 OBJ: LO: 13-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

47. Which of the following refers to a higher ranking, senior organizational member who is committed to providing upward mobility and support to a protégé's professional career? a. | Sponsor | b. | Mentor | c. | Expatriate | d. | Delegate | e. | Advisor |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 440 OBJ: LO: 13-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

48. Birmingham Boardwalk, Inc. uses a(n) _____ program to provide minorities and women with direct training and inside information on the norms and expectations of the organization. a. | sponsoring | b. | mentoring | c. | expatriate | d. | delegate | e. | advisory |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 440 OBJ: LO: 13-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Application

49. _____ are less likely than _____ to develop mentoring relationships. a. | Women; minorities | b. | Minorities; women | c. | Men; women | d. | Women; men | e. | Whites; minorities |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 440 OBJ: LO: 13-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

50. Which of the following prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, and sex? a. | Age Discrimination in Employment Act | b. | Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 | c. | Equal Pay Act of 1963 | d. | Americans with Disabilities Act | e. | Title VIII of the Civil Rights Act Amendment of 1972 |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 441 OBJ: LO: 13-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

51. Which of the following groups has the largest wage gap between genders? a. | White | b. | African American | c. | Hispanic | d. | European | e. | Middle Eastern |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 441 OBJ: LO: 13-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

52. _____ mentoring relationships sometimes leave both parties uncomfortable. a. | Cross-race | b. | Female-male | c. | Male-male | d. | Female-female | e. | Same race |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 441 OBJ: LO: 13-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

53. _____ is(are) categories of sexual harassment. a. | Inappropriate/offensive | b. | Coercion with threat of punishment | c. | Solicitation with promise of reward | d. | Generalized | e. | All of these |

ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 441 OBJ: LO: 13-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

54. Which is the highest level of sexual harassment? a. | Generalized | b. | Inappropriate/offensive | c. | Sexual crimes | d. | Solicitation with promise of reward | e. | Coercion with threat of punishment |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 441 OBJ: LO: 13-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

55. Matthew is Mandy's supervisor. He promises to fire her if she does not engage in sexual activity with him. This type of sexual harassment would be categorized as: a. | coercion with threat of punishment. | b. | solicitation with promise of reward. | c. | appropriate. | d. | generalized. | e. | positional authority. |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 441 OBJ: LO: 13-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Application

56. Which of these actions did the U.S. Supreme Court take? a. | Restricted the definition of sexual harassment to exclude office romance. | b. | Broadened the definition of sexual harassment to include same sex harassment. | c. | Broadened the definition of sexual harassment to include harassment of men by female coworkers. | d. | Broadened the definition of sexual harassment to include same sex harassment and harassment of men by female coworkers. | e. | None of these. |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 441 OBJ: LO: 13-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

57. Research has shown that: a. | homogeneous groups are more creative than diverse groups. | b. | homogeneous groups are less satisfied than diverse groups. | c. | diverse groups are more creative than homogeneous groups. | d. | creativity has nothing to do with group composition. | e. | none of these. |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 441 OBJ: LO: 13-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

58. Which of the following is a basic aim of diversity awareness training? a. | Teaching people the differences between women and men | b. | Helping individuals become aware of their own prejudices | c. | Complying with federal employment law | d. | Reinforcing stereotypes employees may hold | e. | Helping individuals become aware of management's prejudices |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 442 OBJ: LO: 13-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

59. Research has shown that network groups: a. | create divisions in the workplace. | b. | are bad experiences for minority employees. | c. | help retain minority employees. | d. | reduce creativity by being homogeneous. | e. | none of these. |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 442 OBJ: LO: 13-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

60. All of the following are true about employee network groups EXCEPT: a. | the groups are based on social identity. | b. | the groups pursue a variety of activities. | c. | the groups are formally created by the organization. | d. | the mechanism of the groups work well with multicultural teams. | e. | the groups help retain minority employees. |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 442 OBJ: LO: 13-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

61. Shortly after she landed a corporate-level job at InfoBasis, Tonya Kennel formed a women’s leadership group to help women advance within the company. Membership within the group was voluntary and open to women with a desire to advance in the company. Tonya’s group can best be described as a(n): a. | focus group | b. | network group | c. | self-help group | d. | diversity team | e. | multicultural team |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 442 OBJ: LO: 13-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Application

CASE

Scenario - Sarah's Sharks

As the marketing director for Sarah's Sharks, Gloria Riviera is particularly well aware of diversity within the firm's clients in the market place. As a successful woman manager, she is also sensitive to the importance of diversity among employees at Sarah's Sharks.

1. Gloria has recognized that valuing diversity is good for her organization for all of the following reasons EXCEPT: a. | it increases understanding of the marketplace. | b. | it efficiently uses employee talent. | c. | it increases the quality of team problem solving. | d. | it is mandated by ethical responsibility. | e. | it reduces costs associated with high turnover, absenteeism, and lawsuits. |

ANS: d PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 428 OBJ: LO: 13-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Application

2. Although she loves her job, Gloria is contemplating leaving it to focus her energy on parenting her three children. This would demonstrate which factor affecting women’s careers? a. | Female advantage | b. | Opt-out trend | c. | Glass ceiling | d. | Glass wall | e. | Opaque ceiling |

ANS: b PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 434 OBJ: LO: 13-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Application

3. Gloria can enjoy higher success through diversity by accommodating employees' special needs, including all of the following EXCEPT: a. | reassess job scheduling and child care policies for single parent employees. | b. | provide training material and information packages in foreign languages for non-English-speaking employees. | c. | provide paternity and maternity leave and flexible hours for dual income families. | d. | provide long-term care and life benefits for elderly of disabled workers. | e. | all of these are valid strategies. |

ANS: e PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 440 OBJ: LO: 13-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Application

4. Gloria would like to form a women’s leadership group to help other women at Sarah’s Sharks advance within the company. Membership within the group will be voluntary and open to anyone. This group would best be described as a(n): a. | focus group | b. | diversity team | c. | self-help group | d. | network group | e. | multicultural team |

ANS: d PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 442 OBJ: LO: 13-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Application

COMPLETION

1. Education, religious beliefs, military experience, geographic location and income are all _____ dimensions.

ANS: inclusive

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 426 OBJ: LO: 13-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

2. The belief that one's own group or subculture is inherently superior to other groups or cultures is known as _____.

ANS: ethnocentrism

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 430 OBJ: LO: 13-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

3. A culture that accepts only one way of doing things and one set of values and beliefs is called a(n) _____.

ANS: monoculture

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 433 OBJ: LO: 13-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

4. _____ is the belief that groups and subcultures are inherently equal.

ANS: Ethnorelativism

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 433 OBJ: LO: 13-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

5. _____ means that an organization accommodates several subcultures, including employees who would otherwise feel isolated and ignored.

ANS: Pluralism

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 433 OBJ: LO: 13-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

6. The invisible barrier that separates women and minorities from top management positions is known as the _____.

ANS: glass ceiling

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 434 OBJ: LO: 13-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

7. _____ implies that women's commitment to their children limits their commitment to the company or their ability to handle the rigors of corporate management.

ANS: Opt-out trend

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 434 OBJ: LO: 13-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

8. _____ is designed to make people aware of their own prejudices and stereotypes.

ANS: Diversity awareness training

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 438 OBJ: LO: 13-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

9. A higher ranking, senior organizational member who is committed to providing upward mobility and support to a protégé's professional career is a(n) _____.

ANS: mentor

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 440 OBJ: LO: 13-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

10. _____ are made up of members from diverse national, racial, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds.

ANS: Multicultural teams

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 441 OBJ: LO: 13-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

11. Groups that are based on social identity, such as gender or race, and organized by employees to focus on concerns of employees from that group are called _____.

ANS: employee network groups

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 442 OBJ: LO: 13-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

SHORT ANSWER

1. Name at least three factors that negatively affect women’s career advancement?

ANS:
 Glass ceiling
 Glass wall
 Wage gap
 Opt-out trend

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 421 OBJ: LO: 13-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

2. Name five dividends of workplace diversity.

ANS:
 Better use of employee talent
 Increased understanding of the marketplace
 Enhanced breadth of understanding in leadership positions
 Increased quality of team problem solving
 Reduced costs associated with high turnover, absenteeism, and lawsuits

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 428 OBJ: LO: 13-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

3. What are the five steps to developing diversity and cultural competence?

ANS:
Step 1: Uncover diversity problems in the organization
Step 2: Strengthen top management commitment
Step 3: Choose solutions to fit a balanced strategy
Step 4: Demand results and revisit goals
Step 5: Maintain momentum to change the culture

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 437 OBJ: LO: 13-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

4. List the five categories or forms of sexual harassment.

ANS:
Generalized, inappropriate/offensive, solicitation with promise of reward, coercion with threat of punishment, and sexual crimes/misdemeanors.

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 441 OBJ: LO: 13-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

ESSAY

1. Define workforce diversity. Identify the traditional and inclusive dimensions of diversity.

ANS:
Workforce diversity means the hiring and inclusion of people with different human qualities or who belong to various cultural groups. Please refer to exhibit 13.4 in the text for the different dimensions of diversity.

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 426 OBJ: LO: 13-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

2. What is the difference between ethnocentrism and ethnorelativism?

ANS:
Ethnocentrism is the belief that your own group or subculture is inherently superior to other groups or subcultures. In contrast, the belief that different groups and subcultures are inherently equal and that none are inherently better or worse is ethnorelativism.

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 432-433 OBJ: LO: 13-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Analysis

3. Briefly explain the concepts of a glass wall and a glass ceiling.

ANS:
The concept of a glass wall is that invisible barriers (or glass walls) prevent women and minorities from taking important lateral movement within organizations. These results in preventing significant experience in areas such as line supervisor positions that would enable women and minorities to advance vertically. The glass ceiling is an invisible barrier that separates women and minorities from top management positions. Prevailing attitudes and subtle biases combine to prevent significant vertical movement to these groups.

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 434 OBJ: LO: 13-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

4. What are the 5 steps in implementing a change to develop a truly diverse workplace?

ANS:
The five steps include: (1) changing structures and policies; (2) focusing on diversity recruiting; (3) establishing mentor relationships, (4) accommodating special needs, and (5) offering training and education.

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 437-438 OBJ: LO: 13-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

5. List and describe the five forms of sexual harassment.

ANS:
Generalized. This form involves sexual remarks and actions that are not intended to lead to sexual activity but that are directed toward a coworker based solely on gender and reflect on the entire group.

Inappropriate/offensive. Though not sexually threatening, it causes discomfort in a coworker, whose reaction in avoiding the harasser may limit his or her freedom and ability to function in the workplace.

Solicitation with promise of reward. This action treads a fine line as an attempt to "purchase" sex, with the potential for criminal prosecution.

Coercion with threat of punishment. The harasser coerces a coworker into sexual activity by using the threat of power (through recommendations, grades, promotions, and so on) to jeopardize the victim's career.

Sexual crimes and misdemeanors. The highest level of sexual harassment, these acts would, if reported to the police, be considered felony crimes and misdemeanors.

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 441 OBJ: LO: 13-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

-------------------------------------------------
Chapter 14—Understanding Individual Behavior

TRUE/FALSE

1. Organizational behavior is an interdisciplinary field dedicated to the study of how individuals and groups tend to act in organizations.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 457 OBJ: LO: 14-01 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

2. Job satisfaction is work behavior that goes beyond job requirements and contributes as needed to the organization's success.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 459 OBJ: LO: 14-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

3. As a general rule, changing one component of an attitude can contribute to an overall change in attitude.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 459 OBJ: LO: 14-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

4. The link between satisfaction and performance, according to research, is generally small and is affected by other factors.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 460 OBJ: LO: 14-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

5. Organizations don't want to lose talented, highly skilled workers, so they try to create an atmosphere of job satisfaction.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 460 OBJ: LO: 14-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

6. Loyalty to and heavy involvement in one's organization refers to organizational commitment.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 460 OBJ: LO: 14-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

7. A positive attitude toward one's job is called cognitive attitude.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 461 OBJ: LO: 14-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

8. Proximity is the tendency to group sensory data because they are alike in some way.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 462 OBJ: LO: 14-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

9. A halo blinds the perceiver to other attributes that should be used in generating a more complete assessment.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 462 OBJ: LO: 14-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

10. A change in behavior or performance that occurs as the result of experience refers to perception.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 462 OBJ: LO: 14-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

11. Recent surveys indicate that the majority of working individuals strongly trust in their top management.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 462 OBJ: LO: 14-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

12. Attribution is the cognitive process people use to make sense out of the environment by selecting, organizing, and interpreting information.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 464 OBJ: LO: 14-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

13. Organizing the selected data into patterns for interpretation and response is the last step in the perception process.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 464 OBJ: LO: 14-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

14. Recency supports the old truism that first impressions really do count.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 464 OBJ: LO: 14-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

15. The tendency to see one's own personal traits in other people refers to attribution.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 464 OBJ: LO: 14-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

16. From attributions viewpoint, if the behavior is in consensus, the perceiver will probably respond to similar situations in the same way.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 464 OBJ: LO: 14-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

17. From attributions viewpoint, if the behavior is distinctive, the perceiver probably will make an internal attribution.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 464 OBJ: LO: 14-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

18. Self-serving bias is when people give themselves too much credit for what they do well and give external forces too much blame when they fail.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 464 OBJ: LO: 14-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

19. An internal attribution says something about the situation has caused the person’s behavior.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 464 OBJ: LO: 14-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

20. Teresa is highly imaginative and an artistically sensitive individual who displays a high degree of creativity. According to the Big Five personality factors, these qualities describe her openness to experience.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 465 OBJ: LO: 14-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Application

21. The degree to which a person is outgoing, sociable, assertive, and comfortable with interpersonal relationships is called extroversion.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 465 OBJ: LO: 14-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

22. The degree to which a person is able to get along with others by being good-natured, likable, cooperative, forgiving, understanding, and trusting is agreeableness.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 465 OBJ: LO: 14-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

23. The degree to which a person is focused on a few goals, thus behaving in ways that are responsible, dependable, persistent, and achievement oriented is conscientiousness.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 465 OBJ: LO: 14-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

24. The degree to which a person is calm, enthusiastic, and self-confident, rather than tense, depressed, moody, or insecure is emotional stability.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 465 OBJ: LO: 14-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

25. According to research, seven in ten top executives test out to be introverts.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 465 OBJ: LO: 14-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

26. Person-job fit is the extent to which a person's ability and personality matches the requirements of a job.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 465 OBJ: LO: 14-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

27. Locus of control refers to an individual’s belief that he or she can successfully accomplish a specific task or outcome.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 468 OBJ: LO: 14-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

28. Attitudes are judgments about what caused a person’s behavior.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 468 OBJ: LO: 14-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

29. People with an internal locus of control are easier to motivate because they believe the rewards are the result of their behavior.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 468 OBJ: LO: 14-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

30. People have a high external locus of control when they feel in control of their own fate.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 469 OBJ: LO: 14-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

31. People with an external locus of control are harder to motivate but easier to manage.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 469 OBJ: LO: 14-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

32. Machiavellianism is the tendency to direct much on one's behavior toward the acquisition of power and the manipulation of other people for purely personal gain.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 470 OBJ: LO: 14-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

33. Low Machs are particularly good in jobs that require bargaining skills or that involve substantial rewards for winning.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 470 OBJ: LO: 14-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Application

34. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is a personality test that measures a person's preference for introversion vs. extroversion, sensation vs. intuition, thinking vs. feeling, and judging vs. perceiving.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 470 OBJ: LO: 14-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

35. The Sensation-Thinking style prefers dealing with theoretical or technical problems.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 471 OBJ: LO: 14-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

36. An emotion can be thought of as a mental state that arises spontaneously within a person based on interaction with the environment rather than through conscious effort and is often accompanied by physiological changes or sensations.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 473 OBJ: LO: 14-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

37. Social awareness is the ability to connect to others, build positive relationships, respond to the emotions of others, and influence others.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 474 OBJ: LO: 14-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

38. The ability to connect to others, build positive relationships, respond to the emotions of others, and influence others is referred to as relationship management.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 473 OBJ: LO: 14-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

39. Self-management is being aware of what you are feeling.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 474 OBJ: LO: 14-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

40. Self-management is NOT a component of emotional intelligence.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 474 OBJ: LO: 14-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

41. Self confidence refers to a general assurance in one’s own ideas, judgment, and capabilities.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 474 OBJ: LO: 14-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

42. The three options in getting things done are: doing it, delegating it, or defering it.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 477 OBJ: LO: 14-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

43. The last step in getting organized is to empty your head.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 477 OBJ: LO: 14-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

44. According to research, an individual's personality has no affect on how they respond to stressors.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 478 OBJ: LO: 14-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

45. Extreme competitiveness, impatience, aggressiveness, and devotion to work are included in Type B behavior pattern.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 479 OBJ: LO: 14-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

46. Challenges tend to burn people out, while stress fires you up.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 479 OBJ: LO: 14-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

47. Role ambiguity is defined as uncertainty about what behaviors are expected of a person in a particular role.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 480 OBJ: LO: 14-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

48. Organizations that want to challenge their employees and stay competitive can easily be stress-free.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 481 OBJ: LO: 14-09 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

49. Behavioral scientists consider attitudes to have three components: cognitions, affect, and behavior.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 481 OBJ: LO: 14-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

50. Daily flextime is considered by many employees to be the most effective work-life practice.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 482 OBJ: LO: 14-09 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. An interdisciplinary field dedicated to the study of how individuals and groups tend to act in organizations is called: a. | sociology. | b. | vocational counseling. | c. | cultural anthropology. | d. | psychology. | e. | organizational behavior. |

ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 456 OBJ: LO: 14-01 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

2. An individual’s strong belief that he or she can successfully accomplish a specific task or outcome is referred to as: a. | locus of control. | b. | self-confidence. | c. | self-efficacy. | d. | perceptual selectivity. | e. | cognitive dissonance. |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 456 OBJ: LO: 14-01 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

3. The general assurance in one’s own ideas, judgment, and capabilities is referred to as: a. | locus of control. | b. | self-confidence. | c. | self-efficacy. | d. | perceptual selectivity. | e. | cognitive dissonance. |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 456 OBJ: LO: 14-01 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

4. _____refers to a positive attitude toward one's job. a. | Organizational citizenship | b. | Job satisfaction | c. | Cognitive dissonance | d. | Organizational commitment | e. | Job involvement |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 459 OBJ: LO: 14-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

5. People generally experience _____ when their work matches their needs and interests, when working conditions and rewards (such as pay) are satisfactory, and when the employees like their co-workers. a. | job involvement | b. | extroversion | c. | cognitive dissonance | d. | Machiavellianism | e. | job satisfaction |

ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 459 OBJ: LO: 14-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

6. Studies have found that the characteristic most common to top executives is: a. | a Type A personality. | b. | a workaholic mentality. | c. | an unsatisfied worker. | d. | an optimistic attitude. | e. | an introverted personality. |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 459 OBJ: LO: 14-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

7. Which of the following refers to work behavior that goes beyond job requirements and contributes as needed to the organization's success? a. | Job satisfaction | b. | Organizational citizenship | c. | Cognitive dissonance | d. | Job involvement | e. | Organizational Commitment |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 460 OBJ: LO: 14-01 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

8. A survey by the Conference Board found that _____ percentage of US workers are satisfied with their work. a. | 25 | b. | 75 | c. | 45 | d. | 10 | e. | 95 |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 460 OBJ: LO: 14-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

9. An employee with a high degree of _____ is more likely to want to stay with their current company. a. | work happiness | b. | cognitive dissonance | c. | organizational fit | d. | organizational committment | e. | cognitive evaluations |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 460 OBJ: LO: 14-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

10. Which of the following is a way for managers to promote organizational committment? a. | Making work difficult | b. | Punishing poor performance | c. | Creating more rules | d. | Giving more rewards | e. | Being honest |

ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 460 OBJ: LO: 14-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

11. Research shows that the link between _____ and _____ is small and is influenced by other factors. a. | satisfaction; performance | b. | stress; work | c. | stress; home | d. | stress; performance | e. | satisfaction; personality |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 460 OBJ: LO: 14-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

12. _____is defined as a positive attitude toward one's job. a. | Occupation approval | b. | Career fulfillment | c. | Job satisfaction | d. | Organizational happiness | e. | Organizational commitment |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 460 OBJ: LO: 14-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

13. _____refers to loyalty to the heavy involvement in the organization. a. | Organization citizenship | b. | Job satisfaction | c. | Dissonance | d. | Organizational commitment | e. | Job involvement |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 460-461 OBJ: LO: 14-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

14. All of the following are tactics for promoting stronger organizational commitment EXCEPT: a. | naintaining a secretive culture | b. | being honest and trustworthy in business dealings.. | c. | giving employees a say in business decisions. | d. | treating employees fairly. | e. | offering employees rewards that they value. |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 461 OBJ: LO: 14-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

15. Roy is a top executive at a cigarette manufacturing company who believes that cigarettes are dangerous products and they kill people. This condition can be described as: a. | job involvement. | b. | extroversion. | c. | cognitive dissonance. | d. | Machiavellianism. | e. | job satisfaction. |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 461 OBJ: LO: 14-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Application

16. An evaluation that predisposes a person to act in a certain way is called a(n) _____. a. | attitude | b. | authoritarianism | c. | perception | d. | projection | e. | personality |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 462 OBJ: LO: 14-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

17. The cognitive process people use to make sense out of the environment by selecting, organizing, and interpreting information is called: a. | selective retention. | b. | dissonance. | c. | attitude. | d. | perception. | e. | personality. |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 462 OBJ: LO: 14-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

18. Which of the following describes the last step in the perception process? a. | Observing information | b. | Screening the information | c. | Selecting what to process | d. | Organizing the selected data into patterns | e. | Transmitting the observed information |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 462 OBJ: LO: 14-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

19. _____is the process by which individuals screen and select the various objects and stimuli that vie for their attention. a. | Person-job fit | b. | Perceptual selectivity | c. | Organizational citizenry | d. | Projection | e. | Perceptual grouping |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 462 OBJ: LO: 14-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

20. In what stage of the perception process are individuals likely to put things into patterns? a. | Selecting | b. | Projecting | c. | Organizing | d. | Sensing | e. | Reasoning |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 462 OBJ: LO: 14-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

21. The first step in the perception process is _____. a. | contrasting | b. | attribution | c. | reasoning | d. | observation | e. | stereotyping |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 462 OBJ: LO: 14-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

22. Which of the following is the tendency to assign an individual to a group or broad category and then to attribute widely held generalizations about the group to the individual? a. | Stereotyping | b. | Projection | c. | Figure-ground | d. | The halo effect | e. | Perceptual defense |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 462 OBJ: LO: 14-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

23. An overall impression of a person or situation based on one attribute, either favorable or unfavorable, is an example of: a. | projection. | b. | the halo effect. | c. | perceptual defense. | d. | stereotyping. | e. | attribution. |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 463 OBJ: LO: 14-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

24. Josh evaluates Kandi's performance and gives her an “outstanding” based on his knowledge that she came to work everyday earlier than anyone else and therefore she is extremely hardworking. Josh is making which of these errors in perceptual judgment? a. | Perceptual defense | b. | Projection | c. | Stereotyping | d. | The halo effect | e. | Figure-ground |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 463 OBJ: LO: 14-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Application

25. The tendancy to overestimate the contribution of internal factors is part of which perceptual bias? a. | Projection | b. | Self-serving bias | c. | The halo effect | d. | Figure ground | e. | Selective perception |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 463 OBJ: LO: 14-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

26. The tendancy to overestimate the contribution of external factors is part of which perceptual bias? a. | Projection | b. | The fundamental attribution error | c. | The halo effect | d. | Figure ground | e. | Selective perception |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 463 OBJ: LO: 14-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

27. Blaming the teacher for a poor grade on an exam, and taking credit for good grades could be an example of which perceptual bias? a. | perceptual distortion. | b. | closure activity. | c. | the fundamental attribution error. | d. | stereotyping. | e. | perceptual grouping. |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 464 OBJ: LO: 14-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Application

28. Frank regretfully missed an important deadline at work. His boss, George, thinks to himself, “Frank missed that deadline because he is lazy; I really need to crack down on him more.” This is an example of what kind of attribution? a. | External attribution | b. | Internal attribution | c. | Horizontal attribution | d. | Vertical attribution | e. | Skewed attribution |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 464 OBJ: LO: 14-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Application

29. The tendency to overestimate the contribution of internal factors to one's successes and the contribution of external factors to one's failures is a result of: a. | self-serving bias. | b. | openness to experience. | c. | over stability. | d. | emotional plateau. | e. | Machiavellianism. |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 464 OBJ: LO: 14-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

30. _____ refers to the set of characteristics that underlie a relatively stable pattern of behavior in response to ideas, objects, or people in the environment. a. | Dissonance | b. | Personality | c. | Halo effect | d. | Attitude | e. | Perception |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 465 OBJ: LO: 14-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

31. The Big Five personality factors includes all of these EXCEPT: a. | extroversion. | b. | conscientiousness. | c. | emotional stability. | d. | locus of control. | e. | agreeableness. |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 465 OBJ: LO: 14-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

32. Bernice is a talkative, assertive, and sociable individual who is very comfortable with interpersonal relationships. Which of the following is applicable to Bernice? a. | Machiavellianism | b. | Conscientiousness | c. | Agreeableness | d. | Emotional stability | e. | Extroversion |

ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 465 OBJ: LO: 14-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Application

33. Jay is a trusting and forgiving individual who gets along with others because of being good-natured and cooperative. This describes which of the Big Five personality factors? a. | Agreeableness | b. | Conscientiousness | c. | Emotional stability | d. | Openness to experience | e. | Extroversion |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 465 OBJ: LO: 14-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Application

34. Which of the following refers to the degree to which a person is focused on a few goals, thus behaving in ways that are responsible, dependable, persistent, and achievement oriented? a. | Agreeableness | b. | Conscientiousness | c. | Emotional stability | d. | Openness to experience | e. | Extroversion |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 465 OBJ: LO: 14-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

35. If Ben is tense, nervous, depressed and insecure, he would tend to be rated as low on which of these factors? a. | Agreeableness | b. | Conscientiousness | c. | Emotional stability | d. | Openness to experience | e. | Extroversion |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 465 OBJ: LO: 14-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Application

36. Canyon River, Inc. is looking for an individual who has a broad range of interests and is imaginative, creative, artistically sensitive, and willing to consider new ideas. Which of these factors are they emphasizing in their search? a. | Agreeableness | b. | Conscientiousness | c. | Emotional stability | d. | Openness to experience | e. | Extroversion |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 465 OBJ: LO: 14-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Application

37. Traits of _____seem to be particularly important in today's collaborative organizations. a. | likability | b. | agreeableness | c. | friendliness | d. | openness | e. | sociability |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 465 OBJ: LO: 14-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

38. Which of the following refers to the tendency to place the primary responsibility for one's success or failure either within oneself or on outside forces? a. | Machiavellianism | b. | Emotional stability | c. | Locus of control | d. | Authoritarianism | e. | Extroversion |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 468 OBJ: LO: 14-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

39. Individuals who believe that they control their own destiny are described as having a: a. | high external locus of control. | b. | high Mach personality. | c. | low introversion characteristic. | d. | high internal locus of control. | e. | low Mach personality. |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 468 OBJ: LO: 14-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

40. Jason has been unemployed for three months. When his wife asked him why he was not looking for a job, Jason responded, "If I am lucky, I will get my old job back." Jason would be considered as having a(n): a. | external locus of control. | b. | high conscientiousness. | c. | sensation and intuition type personality. | d. | internal locus of control. | e. | high Mach attitude. |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 469 OBJ: LO: 14-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Application

41. People with an external locus of control are: a. | more achievement oriented. | b. | better able to handle complex information and problem solving. | c. | more independent. | d. | easier to motivate. | e. | easier to lead. |

ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 469 OBJ: LO: 14-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

42. Which of the following terms is the belief that power and status differences should exist within the organization? a. | Extroversion | b. | Machiavellianism | c. | Authoritarianism | d. | Perceptual distortion | e. | Locus of control |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 469 OBJ: LO: 14-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

43. Individuals high on authoritarianism have problems with: a. | power and toughness. | b. | use of subjective feelings. | c. | sticking to conventional values. | d. | obeying recognized authority above them. | e. | critically judging others. |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 469 OBJ: LO: 14-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

44. Rachel is described by her colleagues as pragmatic, super-competitive, and more likely to persuade than be persuaded. She fits which personality category most closely? a. | High Mach | b. | Low Mach | c. | High Feeling | d. | Low Feeling | e. | Moderate Thinking |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 470 OBJ: LO: 14-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Application

45. Which of the following is defined as the tendency to direct much of one's behavior toward the acquisition of power and the manipulation of others for personal gain? a. | Authoritarianism | b. | External locus of control | c. | Introversion characteristic | d. | Machiavellianism | e. | Organizational citizenship |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 470 OBJ: LO: 14-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

46. _____type people, according to Jung, would rather work with known facts and hard data and prefer routine and order in gathering information. a. | Feeling | b. | Gut-feel | c. | Intuitive | d. | Sensation | e. | Affective |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 470 OBJ: LO: 14-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

47. Research shows that _____are predisposed to being pragmatic, capable of lying to achieve personal goals, more likely to win in win-lose situations, and more likely to persuade than be persuaded. a. | high introverted individuals | b. | high authoritarians | c. | high Machs | d. | low extroverted individuals | e. | low Machs |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 470 OBJ: LO: 14-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

48. Which of these styles, according to Jung, avoids specifics, decentralizes decision-making and develops few rules and regulations? a. | Intuitive-feeling | b. | Sensation-thinking | c. | Intuitive-thinking | d. | Sensation-feeling | e. | None of these. |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 470 OBJ: LO: 14-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

49. Maliah bases her judgments on impersonal analysis. To resolve problems at work, she uses reason and logic rather than personal values or emotional aspects of the situation. In gathering information, Maliah prefers routine and order. Based on this information, Maliah ranks highly in which Myers-Briggs category? a. | Judging-Perceiving | b. | Intuitive-Thinking | c. | Sensation-Thinking | d. | Sensation-Feeling | e. | Intuitive-Feeling |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 471 OBJ: LO: 14-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Application

50. Which of these styles would likely be appropriate for a counseling job? a. | Intuitive-feeling | b. | Sensation-thinking | c. | Intuitive-thinking | d. | Sensation-feeling | e. | None of these. |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 471 OBJ: LO: 14-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

51. A widely used personality test that measures how people differ on all four of Jung's sets of paired opposites is the ______. a. | Keirsey personality test | b. | Myers-Briggs Type Indicator | c. | Eysenck Personality Test | d. | Enneagram Personality Type Detector | e. | Oxford Capacity Analysis |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 471 OBJ: LO: 14-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

52. When managers who express positive emotions such as happiness, enthusiasm, and appreciation trigger these same positive emotions in employees, _____is happening. a. | Perceptual selectivity | b. | Cognitive dissonance | c. | Contagious feeling | d. | Self-efficacy | e. | Emotion contagion |

ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 473 OBJ: LO: 14-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

53. Managing emotion is a basic component of emotional intelligence. Which of the following best describes managing emotions? a. | It is the basis for all the other components; being aware of what you are feeling. | b. | It is the ability to balance one's moods so that worry, anxiety, fear, or anger do not cloud thinking. | c. | It is the ability to be hopeful and to persist in the face of obstacles. | d. | It is the ability to be able to put yourself in someone else's shoes. | e. | It is the ability to connect to others and build positive relationships. |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 474 OBJ: LO: 14-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

54. A high degree of _____means you can accurately assess your own strengths and limitations and have a healthy sense of self-confidence. a. | self-management | b. | social cohesiveness | c. | social awareness | d. | relationship management | e. | self-awareness |

ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 474 OBJ: LO: 14-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

55. All of the following are things bad bosses do to create stress for their subordinates EXCEPT: a. | Bully and harass people to keep them on their toes. | b. | Create perpetual doubt about how well employees are performing. | c. | Fail to give people credit for their contributions and achievements. | d. | Impose unreasonable demands and overwhelming workloads. | e. | Tell people exactly what is expected of them. |

ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 474 OBJ: LO: 14-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

56. Seeking positions of power and responsibility, Chandra has rapidly moved up the ranks within her organization. Colleagues describe her as someone with a tremendous amount of energy, and a powerful force for leadership within the organization. Based on this description, Chandra has what type of personality? a. | Type A | b. | Type B | c. | Type C | d. | Type X | e. | Type Y |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 479 OBJ: LO: 14-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Application

57. _____conflict occurs when an individual perceives incompatible demands from others. a. | Attitude | b. | Role | c. | Personality | d. | Perception | e. | Ability |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 480 OBJ: LO: 14-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

58. Stress can be caused by: a. | task demands. | b. | role demands. | c. | interpersonal demands. | d. | physical demands. | e. | all of these. |

ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 480 OBJ: LO: 14-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

59. Type A behavior pattern is characterized by all of these EXCEPT: a. | impatience. | b. | devotion to work. | c. | aggressiveness. | d. | relaxed lifestyle. | e. | extreme competitiveness. |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 483 OBJ: LO: 14-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

60. Which of the following is the uncertainty about what behaviors are expected of a person in a particular role? a. | Role conflict | b. | Task overload | c. | Nonprogrammed decisions | d. | Role ambiguity | e. | Task underload |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 483 OBJ: LO: 14-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

CASE

Scenario - Layla Fox

Layla Fox is a creative, imaginative, artistically sensitive individual who loves to take on new opportunities. She is a successful manager who believes that she makes her own destiny through hard work and listening to people. Her personal problem solving style is intuitive-thinking.

1. Layla can best be described using which of these Big Five personality factors? a. | Agreeableness | b. | Openness to experience | c. | Conscientiousness | d. | Extroversion | e. | Emotional stability |

ANS: b PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 465 OBJ: LO: 14-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Application

2. Layla appears to have a: a. | high external locus of control. | b. | high Mach personality. | c. | high authoritarian style. | d. | high internal locus of control. | e. | low extroversion characteristic. |

ANS: d PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 470 OBJ: LO: 14-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Application

3. Which of these occupations would Layla most likely succeed in based on her problem solving style? a. | Counseling | b. | Advertising | c. | Teaching business | d. | Engineering | e. | Politics |

ANS: c PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 471 OBJ: LO: 14-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Application

COMPLETION

1. A positive attitude toward one's job is called ______.

ANS: job satisfaction

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 459 OBJ: LO: 14-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

2. Work behavior that goes beyond job requirements and contributes as needed to the organization's success is referred to as ______.

ANS: organizational citizenship

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 460 OBJ: LO: 14-01 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

3. Loyalty to and heavy involvement in one's organization is called ______.

ANS: organizational commitment

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 460 OBJ: LO: 14-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

4. A condition in which two attitudes or a behavior and an attitude conflict is called ______.

ANS: cognitive dissonance

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 461 OBJ: LO: 14-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

5. A(n) ______ is an evaluation that predisposes a person to act in a certain way.

ANS: attitude

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 462 OBJ: LO: 14-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

6. The process people use to make sense of the environment by selecting, organizing, and interpreting information from the environment is referred to as ______.

ANS: perception

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 462 OBJ: LO: 14-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

7. ______ is the cognitive process people use to make sense out of the environment by selecting, organizing, and interpreting information.

ANS: Perception

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 462 OBJ: LO: 14-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

8. Errors in perceptual judgment that arise from inaccuracies in any part of the perception process are called ______.

ANS: perceptual distortions

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 462 OBJ: LO: 14-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

9. ______ is the tendency to assign an individual to a group or broad category and then attribute generalizations about the group to the individual.

ANS: Stereotyping

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 462 OBJ: LO: 14-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

10. The ______ occurs when the perceiver develops an overall impression of a person or situation based on one attribute, either favorable or unfavorable.

ANS: halo effect

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 463 OBJ: LO: 14-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

11. ______ are judgments about what caused a person's behavior-something about the person or something about the situation.

ANS: Attributions

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 464 OBJ: LO: 14-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

12. The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors on another's behavior and to overestimate the influence of internal factors is called the ______.

ANS: fundamental attribution error

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 464 OBJ: LO: 14-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

13. An individual's ______ is the set of characteristics that underlie a relatively stable pattern of behavior in response to ideas, objects, or people in the environment.

ANS: personality

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 465 OBJ: LO: 14-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

14. ______ is the degree to which a person is able to get along with others by being good-natured, cooperative, forgiving, understanding, and trusting.

ANS: Agreeableness

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 465 OBJ: LO: 14-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

15. The tendency to place the primary responsibility for one's success or failure either within oneself (internally) or on outside forces (externally) is called the ______.

ANS: locus of control

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 468 OBJ: LO: 14-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

16. ______ is the belief that power and status differences should exist within the organization.

ANS: Authoritarianism

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 469 OBJ: LO: 14-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

17. ______ is the tendency to direct much of one's behavior toward the acquisition of power and the manipulation of others for personal gain.

ANS: Machiavellianism

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 470 OBJ: LO: 14-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

18. ______ is a behavior pattern characterized by extreme competitiveness, impatience, aggressiveness, and devotion to work.

ANS: Type A behavior

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 479 OBJ: LO: 14-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

19. ______ are stressors arising from the tasks required of a person holding a particular job.

ANS: Task demands

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 480 OBJ: LO: 14-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

20. ______ are stressors associated with relationships in the organization.

ANS: Interpersonal demands

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 480 OBJ: LO: 14-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

21. A physiological and emotional response to stimuli that place physical or psychological demands on an individual is called ______.

ANS: stress

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 483 OBJ: LO: 14-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

22. Uncertainty about what behaviors are expected of a person in a particular role is referred to as ______.

ANS: role ambiguity

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 483 OBJ: LO: 14-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

ESSAY

1. Briefly describe the perception process.

ANS:
First we observe information (sensory data) from the environment through our senses; taste, smell, hearing, sight, and touch. Next, our mind screens the data and will select only the items we will process further. Third, we organize the selected data into meaningful patterns for interpretation and response.

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 462 OBJ: LO: 14-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

2. Describe any three common perceptual distortions that managers make. Give an example of each.

ANS:
The common perceptual distortions are stereotyping, the halo effect, projection, and perceptual defense.

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 462 OBJ: LO: 14-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Analysis

3. Describe the three factors that influence whether an attribution will be external or internal.

ANS:
Distinctiveness determines whether a behavior is unusual for that person. To be consensus, means to find out whether people tend to respond to similar situations in the same way. Finally, consistency shows if a person being observed has a history of behaving in the same way.

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 464-465 OBJ: LO: 14-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

4. Explain the Big Five personality factors. Are these applicable in an international context?

ANS:
The Big Five personality factors describe an individual's extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience. Research has been limited to subjects in the United States, so it is difficult to apply in an international context.

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 465 OBJ: LO: 14-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Synthesis

5. Describe Carl Jung's four functions related to gathering and evaluating information for problem solving and decision making. Which problem solving style would be appropriate for an Accounting profession? Why?

ANS:
The four functions are sensation, intuitive, thinking, and feeling. Please refer to exhibit 14.9 in the text. For Accounting profession, sensation-thinking style would probably be a good match.

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 471 OBJ: LO: 14-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Synthesis

6. What are the four components of emotional intelligence? Explain.

ANS:
The four components of emotional intelligence are: self-awareness, self-management, social awareness and relationship awareness.

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 474-475 OBJ: LO: 14-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Analysis

7. What are some of the ways enlightened companies are helping employees cope with stress.

ANS:
Students answers may vary based on what they have experienced and heard. Examples from the book include organizations that encourage people to take regular breaks and vacations, designate quiet rooms or meditation centers, and provide wellness programs and daily flextime.

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 478 OBJ: LO: 14-09 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Individual Dynamics KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

Chapter 15—Leadership

TRUE/FALSE

1. Leadership occurs among people, involves the use of influence, and is used to attain goals.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 494 OBJ: LO: 15-01 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

2. Influence means that the relationship among people is passive.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 494 OBJ: LO: 15-01 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

3. The highest level in a hierarchy of manager capabilities refers to level 5 leadership.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 495 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

4. Interactive leadership means that the leader favors a consensual and collaborative process, and influence derives from relationships rather than position power and formal authority.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 498 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

5. Values associated with interactive leadership include personal confidence, exclusion, and independence.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 498 OBJ: LO: 15-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

6. Within a single individual, management and leadership reflect the same sets of qualities and skills that frequently overlap.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 498 OBJ: LO: 15-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

7. Good leadership is needed to help the organization meet current commitments, while good management is needed to move the organization in the future.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 498 OBJ: LO: 15-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

8. Authentic leadership refers to individuals who know and understand themselves, act consistently with high ethical values, and empower others.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 499 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

9. A leader who works to fulfill subordinates’ needs and goals as well as to achieve the organization's larger mission is called a servant leader.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 499 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

10. In a recent study, it was found that men were more capable of motivating others and producing high-quality work than women.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 499 OBJ: LO: 15-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

11. A situation would be considered highly favorable to the leader when tasks are highly unstructured and the leader has little formal authority.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 500 OBJ: LO: 15-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

12. Personal power, innovation, and nurturing are consistently viewed as manager qualities rather than leader qualities.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 500 OBJ: LO: 15-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

13. Three distinguishing personal characteristics associated with successful leaders are intelligence, honesty, and self-confidence.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 502 OBJ: LO: 15-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

14. Self-confidence, honesty and integrity, enthusiasm, and the desire to lead, are all intelligence and ability components of personal characteristics of leaders.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 502 OBJ: LO: 15-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

15. Ohio State University researchers identified two major behaviors called consideration and initiating structure.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 502 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

16. Consideration is the extent to which the leader is task oriented and directs subordinate work activities toward goal attainment.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 502 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

17. The extent to which the leader is mindful of subordinates, respects their ideas and feelings, and establishes mutual trust refers to initiating structure.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 502 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

18. Job-centered leaders are those leaders that establish high performance goals and display supportive behavior toward subordinates.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 503 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

19. The leadership grid suggests a two-dimensional leadership theory that measures a leader's concern for people and concern for production.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 503 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

20. The country club management style (1,9) stresses high service and concern for guests or customers, sometimes to the detriment of employees of the firm.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 503 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

21. Hersey and Blanchard's situational theory focuses a great deal of attention on the characteristics of employees in determining appropriate leadership behavior.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 504 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

22. Situational theory model focuses a great deal on the characteristics of followers, not those of the situation.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 504 OBJ: LO: 15-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

23. The telling style, according to Hersey and Blanchard, is appropriate for followers with moderate readiness.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 505 OBJ: LO: 15-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

24. Matching the leader's style with the situation by changing factors in the situation to achieve the best match is the basic idea with Fiedler's contingency theory.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 507 OBJ: LO: 15-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

25. Task Structure refers to the extent to which the leader has formal authority over subordinates.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 507 OBJ: LO: 15-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

26. The task-oriented leader, according to Fiedler, excels in the favorable situation whereas relationship-oriented leaders are most effective in situations of moderate favorability.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 507 OBJ: LO: 15-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

27. A substitute counteracts the leadership style and prevents the leader from displaying certain behaviors.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 510 OBJ: LO: 15-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

28. A situational variable that counteracts a leadership style and prevents the leader from displaying certain behaviors is called a neutralizer.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 510 OBJ: LO: 15-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

29. The relationship-oriented leader performs better in situations of intermediate favorability because human relations skills are important in achieving high group performance.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 510 OBJ: LO: 15-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

30. An inspirational leader who has the ability to motivate subordinates, through personal transactions, to transcend their normal performance refers to a transactional leader.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 513 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

31. The charismatic leader has the ability to motivate subordinates to transcend their expected performance.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 513 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

32. Charismatic leaders typically have a strong vision for the future and they can motivate others to help realize it.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 513 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

33. A transformational leader is a leader distinguished by a special ability to bring about innovation and change.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 513 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

34. Transformational leaders are hardworking, tolerant, and fair-minded, but are not as capable of leading change as are transactional leaders.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 513 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

35. The pragmatic survivor is a follower who participates actively in the organization but does not use critical thinking skills.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 515 OBJ: LO: 15-09 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

36. The alienated follower is a person who is an independent, critical thinker but is passive in the organization.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 515 OBJ: LO: 15-09 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

37. An active follower is characterized by a need for constant supervision.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 515 OBJ: LO: 15-09 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

38. Power is the potential ability to influence the behavior and decisions of other people.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 516 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

39. The type of power that results from the leader's legitimate authority, based upon his or her position within the organization, is called coercive power.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

40. The effective follower exhibits neither critical, independent thinking nor active participation.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

41. Influence is the effect a person's actions have on the attitudes, values, beliefs, or behavior of others.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

42. Legitimate, reward, and expert powers are all forms of position power.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

43. When Lonnie shouts at Kerry in public for not finishing her work and suspends her for two days, he is using his coercive power.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

44. Two types of personal powers are expert and reward powers.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 517-518 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

45. The type of power that results from political referrals is referent power.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 518 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

46. Rational persuasion is one interpersonal influence tactic available for leaders.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 519 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

47. Use of rational persuasion and making use of higher authority are two commonly used influence tactics.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 519 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

48. People who are entangled in a network of relationships have less power.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 520 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

49. Effective leaders develop networks of allies; people who can help the leader accomplish his or her goals.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 520 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

50. Research indicates people rate leaders as "more effective" when they are perceived to use one influence tactic.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 520 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. _____ is the ability to influence people toward the attainment of organizational goals. a. | Motivation | b. | Leadership | c. | Persuasion | d. | Commitment | e. | Organizational citizenship |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 494 OBJ: LO: 15-01 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

2. Leadership is reciprocal, according to your text. This means: a. | it is dynamic. | b. | it is a problem-solving activity. | c. | it occurs between people. | d. | redundant. | e. | it always creates conflict. |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 494 OBJ: LO: 15-01 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

3. _____ means being unpretentious and modest rather than arrogant and prideful. a. | Humility | b. | Egotism | c. | Altruism | d. | Reserved | e. | Assurance |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 495 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

4. Which of the following refers to the highest level in a hierarchy of manager capabilities? a. | Interactive leadership | b. | Creative leadership | c. | Level 5 leadership | d. | Postheroic leadership | e. | People-oriented leadership |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 495 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

5. The leader who builds an enduring great organization through a combination of personal humility and professional resolve is a _____ leader a. | Level 1 | b. | Level 2 | c. | Level 3 | d. | Level 4 | e. | Level 5 |

ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 495 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

6. The leader who builds widespread commitment to a clear and compelling vision and stimulates people to high performance is a _____ leader a. | Level 1 | b. | Level 2 | c. | Level 3 | d. | Level 4 | e. | Level 5 |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 495 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

7. Linda is viewed by her colleagues as someone who makes productive contributions through talent, knowledge, and good work habits, but she is sometimes hard to work with because of her communication style. Based on the Level 5 leadership spectrum, Linda would be placed in which category? a. | Level 1: Highly capable individual | b. | Level 2: Contributing team member | c. | Level 3: Competent manager | d. | Level 4: Effective leader | e. | Level 5: Level 5 executive |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 495 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

8. Ricky is well loved by his co-workers at Axel Cable Inc. He is viewed as having a great deal of humility, often giving credit for successes to other members of his team. As such, Ricky would be placed in which category of the Level 5 leadership spectrum? a. | Level 1: Highly capable individual | b. | Level 2: Contributing team member | c. | Level 3: Competent manager | d. | Level 4: Effective leader | e. | Level 5: Level 5 executive |

ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 495 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

9. A(n)_____ leader works to fulfill subordinated needs and goals as well as to achieve the organization's larger mission. a. | servant | b. | transactional | c. | transformational | d. | charismatic | e. | interactive |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 496 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

10. All of the following are major approaches to leadership EXCEPT: a. | Level 5 leadership. | b. | Servant leadership. | c. | Authentic leadership. | d. | Progressive leadership. | e. | Interactive leadership. |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 496 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

11. Jerome, a manager at Welford Nonprofit Group, is known for his selflessness and willingness to give to others. He likes working in the nonprofit sector because he wants to apply his skills and abilities to serve others who are less fortunate. Based on this information, which type of leader best describes Jerome? a. | Level 5 leader | b. | Servant leader | c. | Authentic leader | d. | Transformational leader | e. | Interactive leader |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 496 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

12. _____ leaders know and understand themselves, act consistently with high order ethical values, and empower and inspire others. a. | Level 5 | b. | Servant | c. | Authentic | d. | Transformational | e. | Interactive |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 496-497 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

13. Which of the following is NOT a valid component of authentic leadership? a. | Pursues purpose with passion | b. | Isolates self from others | c. | Leads with the heart as well as the head | d. | Demonstrates self-discipline | e. | Practices solid values |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 497 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

14. According to research, _____ typically score higher on social and emotional skills. a. | level 5 leaders | b. | women | c. | postheroic leaders | d. | men | e. | minorities |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 498 OBJ: LO: 15-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

15. At work, Sue Ellen favors a consensual and collaborative process, where influence derives from relationships rather than positions of power and formal authority. As such, she can best be viewed as what type of leader? a. | Level 5 | b. | Servant | c. | Authentic | d. | Transformational | e. | Interactive |

ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 498 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

16. All of the following are leadership qualities EXCEPT: a. | visionary. | b. | innovative. | c. | promotes change. | d. | structured. | e. | nurtures. |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 500 OBJ: LO: 15-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

17. Which of the following is NOT a manager quality? a. | Maintains stability | b. | Organizes | c. | Analyzes | d. | Rational | e. | Personal power |

ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 500 OBJ: LO: 15-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

18. The distinguishing personal characteristics of a leader are known as: a. | traits. | b. | sources of power. | c. | leadership styles. | d. | leadership behaviors. | e. | personal preferences. |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 501 OBJ: LO: 15-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

19. The early research on leadership traits was referred to as the: a. | contingency theory of leadership. | b. | path-goal theory of leadership. | c. | great man approach. | d. | situational theory of leadership. | e. | behavioral approach. |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 501 OBJ: LO: 15-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

20. In general, research has found a(n) _____ relationship between personal traits and leader success. a. | strong | b. | weak | c. | positive | d. | negative | e. | inverse |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 501 OBJ: LO: 15-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

21. Recently, Beagle Boutique was attempting to hire a middle manager. They were looking for an intelligent, active, and creative individual. Which approach to leadership was Beagle using? a. | The contingency approach | b. | The situational approach | c. | The trait approach | d. | The behavioral approach | e. | The substitute approach |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 501 OBJ: LO: 15-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

22. Which of the following characteristics of leaders have been studied? a. | Personality traits | b. | Physical traits | c. | Social traits | d. | Work-related traits | e. | all of these |

ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 501 OBJ: LO: 15-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

23. Self-confidence, honesty and integrity, and the desire to lead, are all components of which personal characteristic of leaders? a. | Physical characteristics | b. | Intelligence and Ability | c. | Personality | d. | Social Characteristics | e. | Social Background |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 501 OBJ: LO: 15-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

24. Colleen Farney at TeleTech shows vast knowledge, intelligence, cognitive ability, and keen decisiveness. Which personal characteristic of leadership is she showing? a. | Physical characteristics | b. | Intelligence and Ability | c. | Personality | d. | Social Characteristics | e. | Social Background |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 501 OBJ: LO: 15-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

25. Researchers at the Ohio State University identified two major behaviors called: a. | commitment and consideration. | b. | commitment and initiation. | c. | consideration and initiating structure. | d. | initiating structure and commitment. | e. | consideration and concern for people. |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 501 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

26. Wilson is viewed by his boss as driven, tenacious, and hardworking in the pursuit of his goals. These characteristics fit within which category? a. | Physical characteristics | b. | Intelligence and ability | c. | Work-related characteristics | d. | Social background | e. | Social characteristics |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 501 OBJ: LO: 15-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

27. Megan is a manager at Botell International. She is very friendly and extremely respectful of her subordinate's welfare. She can be described as: a. | high in initiating structure. | b. | low in initiating structure. | c. | high in consideration. | d. | a team leader. | e. | task-oriented manager. |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 502 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

28. Which of the following is consistent with initiating structure? a. | Task oriented behavior | b. | Open communication | c. | Teamwork oriented | d. | People oriented behavior | e. | Country-club management style |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 502 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

29. _____ are natural talents and abilities that have been supported and reinforced with learned knowledge and skills and provide each individual with his or her best tools for accomplishment and satisfaction. a. | Strengths | b. | Traits | c. | Characteristics | d. | Abilities | e. | Leadership tendencies |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 502 OBJ: LO: 15-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

30. The Michigan researchers used the term _____ for leaders who established high performance goals and displayed supportive behavior toward subordinates. a. | job-centered leaders | b. | employee-centered leaders | c. | initiating structure | d. | consideration | e. | impoverished management |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 503 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

31. The less effective leaders, in the University of Michigan studies, were called: a. | job-centered leaders. | b. | employee-centered leaders. | c. | initiating structure. | d. | consideration. | e. | impoverished management. |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 503 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

32. _____ and _____ proposed a two dimensional leadership theory called the Managerial Grid. a. | Blake; Mouton | b. | Hersey; Blanchard | c. | Vroom; Yetton | d. | Tannenbaum; Schmidt | e. | Evans; House |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 503 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

33. The recommended management style from the leadership grid is _____. a. | 1,9 | b. | 9,1 | c. | 5,5 | d. | 1,1 | e. | 9,9 |

ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 503 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

34. Which of these, according to the leadership grid, is a 1,9 management style? a. | Team Management | b. | Country Club Management | c. | Middle of the Road Management | d. | Impoverished Management | e. | Authority-Compliance |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 503 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

35. _____ reflects a moderate amount of concern for both people and production. a. | Team Management | b. | Country Club Management | c. | Middle of the Road Management | d. | Impoverished Management | e. | Authority-Compliance |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 503 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

36. According to the Leadership Grid, which of the following occurs when efficiency in operations is the dominant orientation? a. | Team Management | b. | Country Club Management | c. | Middle of the Road Management | d. | Impoverished Management | e. | Authority-Compliance |

ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 503 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

37. The Leadership Grid used the two leader behaviors which were called: a. | employee-centered and job centered. | b. | consideration and initiating structure. | c. | concern for people and concern for production. | d. | relationship-oriented and task-oriented. | e. | employee-oriented and relationship oriented. |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 503 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

38. According to the leadership grid, _____ means the absence of a management philosophy, where managers exert little effort toward interpersonal relationships or work accomplishment. a. | solitary management | b. | middle-of-the-road management | c. | low-road management | d. | authority-compliance management | e. | impoverished management |

ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 503 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

39. Sandra views herself as a tough but fair supervisor. She gives explicit directions to her subordinates about how tasks should be accomplished, but is not always approachable when they come to her with questions. Her employees sometimes feel that she is too gruff and impersonal. Which category on the situational leadership grid does Sandra fit into? a. | Following style | b. | Delegating style | c. | Participating style | d. | Telling style | e. | Selling style |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 503 OBJ: LO: 15-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

40. The key assumption of Hersey and Blanchard's situational theory is that subordinates vary in their: a. | readiness level. | b. | satisfaction level. | c. | level of commitment. | d. | level of security. | e. | all of these. |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 504 OBJ: LO: 15-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

41. Hersey and Blanchard are responsible for which theory? a. | Theory of leadership | b. | ERG Theory | c. | Situational theory | d. | Contingency theory | e. | Leadership |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 504 OBJ: LO: 15-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

42. Which of the following is a model of leadership that describes the relationship between leadership styles and specific organizational situations? a. | Contingency approach | b. | Behavioral approach | c. | Trait approach | d. | Organizational approach | e. | None of these |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 504 OBJ: LO: 15-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

43. According to the situational theory of Hersey and Blanchard, which of the following leader styles matches up best with low readiness subordinates? a. | Delegating style | b. | Selling style | c. | Telling style | d. | Participating style | e. | None of these |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 504 OBJ: LO: 15-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

44. Ryan is a manager at Steve's Stoneworks, Inc. Hersey and Blanchard would consider most of his subordinates highly ready. Based on this, which of the following leadership styles is best for Ryan? a. | Participating | b. | Delegating | c. | Selling | d. | Telling | e. | Forcing |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 506 OBJ: LO: 15-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

45. _____ works best for employees with moderate readiness, according to Hersey and Blanchard. a. | Selling and telling | b. | Telling and participating | c. | Selling and participating | d. | Telling and delegating | e. | Selling and delegating |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 506 OBJ: LO: 15-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

46. Two leadership styles used by Fiedler in his contingency theory were: a. | employee-centered and job-centered. | b. | consideration and initiating structure. | c. | concern for people and concern for production. | d. | relationship-oriented and task-oriented. | e. | employee-oriented and relations-oriented. |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 507 OBJ: LO: 15-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

47. Fiedler used all of the following to describe how leaders fit the situation EXCEPT: a. | leader-member relations. | b. | task structure. | c. | personal power. | d. | leader position power. | e. | all of these were used by Fiedler to describe the situation. |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 507 OBJ: LO: 15-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

48. In situations of _____, according to Fiedler, relationship-oriented leaders are more effective. a. | high favorability | b. | moderate favorability | c. | high unfavorability | d. | no favorability | e. | none of these |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 507 OBJ: LO: 15-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

49. Which of the following refers to group atmosphere and members' attitude toward and acceptance of the leader? a. | Task structure | b. | Leader relations | c. | Contingency | d. | Position power | e. | Leader-member relations |

ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 507 OBJ: LO: 15-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

50. According to MANAGER'S SHOPTALK in Chapter 15, when delegating leaders do all of the following EXCEPT: a. | delegate the whole task. | b. | maintain feedback. | c. | give thorough instructions. | d. | work alone to accomplish important tasks. | e. | evaluate and reward performance. |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 508 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

51. A _____ is a situational variable that makes a leadership style unnecessary or redundant. a. | neutralizer | b. | substitute | c. | contingency | d. | transaction | e. | transformation |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 510 OBJ: LO: 15-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

52. Ahmad is a new manager at AJ Homes Company. He has absolutely no experience as a manager nor does he know the technology of his department well. These two factors prevent Ahmad from directing his workforce. This is an example of _____ impacting leadership styles and behaviors. a. | substitutes | b. | neutralizers | c. | contingencies | d. | citizenship | e. | transformation |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 510 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

53. Which of the following types of leader is one who has the ability to motivate subordinates to transcend their expected performance? a. | Transactional | b. | Charismatic | c. | Traditional | d. | Supportive | e. | Team |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 511 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

54. Marion is a great manager and he has a number of special skills. In particular, Marion has the ability to get his subordinates to do more than would be normally expected. Which of the following terms best describes Marion? a. | Transactional leader | b. | Supportive leader | c. | Charismatic leader | d. | People-oriented leader | e. | Production-oriented leader |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 511 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

55. “A fire that ignites followers” is used to describe which leadership characteristic? a. | Vision | b. | Charisma | c. | Service | d. | Tenacity | e. | Authority |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 511 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

56. Charismatic leaders are often _____ than transactional leaders. a. | less emotional | b. | more predictable | c. | less predictable | d. | more directive | e. | none of these |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 511 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

57. Some of the key characteristics associated with charismatic leaders include: a. | visionary skills. | b. | communication skills. | c. | motivation skills. | d. | all of these. | e. | none of these. |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 511 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

58. Andy’s subordinates say that they love working for Andy because he inspires them to not only believe in the organization but to believe in their own potential as well. Based on this example, Andy can best be described as what type of leader? a. | Transformational | b. | Servant | c. | Authentic | d. | Transactional | e. | Interactive |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 513 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

59. The _____ leader is distinguished by his/her ability to bring about organizational change. a. | transformational | b. | participative | c. | charismatic | d. | achievement-oriented | e. | people-oriented leader |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 513 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

60. Which type of leader clarifies the role and task requirements of subordinates? a. | Transactional | b. | Charismatic | c. | Transformational | d. | Supportive | e. | Team |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 513 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

61. Which of the following is a passive, independent, critical thinker? a. | Conformist | b. | Passive follower | c. | Pragmatic survivor | d. | Effective follower | e. | Alienated follower |

ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 515 OBJ: LO: 15-09 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

62. Which of the following is a follower who participates actively in the organization but does not use critical thinking skills? a. | Passive follower | b. | Effective follower | c. | Alienated follower | d. | Conformist | e. | Pragmatic survivor |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 515 OBJ: LO: 15-09 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

63. One of Ruby’s few flaws is that she does not consider possibilities beyond what she is told, accepting her supervisor’s ideas without thinking. She can best be described as what type of thinker? a. | Transformational | b. | Servant | c. | Uncritical | d. | Transactional | e. | Critical |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 515 OBJ: LO: 15-09 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

64. Which of these is the potential ability to influence the behavior of others? a. | Leadership | b. | Management | c. | Power | d. | Control | e. | Motivation |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 516 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

65. _____ power comes from organizational structure and promotes stability, order, and problem solving within the structure. a. | Motivation | b. | Position | c. | Leadership | d. | Control | e. | Referent |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 516 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

66. _____ power comes from personal sources that are not as invested in the organization, such as personal interests, goals, and values. a. | Motivation | b. | Management | c. | Personal | d. | Control | e. | Positional |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

67. Which of the following is the power coming from a formal management position in the organization? a. | Referent power | b. | Coercive power | c. | Reward power | d. | Legitimate power | e. | Expert power |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

68. Ian does not have much of a relationship with his subordinates. They feel obligated to do as he says because he's the boss. This is an example of: a. | referent power. | b. | legitimate power. | c. | coercive power. | d. | reward power. | e. | expert power. |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

69. Candice uses praise, letters of support, and pats on the back as ways of influencing her subordinate's behaviors. All of these actions are highly valued by the work group. This is an example of: a. | coercive power. | b. | legitimate power. | c. | reward power. | d. | expert power. | e. | referent power. |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

70. _____ power is based in the ability of the leader to do such things as recommend promotions. a. | Coercive | b. | Expert | c. | Reward | d. | Referent | e. | Personal |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

71. Which of the following types of power is vested in the manager's ability to punish employees? a. | Coercive | b. | Reward | c. | Expert | d. | Referent | e. | Personal |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

72. Beth, a middle manager at Heather's Handbags, uses threats and punishments as ways of influencing the behavior of his subordinates. Which of the following sources of power is Beth relying on? a. | Reward power | b. | Coercive power | c. | Expert power | d. | Referent power | e. | Personal power |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

73. Which of the following types of power stems from a leader's special knowledge? a. | Reward power | b. | Referent power | c. | Legitimate power | d. | Coercive power | e. | None of these |

ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

74. Referent power depends on the leader's: a. | formal title. | b. | position in the hierarchy. | c. | personal characteristics. | d. | salary. | e. | reward power. |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

75. All of the following are essential parts of any definition of leadership EXCEPT: a. | influence. | b. | people. | c. | goals. | d. | coercive power. | e. | influence and people only. |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

76. Peter has the ability to convince others to work toward organizational objectives. This ability is known as _____. a. | motivation | b. | leadership | c. | commitment | d. | a conceptual skill | e. | personal agenda |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

77. Which of the following is the most frequently used and a highly effective influence strategy? a. | Using rational persuasion | b. | Rewarding desired behaviors | c. | Relying on the rule of reciprocity | d. | Making people like you | e. | Developing allies |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 519 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

78. When leaders influence others through the exchange of benefits or favors, which influence tactic is being used? a. | Develop allies | b. | Use rational persuasion | c. | Make people like you | d. | Rule of reciprocity | e. | Reward behaviors |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 519 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

79. The six interpersonal influence tactics for leaders include all of the following EXCEPT: a. | use rational persuasion. | b. | rely on the rule of reciprocity. | c. | develop allies. | d. | do not worry about people liking you. | e. | reward the behaviors you want. |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 519-520 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

80. All of the following are interpersonal influence tactics EXCEPT: a. | reward the behaviors you want. | b. | develop allies. | c. | rely on the rule of demand. | d. | make use of higher authority. | e. | ask for what you want. |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 520 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

CASE

Scenario - Barry Bailey

The mandatory leadership-training seminar had just been concluded. All of the newly promoted managers at Marc's Music, Inc. had been asked to attend and participate in the two-day seminar, and Barry Bailey had been fascinated with what she had learned. She is now reviewing the material she covered.

1. Barry will develop strong skills in working with her people and also strong ability in accomplishing the task achieving the goals of Marc's Music. On the managerial grid, her style will be: a. | 1,1. | b. | 9,9. | c. | 9,1. | d. | 1,9. | e. | 5,5. |

ANS: b PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 495 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

2. Barry recognizes that her power can come from five sources, including all of the following EXCEPT: a. | referent power. | b. | reward power. | c. | coercive power. | d. | mechanistic power. | e. | All of the sources of power. |

ANS: d PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 497 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

3. Barry learns of a recent study on gender differences in leadership behaviors. In which area of leadership do women score more highly than men? a. | Motivating others | b. | Fostering communication | c. | Producing high-quality work | d. | Listening to others | e. | All of the above |

ANS: e PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 498 OBJ: LO: 15-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

4. To become a level 5 leader, Barry would have to hone which personal characteristic? a. | Humility | b. | Tenacity | c. | Ruthlessness | d. | Drive | e. | Ego |

ANS: a PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 512 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

COMPLETION

1. The ability to influence people toward the attainment of goals is known as _____.

ANS: leadership

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 494 OBJ: LO: 15-01 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

2. _____ leadership transcends self interest to serve others and the organization.

ANS: Servant

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 496 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

3. In _____, the leader favors a consensual and collaborative process, and influence derives from relationships rather than position power and formal authority.

ANS: interactive leadership

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 498 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

4. _____ are the distinguishing personal characteristics of a leader, such as intelligence, values, and appearance.

ANS: Traits

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 501 OBJ: LO: 15-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

5. _____ is the extent to which the leader is mindful of subordinates, respects their ideas and feelings, and establishes mutual trust.

ANS: Consideration

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 502 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

6. _____ is the extent to which the leader is task oriented and directs subordinates’ work activities toward goal attainment.

ANS: Initiating structure

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 502 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

7. _____, according to the Leadership Grid, occurs when efficiency in operations is the dominant orientation.

ANS: Authority-Compliance

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 503 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

8. A model of leadership that describes the relationship between leadership styles and specific organizational situations is called a(n) _____ approach.

ANS: contingency approach

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 503 OBJ: LO: 15-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

9. According to Hersey and Blanchard, _____ and _____ works best for employees with moderate readiness.

ANS: selling; participating participating; selling

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 503 OBJ: LO: 15-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

10. A contingency approach to leadership that links the leader's behavioral style with the task readiness of subordinates is called the _____.

ANS: situational theory

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 504 OBJ: LO: 15-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

11. A(n) _____ for leadership makes the leadership style unnecessary or redundant.

ANS: substitute

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 510 OBJ: LO: 15-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

12. A situational variable that counteracts a leadership style is known as a(n) _____.

ANS: neutralizer

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 510 OBJ: LO: 15-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

13. _____ clarify the role and task requirements of subordinates, initiate structure, provide appropriate rewards, and try to be considerate to and meet the social needs of subordinates.

ANS: Transactional leaders

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 513 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

14. The _____ has the ability to inspire and motivate people to do more than they would normally do, despite obstacles and personal sacrifice.

ANS: charismatic leader

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 514 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

15. A(n) _____ leader is distinguished by a special ability to bring about innovation and change.

ANS: transformational

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 514 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

16. _____ is the potential ability to influence the behavior of others.

ANS: Power

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

17. Power coming from a formal management position in an organization and the authority granted to it is called _____.

ANS: legitimate power

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

18. Power that results from the authority to reward others is called _____.

ANS: reward power

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

19. Power that stems from the authority to punish or recommend punishment is called _____.

ANS: coercive power

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

20. Power resulting from a leader's special knowledge or skill regarding the tasks performed by followers is referred to as _____.

ANS: expert power

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 518 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

21. Power that results from characteristics that command subordinates' identification with, respect and admiration for and desire to emulate the leader is called _____.

ANS: referent power

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 518 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

SHORT ANSWER

1. List the two dimensions used in Blake and Mouton's Leadership Grid.

ANS:
The two dimensions are concern for people and concern for production.

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 503 OBJ: LO: 15-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

2. List the two types of personal power.

ANS:
Expert power and referent power.

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

ESSAY

1. What is the basic difference between consideration behavior and initiating structure behavior?

ANS:
The difference between these two major leadership behaviors is their focus. The focus of consideration behavior is people, with the leader being mindful of subordinates, respecting their ideas and feelings, and building trust. Initiating structure has a task orientation, with the leader directing subordinate work activities toward goal attainment, giving instructions, planning, and scheduling.

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 502 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

2. Describe the three situational elements under Fiedler's Contingency Theory that can be described as either favorable or unfavorable.

ANS:
Leader-member relations refers to group atmosphere and members' attitude toward and acceptance of the leader. Task structure refers to the extent to which tasks performed by the group are defined. Position power is the extent to which the leader has formal authority over subordinated.

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 507 OBJ: LO: 15-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Analysis

3. What three factors combine to create the situation in Fiedler's Leadership Contingency Theory? Explain each.

ANS:
The three factors are leader-member relations, task structure, and position power.

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 507 OBJ: LO: 15-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Analysis

4. Differentiate between a substitute and a neutralizer.

ANS:
A substitute is a situational variable that makes a leadership style unnecessary or redundant. A neutralizer is a situational variable that counteracts a leadership style and prevents the leader from displaying certain behaviors.

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 510 OBJ: LO: 15-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Analysis

5. Distinguish between charismatic and transformational leadership.

ANS:
A charismatic leader has the ability to motivate subordinates to transcend their expected performance. Vision, value, and trust mark their impact. They tend to have an emotional impact on followers. Transformational leaders are distinguished from charismatic leaders by their special ability to bring about innovation and change. They usually emerge to take an organization through a major strategic change, focusing on the intangible qualities that facilitate the change process.

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 511-513 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Analysis

6. Describe the five bases of power typical in organizations.

ANS:
The five bases of power are legitimate, reward, coercive, expert, and referent.

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

7. Describe the six interpersonal influence tactics for leaders.

ANS: 1. | Use rational persuasion. | 2. | Help people like you. | 3. | Rely on the rule of reciprocity. | 4. | Develop allies. | 5. | Be assertive--ask for what you want. | 6. | Make use of higher authority. | | |

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 519-520 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

Chapter 15—Leadership

TRUE/FALSE

1. Leadership occurs among people, involves the use of influence, and is used to attain goals.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 494 OBJ: LO: 15-01 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

2. Influence means that the relationship among people is passive.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 494 OBJ: LO: 15-01 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

3. The highest level in a hierarchy of manager capabilities refers to level 5 leadership.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 495 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

4. Interactive leadership means that the leader favors a consensual and collaborative process, and influence derives from relationships rather than position power and formal authority.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 498 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

5. Values associated with interactive leadership include personal confidence, exclusion, and independence.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 498 OBJ: LO: 15-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

6. Within a single individual, management and leadership reflect the same sets of qualities and skills that frequently overlap.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 498 OBJ: LO: 15-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

7. Good leadership is needed to help the organization meet current commitments, while good management is needed to move the organization in the future.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 498 OBJ: LO: 15-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

8. Authentic leadership refers to individuals who know and understand themselves, act consistently with high ethical values, and empower others.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 499 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

9. A leader who works to fulfill subordinates’ needs and goals as well as to achieve the organization's larger mission is called a servant leader.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 499 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

10. In a recent study, it was found that men were more capable of motivating others and producing high-quality work than women.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 499 OBJ: LO: 15-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

11. A situation would be considered highly favorable to the leader when tasks are highly unstructured and the leader has little formal authority.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 500 OBJ: LO: 15-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

12. Personal power, innovation, and nurturing are consistently viewed as manager qualities rather than leader qualities.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 500 OBJ: LO: 15-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

13. Three distinguishing personal characteristics associated with successful leaders are intelligence, honesty, and self-confidence.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 502 OBJ: LO: 15-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

14. Self-confidence, honesty and integrity, enthusiasm, and the desire to lead, are all intelligence and ability components of personal characteristics of leaders.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 502 OBJ: LO: 15-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

15. Ohio State University researchers identified two major behaviors called consideration and initiating structure.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 502 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

16. Consideration is the extent to which the leader is task oriented and directs subordinate work activities toward goal attainment.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 502 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

17. The extent to which the leader is mindful of subordinates, respects their ideas and feelings, and establishes mutual trust refers to initiating structure.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 502 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

18. Job-centered leaders are those leaders that establish high performance goals and display supportive behavior toward subordinates.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 503 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

19. The leadership grid suggests a two-dimensional leadership theory that measures a leader's concern for people and concern for production.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 503 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

20. The country club management style (1,9) stresses high service and concern for guests or customers, sometimes to the detriment of employees of the firm.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 503 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

21. Hersey and Blanchard's situational theory focuses a great deal of attention on the characteristics of employees in determining appropriate leadership behavior.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 504 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

22. Situational theory model focuses a great deal on the characteristics of followers, not those of the situation.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 504 OBJ: LO: 15-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

23. The telling style, according to Hersey and Blanchard, is appropriate for followers with moderate readiness.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 505 OBJ: LO: 15-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

24. Matching the leader's style with the situation by changing factors in the situation to achieve the best match is the basic idea with Fiedler's contingency theory.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 507 OBJ: LO: 15-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

25. Task Structure refers to the extent to which the leader has formal authority over subordinates.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 507 OBJ: LO: 15-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

26. The task-oriented leader, according to Fiedler, excels in the favorable situation whereas relationship-oriented leaders are most effective in situations of moderate favorability.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 507 OBJ: LO: 15-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

27. A substitute counteracts the leadership style and prevents the leader from displaying certain behaviors.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 510 OBJ: LO: 15-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

28. A situational variable that counteracts a leadership style and prevents the leader from displaying certain behaviors is called a neutralizer.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 510 OBJ: LO: 15-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

29. The relationship-oriented leader performs better in situations of intermediate favorability because human relations skills are important in achieving high group performance.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 510 OBJ: LO: 15-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

30. An inspirational leader who has the ability to motivate subordinates, through personal transactions, to transcend their normal performance refers to a transactional leader.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 513 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

31. The charismatic leader has the ability to motivate subordinates to transcend their expected performance.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 513 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

32. Charismatic leaders typically have a strong vision for the future and they can motivate others to help realize it.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 513 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

33. A transformational leader is a leader distinguished by a special ability to bring about innovation and change.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 513 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

34. Transformational leaders are hardworking, tolerant, and fair-minded, but are not as capable of leading change as are transactional leaders.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 513 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

35. The pragmatic survivor is a follower who participates actively in the organization but does not use critical thinking skills.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 515 OBJ: LO: 15-09 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

36. The alienated follower is a person who is an independent, critical thinker but is passive in the organization.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 515 OBJ: LO: 15-09 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

37. An active follower is characterized by a need for constant supervision.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 515 OBJ: LO: 15-09 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

38. Power is the potential ability to influence the behavior and decisions of other people.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 516 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

39. The type of power that results from the leader's legitimate authority, based upon his or her position within the organization, is called coercive power.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

40. The effective follower exhibits neither critical, independent thinking nor active participation.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

41. Influence is the effect a person's actions have on the attitudes, values, beliefs, or behavior of others.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

42. Legitimate, reward, and expert powers are all forms of position power.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

43. When Lonnie shouts at Kerry in public for not finishing her work and suspends her for two days, he is using his coercive power.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

44. Two types of personal powers are expert and reward powers.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 517-518 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

45. The type of power that results from political referrals is referent power.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 518 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

46. Rational persuasion is one interpersonal influence tactic available for leaders.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 519 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

47. Use of rational persuasion and making use of higher authority are two commonly used influence tactics.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 519 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

48. People who are entangled in a network of relationships have less power.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 520 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

49. Effective leaders develop networks of allies; people who can help the leader accomplish his or her goals.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 520 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

50. Research indicates people rate leaders as "more effective" when they are perceived to use one influence tactic.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 520 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. _____ is the ability to influence people toward the attainment of organizational goals. a. | Motivation | b. | Leadership | c. | Persuasion | d. | Commitment | e. | Organizational citizenship |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 494 OBJ: LO: 15-01 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

2. Leadership is reciprocal, according to your text. This means: a. | it is dynamic. | b. | it is a problem-solving activity. | c. | it occurs between people. | d. | redundant. | e. | it always creates conflict. |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 494 OBJ: LO: 15-01 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

3. _____ means being unpretentious and modest rather than arrogant and prideful. a. | Humility | b. | Egotism | c. | Altruism | d. | Reserved | e. | Assurance |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 495 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

4. Which of the following refers to the highest level in a hierarchy of manager capabilities? a. | Interactive leadership | b. | Creative leadership | c. | Level 5 leadership | d. | Postheroic leadership | e. | People-oriented leadership |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 495 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

5. The leader who builds an enduring great organization through a combination of personal humility and professional resolve is a _____ leader a. | Level 1 | b. | Level 2 | c. | Level 3 | d. | Level 4 | e. | Level 5 |

ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 495 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

6. The leader who builds widespread commitment to a clear and compelling vision and stimulates people to high performance is a _____ leader a. | Level 1 | b. | Level 2 | c. | Level 3 | d. | Level 4 | e. | Level 5 |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 495 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

7. Linda is viewed by her colleagues as someone who makes productive contributions through talent, knowledge, and good work habits, but she is sometimes hard to work with because of her communication style. Based on the Level 5 leadership spectrum, Linda would be placed in which category? a. | Level 1: Highly capable individual | b. | Level 2: Contributing team member | c. | Level 3: Competent manager | d. | Level 4: Effective leader | e. | Level 5: Level 5 executive |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 495 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

8. Ricky is well loved by his co-workers at Axel Cable Inc. He is viewed as having a great deal of humility, often giving credit for successes to other members of his team. As such, Ricky would be placed in which category of the Level 5 leadership spectrum? a. | Level 1: Highly capable individual | b. | Level 2: Contributing team member | c. | Level 3: Competent manager | d. | Level 4: Effective leader | e. | Level 5: Level 5 executive |

ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 495 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

9. A(n)_____ leader works to fulfill subordinated needs and goals as well as to achieve the organization's larger mission. a. | servant | b. | transactional | c. | transformational | d. | charismatic | e. | interactive |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 496 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

10. All of the following are major approaches to leadership EXCEPT: a. | Level 5 leadership. | b. | Servant leadership. | c. | Authentic leadership. | d. | Progressive leadership. | e. | Interactive leadership. |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 496 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

11. Jerome, a manager at Welford Nonprofit Group, is known for his selflessness and willingness to give to others. He likes working in the nonprofit sector because he wants to apply his skills and abilities to serve others who are less fortunate. Based on this information, which type of leader best describes Jerome? a. | Level 5 leader | b. | Servant leader | c. | Authentic leader | d. | Transformational leader | e. | Interactive leader |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 496 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

12. _____ leaders know and understand themselves, act consistently with high order ethical values, and empower and inspire others. a. | Level 5 | b. | Servant | c. | Authentic | d. | Transformational | e. | Interactive |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 496-497 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

13. Which of the following is NOT a valid component of authentic leadership? a. | Pursues purpose with passion | b. | Isolates self from others | c. | Leads with the heart as well as the head | d. | Demonstrates self-discipline | e. | Practices solid values |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 497 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

14. According to research, _____ typically score higher on social and emotional skills. a. | level 5 leaders | b. | women | c. | postheroic leaders | d. | men | e. | minorities |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 498 OBJ: LO: 15-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

15. At work, Sue Ellen favors a consensual and collaborative process, where influence derives from relationships rather than positions of power and formal authority. As such, she can best be viewed as what type of leader? a. | Level 5 | b. | Servant | c. | Authentic | d. | Transformational | e. | Interactive |

ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 498 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

16. All of the following are leadership qualities EXCEPT: a. | visionary. | b. | innovative. | c. | promotes change. | d. | structured. | e. | nurtures. |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 500 OBJ: LO: 15-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

17. Which of the following is NOT a manager quality? a. | Maintains stability | b. | Organizes | c. | Analyzes | d. | Rational | e. | Personal power |

ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 500 OBJ: LO: 15-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

18. The distinguishing personal characteristics of a leader are known as: a. | traits. | b. | sources of power. | c. | leadership styles. | d. | leadership behaviors. | e. | personal preferences. |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 501 OBJ: LO: 15-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

19. The early research on leadership traits was referred to as the: a. | contingency theory of leadership. | b. | path-goal theory of leadership. | c. | great man approach. | d. | situational theory of leadership. | e. | behavioral approach. |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 501 OBJ: LO: 15-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

20. In general, research has found a(n) _____ relationship between personal traits and leader success. a. | strong | b. | weak | c. | positive | d. | negative | e. | inverse |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 501 OBJ: LO: 15-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

21. Recently, Beagle Boutique was attempting to hire a middle manager. They were looking for an intelligent, active, and creative individual. Which approach to leadership was Beagle using? a. | The contingency approach | b. | The situational approach | c. | The trait approach | d. | The behavioral approach | e. | The substitute approach |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 501 OBJ: LO: 15-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

22. Which of the following characteristics of leaders have been studied? a. | Personality traits | b. | Physical traits | c. | Social traits | d. | Work-related traits | e. | all of these |

ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 501 OBJ: LO: 15-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

23. Self-confidence, honesty and integrity, and the desire to lead, are all components of which personal characteristic of leaders? a. | Physical characteristics | b. | Intelligence and Ability | c. | Personality | d. | Social Characteristics | e. | Social Background |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 501 OBJ: LO: 15-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

24. Colleen Farney at TeleTech shows vast knowledge, intelligence, cognitive ability, and keen decisiveness. Which personal characteristic of leadership is she showing? a. | Physical characteristics | b. | Intelligence and Ability | c. | Personality | d. | Social Characteristics | e. | Social Background |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 501 OBJ: LO: 15-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

25. Researchers at the Ohio State University identified two major behaviors called: a. | commitment and consideration. | b. | commitment and initiation. | c. | consideration and initiating structure. | d. | initiating structure and commitment. | e. | consideration and concern for people. |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 501 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

26. Wilson is viewed by his boss as driven, tenacious, and hardworking in the pursuit of his goals. These characteristics fit within which category? a. | Physical characteristics | b. | Intelligence and ability | c. | Work-related characteristics | d. | Social background | e. | Social characteristics |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 501 OBJ: LO: 15-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

27. Megan is a manager at Botell International. She is very friendly and extremely respectful of her subordinate's welfare. She can be described as: a. | high in initiating structure. | b. | low in initiating structure. | c. | high in consideration. | d. | a team leader. | e. | task-oriented manager. |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 502 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

28. Which of the following is consistent with initiating structure? a. | Task oriented behavior | b. | Open communication | c. | Teamwork oriented | d. | People oriented behavior | e. | Country-club management style |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 502 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

29. _____ are natural talents and abilities that have been supported and reinforced with learned knowledge and skills and provide each individual with his or her best tools for accomplishment and satisfaction. a. | Strengths | b. | Traits | c. | Characteristics | d. | Abilities | e. | Leadership tendencies |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 502 OBJ: LO: 15-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

30. The Michigan researchers used the term _____ for leaders who established high performance goals and displayed supportive behavior toward subordinates. a. | job-centered leaders | b. | employee-centered leaders | c. | initiating structure | d. | consideration | e. | impoverished management |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 503 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

31. The less effective leaders, in the University of Michigan studies, were called: a. | job-centered leaders. | b. | employee-centered leaders. | c. | initiating structure. | d. | consideration. | e. | impoverished management. |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 503 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

32. _____ and _____ proposed a two dimensional leadership theory called the Managerial Grid. a. | Blake; Mouton | b. | Hersey; Blanchard | c. | Vroom; Yetton | d. | Tannenbaum; Schmidt | e. | Evans; House |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 503 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

33. The recommended management style from the leadership grid is _____. a. | 1,9 | b. | 9,1 | c. | 5,5 | d. | 1,1 | e. | 9,9 |

ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 503 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

34. Which of these, according to the leadership grid, is a 1,9 management style? a. | Team Management | b. | Country Club Management | c. | Middle of the Road Management | d. | Impoverished Management | e. | Authority-Compliance |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 503 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

35. _____ reflects a moderate amount of concern for both people and production. a. | Team Management | b. | Country Club Management | c. | Middle of the Road Management | d. | Impoverished Management | e. | Authority-Compliance |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 503 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

36. According to the Leadership Grid, which of the following occurs when efficiency in operations is the dominant orientation? a. | Team Management | b. | Country Club Management | c. | Middle of the Road Management | d. | Impoverished Management | e. | Authority-Compliance |

ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 503 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

37. The Leadership Grid used the two leader behaviors which were called: a. | employee-centered and job centered. | b. | consideration and initiating structure. | c. | concern for people and concern for production. | d. | relationship-oriented and task-oriented. | e. | employee-oriented and relationship oriented. |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 503 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

38. According to the leadership grid, _____ means the absence of a management philosophy, where managers exert little effort toward interpersonal relationships or work accomplishment. a. | solitary management | b. | middle-of-the-road management | c. | low-road management | d. | authority-compliance management | e. | impoverished management |

ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 503 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

39. Sandra views herself as a tough but fair supervisor. She gives explicit directions to her subordinates about how tasks should be accomplished, but is not always approachable when they come to her with questions. Her employees sometimes feel that she is too gruff and impersonal. Which category on the situational leadership grid does Sandra fit into? a. | Following style | b. | Delegating style | c. | Participating style | d. | Telling style | e. | Selling style |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 503 OBJ: LO: 15-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

40. The key assumption of Hersey and Blanchard's situational theory is that subordinates vary in their: a. | readiness level. | b. | satisfaction level. | c. | level of commitment. | d. | level of security. | e. | all of these. |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 504 OBJ: LO: 15-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

41. Hersey and Blanchard are responsible for which theory? a. | Theory of leadership | b. | ERG Theory | c. | Situational theory | d. | Contingency theory | e. | Leadership |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 504 OBJ: LO: 15-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

42. Which of the following is a model of leadership that describes the relationship between leadership styles and specific organizational situations? a. | Contingency approach | b. | Behavioral approach | c. | Trait approach | d. | Organizational approach | e. | None of these |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 504 OBJ: LO: 15-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

43. According to the situational theory of Hersey and Blanchard, which of the following leader styles matches up best with low readiness subordinates? a. | Delegating style | b. | Selling style | c. | Telling style | d. | Participating style | e. | None of these |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 504 OBJ: LO: 15-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

44. Ryan is a manager at Steve's Stoneworks, Inc. Hersey and Blanchard would consider most of his subordinates highly ready. Based on this, which of the following leadership styles is best for Ryan? a. | Participating | b. | Delegating | c. | Selling | d. | Telling | e. | Forcing |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 506 OBJ: LO: 15-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

45. _____ works best for employees with moderate readiness, according to Hersey and Blanchard. a. | Selling and telling | b. | Telling and participating | c. | Selling and participating | d. | Telling and delegating | e. | Selling and delegating |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 506 OBJ: LO: 15-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

46. Two leadership styles used by Fiedler in his contingency theory were: a. | employee-centered and job-centered. | b. | consideration and initiating structure. | c. | concern for people and concern for production. | d. | relationship-oriented and task-oriented. | e. | employee-oriented and relations-oriented. |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 507 OBJ: LO: 15-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

47. Fiedler used all of the following to describe how leaders fit the situation EXCEPT: a. | leader-member relations. | b. | task structure. | c. | personal power. | d. | leader position power. | e. | all of these were used by Fiedler to describe the situation. |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 507 OBJ: LO: 15-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

48. In situations of _____, according to Fiedler, relationship-oriented leaders are more effective. a. | high favorability | b. | moderate favorability | c. | high unfavorability | d. | no favorability | e. | none of these |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 507 OBJ: LO: 15-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

49. Which of the following refers to group atmosphere and members' attitude toward and acceptance of the leader? a. | Task structure | b. | Leader relations | c. | Contingency | d. | Position power | e. | Leader-member relations |

ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 507 OBJ: LO: 15-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

50. According to MANAGER'S SHOPTALK in Chapter 15, when delegating leaders do all of the following EXCEPT: a. | delegate the whole task. | b. | maintain feedback. | c. | give thorough instructions. | d. | work alone to accomplish important tasks. | e. | evaluate and reward performance. |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 508 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

51. A _____ is a situational variable that makes a leadership style unnecessary or redundant. a. | neutralizer | b. | substitute | c. | contingency | d. | transaction | e. | transformation |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 510 OBJ: LO: 15-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

52. Ahmad is a new manager at AJ Homes Company. He has absolutely no experience as a manager nor does he know the technology of his department well. These two factors prevent Ahmad from directing his workforce. This is an example of _____ impacting leadership styles and behaviors. a. | substitutes | b. | neutralizers | c. | contingencies | d. | citizenship | e. | transformation |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 510 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

53. Which of the following types of leader is one who has the ability to motivate subordinates to transcend their expected performance? a. | Transactional | b. | Charismatic | c. | Traditional | d. | Supportive | e. | Team |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 511 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

54. Marion is a great manager and he has a number of special skills. In particular, Marion has the ability to get his subordinates to do more than would be normally expected. Which of the following terms best describes Marion? a. | Transactional leader | b. | Supportive leader | c. | Charismatic leader | d. | People-oriented leader | e. | Production-oriented leader |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 511 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

55. “A fire that ignites followers” is used to describe which leadership characteristic? a. | Vision | b. | Charisma | c. | Service | d. | Tenacity | e. | Authority |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 511 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

56. Charismatic leaders are often _____ than transactional leaders. a. | less emotional | b. | more predictable | c. | less predictable | d. | more directive | e. | none of these |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 511 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

57. Some of the key characteristics associated with charismatic leaders include: a. | visionary skills. | b. | communication skills. | c. | motivation skills. | d. | all of these. | e. | none of these. |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 511 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

58. Andy’s subordinates say that they love working for Andy because he inspires them to not only believe in the organization but to believe in their own potential as well. Based on this example, Andy can best be described as what type of leader? a. | Transformational | b. | Servant | c. | Authentic | d. | Transactional | e. | Interactive |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 513 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

59. The _____ leader is distinguished by his/her ability to bring about organizational change. a. | transformational | b. | participative | c. | charismatic | d. | achievement-oriented | e. | people-oriented leader |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 513 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

60. Which type of leader clarifies the role and task requirements of subordinates? a. | Transactional | b. | Charismatic | c. | Transformational | d. | Supportive | e. | Team |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 513 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

61. Which of the following is a passive, independent, critical thinker? a. | Conformist | b. | Passive follower | c. | Pragmatic survivor | d. | Effective follower | e. | Alienated follower |

ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 515 OBJ: LO: 15-09 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

62. Which of the following is a follower who participates actively in the organization but does not use critical thinking skills? a. | Passive follower | b. | Effective follower | c. | Alienated follower | d. | Conformist | e. | Pragmatic survivor |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 515 OBJ: LO: 15-09 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

63. One of Ruby’s few flaws is that she does not consider possibilities beyond what she is told, accepting her supervisor’s ideas without thinking. She can best be described as what type of thinker? a. | Transformational | b. | Servant | c. | Uncritical | d. | Transactional | e. | Critical |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 515 OBJ: LO: 15-09 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

64. Which of these is the potential ability to influence the behavior of others? a. | Leadership | b. | Management | c. | Power | d. | Control | e. | Motivation |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 516 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

65. _____ power comes from organizational structure and promotes stability, order, and problem solving within the structure. a. | Motivation | b. | Position | c. | Leadership | d. | Control | e. | Referent |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 516 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

66. _____ power comes from personal sources that are not as invested in the organization, such as personal interests, goals, and values. a. | Motivation | b. | Management | c. | Personal | d. | Control | e. | Positional |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

67. Which of the following is the power coming from a formal management position in the organization? a. | Referent power | b. | Coercive power | c. | Reward power | d. | Legitimate power | e. | Expert power |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

68. Ian does not have much of a relationship with his subordinates. They feel obligated to do as he says because he's the boss. This is an example of: a. | referent power. | b. | legitimate power. | c. | coercive power. | d. | reward power. | e. | expert power. |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

69. Candice uses praise, letters of support, and pats on the back as ways of influencing her subordinate's behaviors. All of these actions are highly valued by the work group. This is an example of: a. | coercive power. | b. | legitimate power. | c. | reward power. | d. | expert power. | e. | referent power. |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

70. _____ power is based in the ability of the leader to do such things as recommend promotions. a. | Coercive | b. | Expert | c. | Reward | d. | Referent | e. | Personal |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

71. Which of the following types of power is vested in the manager's ability to punish employees? a. | Coercive | b. | Reward | c. | Expert | d. | Referent | e. | Personal |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

72. Beth, a middle manager at Heather's Handbags, uses threats and punishments as ways of influencing the behavior of his subordinates. Which of the following sources of power is Beth relying on? a. | Reward power | b. | Coercive power | c. | Expert power | d. | Referent power | e. | Personal power |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

73. Which of the following types of power stems from a leader's special knowledge? a. | Reward power | b. | Referent power | c. | Legitimate power | d. | Coercive power | e. | None of these |

ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

74. Referent power depends on the leader's: a. | formal title. | b. | position in the hierarchy. | c. | personal characteristics. | d. | salary. | e. | reward power. |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

75. All of the following are essential parts of any definition of leadership EXCEPT: a. | influence. | b. | people. | c. | goals. | d. | coercive power. | e. | influence and people only. |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

76. Peter has the ability to convince others to work toward organizational objectives. This ability is known as _____. a. | Motivation | b. | Leadership | c. | Commitment | d. | a conceptual skill | e. | personal agenda |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

77. Which of the following is the most frequently used and a highly effective influence strategy? a. | Using rational persuasion | b. | Rewarding desired behaviors | c. | Relying on the rule of reciprocity | d. | Making people like you | e. | Developing allies |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 519 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

78. When leaders influence others through the exchange of benefits or favors, which influence tactic is being used? a. | Develop allies | b. | Use rational persuasion | c. | Make people like you | d. | Rule of reciprocity | e. | Reward behaviors |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 519 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

79. The six interpersonal influence tactics for leaders include all of the following EXCEPT: a. | use rational persuasion. | b. | rely on the rule of reciprocity. | c. | develop allies. | d. | do not worry about people liking you. | e. | reward the behaviors you want. |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 519-520 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

80. All of the following are interpersonal influence tactics EXCEPT: a. | reward the behaviors you want. | b. | develop allies. | c. | rely on the rule of demand. | d. | make use of higher authority. | e. | ask for what you want. |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 520 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

CASE

Scenario - Barry Bailey

The mandatory leadership-training seminar had just been concluded. All of the newly promoted managers at Marc's Music, Inc. had been asked to attend and participate in the two-day seminar, and Barry Bailey had been fascinated with what she had learned. She is now reviewing the material she covered.

1. Barry will develop strong skills in working with her people and also strong ability in accomplishing the task achieving the goals of Marc's Music. On the managerial grid, her style will be: a. | 1,1. | b. | 9,9. | c. | 9,1. | d. | 1,9. | e. | 5,5. |

ANS: b PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 495 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

2. Barry recognizes that her power can come from five sources, including all of the following EXCEPT: a. | referent power. | b. | reward power. | c. | coercive power. | d. | mechanistic power. | e. | All of the sources of power. |

ANS: d PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 497 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

3. Barry learns of a recent study on gender differences in leadership behaviors. In which area of leadership do women score more highly than men? a. | Motivating others | b. | Fostering communication | c. | Producing high-quality work | d. | Listening to others | e. | All of the above |

ANS: e PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 498 OBJ: LO: 15-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

4. To become a level 5 leader, Barry would have to hone which personal characteristic? a. | Humility | b. | Tenacity | c. | Ruthlessness | d. | Drive | e. | Ego |

ANS: a PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 512 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

COMPLETION

1. The ability to influence people toward the attainment of goals is known as _____.

ANS: leadership

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 494 OBJ: LO: 15-01 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

2. _____ leadership transcends self interest to serve others and the organization.

ANS: Servant

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 496 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

3. In _____, the leader favors a consensual and collaborative process, and influence derives from relationships rather than position power and formal authority.

ANS: interactive leadership

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 498 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

4. _____ are the distinguishing personal characteristics of a leader, such as intelligence, values, and appearance.

ANS: Traits

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 501 OBJ: LO: 15-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

5. _____ is the extent to which the leader is mindful of subordinates, respects their ideas and feelings, and establishes mutual trust.

ANS: Consideration

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 502 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

6. _____ is the extent to which the leader is task oriented and directs subordinates’ work activities toward goal attainment.

ANS: Initiating structure

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 502 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

7. _____, according to the Leadership Grid, occurs when efficiency in operations is the dominant orientation.

ANS: Authority-Compliance

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 503 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

8. A model of leadership that describes the relationship between leadership styles and specific organizational situations is called a(n) _____ approach.

ANS: contingency approach

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 503 OBJ: LO: 15-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

9. According to Hersey and Blanchard, _____ and _____ works best for employees with moderate readiness.

ANS: selling; participating participating; selling

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 503 OBJ: LO: 15-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

10. A contingency approach to leadership that links the leader's behavioral style with the task readiness of subordinates is called the _____.

ANS: situational theory

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 504 OBJ: LO: 15-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

11. A(n) _____ for leadership makes the leadership style unnecessary or redundant.

ANS: substitute

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 510 OBJ: LO: 15-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

12. A situational variable that counteracts a leadership style is known as a(n) _____.

ANS: neutralizer

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 510 OBJ: LO: 15-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

13. _____ clarify the role and task requirements of subordinates, initiate structure, provide appropriate rewards, and try to be considerate to and meet the social needs of subordinates.

ANS: Transactional leaders

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 513 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

14. The _____ has the ability to inspire and motivate people to do more than they would normally do, despite obstacles and personal sacrifice.

ANS: charismatic leader

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 514 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

15. A(n) _____ leader is distinguished by a special ability to bring about innovation and change.

ANS: transformational

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 514 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

16. _____ is the potential ability to influence the behavior of others.

ANS: Power

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

17. Power coming from a formal management position in an organization and the authority granted to it is called _____.

ANS: legitimate power

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

18. Power that results from the authority to reward others is called _____.

ANS: reward power

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

19. Power that stems from the authority to punish or recommend punishment is called _____.

ANS: coercive power

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

20. Power resulting from a leader's special knowledge or skill regarding the tasks performed by followers is referred to as _____.

ANS: expert power

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 518 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

21. Power that results from characteristics that command subordinates' identification with, respect and admiration for and desire to emulate the leader is called _____.

ANS: referent power

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 518 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

SHORT ANSWER

1. List the two dimensions used in Blake and Mouton's Leadership Grid.

ANS:
The two dimensions are concern for people and concern for production.

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 503 OBJ: LO: 15-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

2. List the two types of personal power.

ANS:
Expert power and referent power.

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

ESSAY

1. What is the basic difference between consideration behavior and initiating structure behavior?

ANS:
The difference between these two major leadership behaviors is their focus. The focus of consideration behavior is people, with the leader being mindful of subordinates, respecting their ideas and feelings, and building trust. Initiating structure has a task orientation, with the leader directing subordinate work activities toward goal attainment, giving instructions, planning, and scheduling.

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 502 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

2. Describe the three situational elements under Fiedler's Contingency Theory that can be described as either favorable or unfavorable.

ANS:
Leader-member relations refers to group atmosphere and members' attitude toward and acceptance of the leader. Task structure refers to the extent to which tasks performed by the group are defined. Position power is the extent to which the leader has formal authority over subordinated.

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 507 OBJ: LO: 15-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Analysis

3. What three factors combine to create the situation in Fiedler's Leadership Contingency Theory? Explain each.

ANS:
The three factors are leader-member relations, task structure, and position power.

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 507 OBJ: LO: 15-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Analysis

4. Differentiate between a substitute and a neutralizer.

ANS:
A substitute is a situational variable that makes a leadership style unnecessary or redundant. A neutralizer is a situational variable that counteracts a leadership style and prevents the leader from displaying certain behaviors.

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 510 OBJ: LO: 15-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Analysis

5. Distinguish between charismatic and transformational leadership.

ANS:
A charismatic leader has the ability to motivate subordinates to transcend their expected performance. Vision, value, and trust mark their impact. They tend to have an emotional impact on followers. Transformational leaders are distinguished from charismatic leaders by their special ability to bring about innovation and change. They usually emerge to take an organization through a major strategic change, focusing on the intangible qualities that facilitate the change process.

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 511-513 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Analysis

6. Describe the five bases of power typical in organizations.

ANS:
The five bases of power are legitimate, reward, coercive, expert, and referent.

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

7. Describe the six interpersonal influence tactics for leaders.

ANS: 1. | Use rational persuasion. | 2. | Help people like you. | 3. | Rely on the rule of reciprocity. | 4. | Develop allies. | 5. | Be assertive--ask for what you want. | 6. | Make use of higher authority. | | |

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 519-520 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

Chapter 15—Leadership

TRUE/FALSE

1. Leadership occurs among people, involves the use of influence, and is used to attain goals.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 494 OBJ: LO: 15-01 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

2. Influence means that the relationship among people is passive.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 494 OBJ: LO: 15-01 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

3. The highest level in a hierarchy of manager capabilities refers to level 5 leadership.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 495 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

4. Interactive leadership means that the leader favors a consensual and collaborative process, and influence derives from relationships rather than position power and formal authority.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 498 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

5. Values associated with interactive leadership include personal confidence, exclusion, and independence.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 498 OBJ: LO: 15-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

6. Within a single individual, management and leadership reflect the same sets of qualities and skills that frequently overlap.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 498 OBJ: LO: 15-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

7. Good leadership is needed to help the organization meet current commitments, while good management is needed to move the organization in the future.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 498 OBJ: LO: 15-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

8. Authentic leadership refers to individuals who know and understand themselves, act consistently with high ethical values, and empower others.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 499 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

9. A leader who works to fulfill subordinates’ needs and goals as well as to achieve the organization's larger mission is called a servant leader.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 499 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

10. In a recent study, it was found that men were more capable of motivating others and producing high-quality work than women.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 499 OBJ: LO: 15-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

11. A situation would be considered highly favorable to the leader when tasks are highly unstructured and the leader has little formal authority.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 500 OBJ: LO: 15-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

12. Personal power, innovation, and nurturing are consistently viewed as manager qualities rather than leader qualities.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 500 OBJ: LO: 15-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

13. Three distinguishing personal characteristics associated with successful leaders are intelligence, honesty, and self-confidence.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 502 OBJ: LO: 15-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

14. Self-confidence, honesty and integrity, enthusiasm, and the desire to lead, are all intelligence and ability components of personal characteristics of leaders.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 502 OBJ: LO: 15-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

15. Ohio State University researchers identified two major behaviors called consideration and initiating structure.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 502 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

16. Consideration is the extent to which the leader is task oriented and directs subordinate work activities toward goal attainment.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 502 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

17. The extent to which the leader is mindful of subordinates, respects their ideas and feelings, and establishes mutual trust refers to initiating structure.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 502 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

18. Job-centered leaders are those leaders that establish high performance goals and display supportive behavior toward subordinates.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 503 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

19. The leadership grid suggests a two-dimensional leadership theory that measures a leader's concern for people and concern for production.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 503 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

20. The country club management style (1,9) stresses high service and concern for guests or customers, sometimes to the detriment of employees of the firm.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 503 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

21. Hersey and Blanchard's situational theory focuses a great deal of attention on the characteristics of employees in determining appropriate leadership behavior.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 504 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

22. Situational theory model focuses a great deal on the characteristics of followers, not those of the situation.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 504 OBJ: LO: 15-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

23. The telling style, according to Hersey and Blanchard, is appropriate for followers with moderate readiness.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 505 OBJ: LO: 15-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

24. Matching the leader's style with the situation by changing factors in the situation to achieve the best match is the basic idea with Fiedler's contingency theory.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 507 OBJ: LO: 15-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

25. Task Structure refers to the extent to which the leader has formal authority over subordinates.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 507 OBJ: LO: 15-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

26. The task-oriented leader, according to Fiedler, excels in the favorable situation whereas relationship-oriented leaders are most effective in situations of moderate favorability.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 507 OBJ: LO: 15-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

27. A substitute counteracts the leadership style and prevents the leader from displaying certain behaviors.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 510 OBJ: LO: 15-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

28. A situational variable that counteracts a leadership style and prevents the leader from displaying certain behaviors is called a neutralizer.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 510 OBJ: LO: 15-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

29. The relationship-oriented leader performs better in situations of intermediate favorability because human relations skills are important in achieving high group performance.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 510 OBJ: LO: 15-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

30. An inspirational leader who has the ability to motivate subordinates, through personal transactions, to transcend their normal performance refers to a transactional leader.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 513 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

31. The charismatic leader has the ability to motivate subordinates to transcend their expected performance.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 513 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

32. Charismatic leaders typically have a strong vision for the future and they can motivate others to help realize it.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 513 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

33. A transformational leader is a leader distinguished by a special ability to bring about innovation and change.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 513 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

34. Transformational leaders are hardworking, tolerant, and fair-minded, but are not as capable of leading change as are transactional leaders.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 513 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

35. The pragmatic survivor is a follower who participates actively in the organization but does not use critical thinking skills.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 515 OBJ: LO: 15-09 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

36. The alienated follower is a person who is an independent, critical thinker but is passive in the organization.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 515 OBJ: LO: 15-09 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

37. An active follower is characterized by a need for constant supervision.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 515 OBJ: LO: 15-09 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

38. Power is the potential ability to influence the behavior and decisions of other people.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 516 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

39. The type of power that results from the leader's legitimate authority, based upon his or her position within the organization, is called coercive power.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

40. The effective follower exhibits neither critical, independent thinking nor active participation.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

41. Influence is the effect a person's actions have on the attitudes, values, beliefs, or behavior of others.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

42. Legitimate, reward, and expert powers are all forms of position power.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

43. When Lonnie shouts at Kerry in public for not finishing her work and suspends her for two days, he is using his coercive power.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

44. Two types of personal powers are expert and reward powers.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 517-518 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

45. The type of power that results from political referrals is referent power.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 518 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

46. Rational persuasion is one interpersonal influence tactic available for leaders.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 519 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

47. Use of rational persuasion and making use of higher authority are two commonly used influence tactics.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 519 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

48. People who are entangled in a network of relationships have less power.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 520 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

49. Effective leaders develop networks of allies; people who can help the leader accomplish his or her goals.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 520 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

50. Research indicates people rate leaders as "more effective" when they are perceived to use one influence tactic.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 520 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. _____ is the ability to influence people toward the attainment of organizational goals. a. | Motivation | b. | Leadership | c. | Persuasion | d. | Commitment | e. | Organizational citizenship |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 494 OBJ: LO: 15-01 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

2. Leadership is reciprocal, according to your text. This means: a. | it is dynamic. | b. | it is a problem-solving activity. | c. | it occurs between people. | d. | redundant. | e. | it always creates conflict. |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 494 OBJ: LO: 15-01 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

3. _____ means being unpretentious and modest rather than arrogant and prideful. a. | Humility | b. | Egotism | c. | Altruism | d. | Reserved | e. | Assurance |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 495 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

4. Which of the following refers to the highest level in a hierarchy of manager capabilities? a. | Interactive leadership | b. | Creative leadership | c. | Level 5 leadership | d. | Postheroic leadership | e. | People-oriented leadership |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 495 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

5. The leader who builds an enduring great organization through a combination of personal humility and professional resolve is a _____ leader a. | Level 1 | b. | Level 2 | c. | Level 3 | d. | Level 4 | e. | Level 5 |

ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 495 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

6. The leader who builds widespread commitment to a clear and compelling vision and stimulates people to high performance is a _____ leader a. | Level 1 | b. | Level 2 | c. | Level 3 | d. | Level 4 | e. | Level 5 |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 495 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

7. Linda is viewed by her colleagues as someone who makes productive contributions through talent, knowledge, and good work habits, but she is sometimes hard to work with because of her communication style. Based on the Level 5 leadership spectrum, Linda would be placed in which category? a. | Level 1: Highly capable individual | b. | Level 2: Contributing team member | c. | Level 3: Competent manager | d. | Level 4: Effective leader | e. | Level 5: Level 5 executive |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 495 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

8. Ricky is well loved by his co-workers at Axel Cable Inc. He is viewed as having a great deal of humility, often giving credit for successes to other members of his team. As such, Ricky would be placed in which category of the Level 5 leadership spectrum? a. | Level 1: Highly capable individual | b. | Level 2: Contributing team member | c. | Level 3: Competent manager | d. | Level 4: Effective leader | e. | Level 5: Level 5 executive |

ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 495 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

9. A(n)_____ leader works to fulfill subordinated needs and goals as well as to achieve the organization's larger mission. a. | servant | b. | transactional | c. | transformational | d. | charismatic | e. | interactive |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 496 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

10. All of the following are major approaches to leadership EXCEPT: a. | Level 5 leadership. | b. | Servant leadership. | c. | Authentic leadership. | d. | Progressive leadership. | e. | Interactive leadership. |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 496 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

11. Jerome, a manager at Welford Nonprofit Group, is known for his selflessness and willingness to give to others. He likes working in the nonprofit sector because he wants to apply his skills and abilities to serve others who are less fortunate. Based on this information, which type of leader best describes Jerome? a. | Level 5 leader | b. | Servant leader | c. | Authentic leader | d. | Transformational leader | e. | Interactive leader |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 496 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

12. _____ leaders know and understand themselves, act consistently with high order ethical values, and empower and inspire others. a. | Level 5 | b. | Servant | c. | Authentic | d. | Transformational | e. | Interactive |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 496-497 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

13. Which of the following is NOT a valid component of authentic leadership? a. | Pursues purpose with passion | b. | Isolates self from others | c. | Leads with the heart as well as the head | d. | Demonstrates self-discipline | e. | Practices solid values |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 497 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

14. According to research, _____ typically score higher on social and emotional skills. a. | level 5 leaders | b. | women | c. | postheroic leaders | d. | men | e. | minorities |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 498 OBJ: LO: 15-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

15. At work, Sue Ellen favors a consensual and collaborative process, where influence derives from relationships rather than positions of power and formal authority. As such, she can best be viewed as what type of leader? a. | Level 5 | b. | Servant | c. | Authentic | d. | Transformational | e. | Interactive |

ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 498 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

16. All of the following are leadership qualities EXCEPT: a. | visionary. | b. | innovative. | c. | promotes change. | d. | structured. | e. | nurtures. |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 500 OBJ: LO: 15-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

17. Which of the following is NOT a manager quality? a. | Maintains stability | b. | Organizes | c. | Analyzes | d. | Rational | e. | Personal power |

ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 500 OBJ: LO: 15-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

18. The distinguishing personal characteristics of a leader are known as: a. | traits. | b. | sources of power. | c. | leadership styles. | d. | leadership behaviors. | e. | personal preferences. |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 501 OBJ: LO: 15-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

19. The early research on leadership traits was referred to as the: a. | contingency theory of leadership. | b. | path-goal theory of leadership. | c. | great man approach. | d. | situational theory of leadership. | e. | behavioral approach. |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 501 OBJ: LO: 15-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

20. In general, research has found a(n) _____ relationship between personal traits and leader success. a. | strong | b. | weak | c. | positive | d. | negative | e. | inverse |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 501 OBJ: LO: 15-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

21. Recently, Beagle Boutique was attempting to hire a middle manager. They were looking for an intelligent, active, and creative individual. Which approach to leadership was Beagle using? a. | The contingency approach | b. | The situational approach | c. | The trait approach | d. | The behavioral approach | e. | The substitute approach |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 501 OBJ: LO: 15-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

22. Which of the following characteristics of leaders have been studied? a. | Personality traits | b. | Physical traits | c. | Social traits | d. | Work-related traits | e. | all of these |

ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 501 OBJ: LO: 15-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

23. Self-confidence, honesty and integrity, and the desire to lead, are all components of which personal characteristic of leaders? a. | Physical characteristics | b. | Intelligence and Ability | c. | Personality | d. | Social Characteristics | e. | Social Background |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 501 OBJ: LO: 15-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

24. Colleen Farney at TeleTech shows vast knowledge, intelligence, cognitive ability, and keen decisiveness. Which personal characteristic of leadership is she showing? a. | Physical characteristics | b. | Intelligence and Ability | c. | Personality | d. | Social Characteristics | e. | Social Background |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 501 OBJ: LO: 15-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

25. Researchers at the Ohio State University identified two major behaviors called: a. | commitment and consideration. | b. | commitment and initiation. | c. | consideration and initiating structure. | d. | initiating structure and commitment. | e. | consideration and concern for people. |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 501 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

26. Wilson is viewed by his boss as driven, tenacious, and hardworking in the pursuit of his goals. These characteristics fit within which category? a. | Physical characteristics | b. | Intelligence and ability | c. | Work-related characteristics | d. | Social background | e. | Social characteristics |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 501 OBJ: LO: 15-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

27. Megan is a manager at Botell International. She is very friendly and extremely respectful of her subordinate's welfare. She can be described as: a. | high in initiating structure. | b. | low in initiating structure. | c. | high in consideration. | d. | a team leader. | e. | task-oriented manager. |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 502 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

28. Which of the following is consistent with initiating structure? a. | Task oriented behavior | b. | Open communication | c. | Teamwork oriented | d. | People oriented behavior | e. | Country-club management style |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 502 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

29. _____ are natural talents and abilities that have been supported and reinforced with learned knowledge and skills and provide each individual with his or her best tools for accomplishment and satisfaction. a. | Strengths | b. | Traits | c. | Characteristics | d. | Abilities | e. | Leadership tendencies |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 502 OBJ: LO: 15-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

30. The Michigan researchers used the term _____ for leaders who established high performance goals and displayed supportive behavior toward subordinates. a. | job-centered leaders | b. | employee-centered leaders | c. | initiating structure | d. | consideration | e. | impoverished management |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 503 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

31. The less effective leaders, in the University of Michigan studies, were called: a. | job-centered leaders. | b. | employee-centered leaders. | c. | initiating structure. | d. | consideration. | e. | impoverished management. |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 503 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

32. _____ and _____ proposed a two dimensional leadership theory called the Managerial Grid. a. | Blake; Mouton | b. | Hersey; Blanchard | c. | Vroom; Yetton | d. | Tannenbaum; Schmidt | e. | Evans; House |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 503 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

33. The recommended management style from the leadership grid is _____. a. | 1,9 | b. | 9,1 | c. | 5,5 | d. | 1,1 | e. | 9,9 |

ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 503 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

34. Which of these, according to the leadership grid, is a 1,9 management style? a. | Team Management | b. | Country Club Management | c. | Middle of the Road Management | d. | Impoverished Management | e. | Authority-Compliance |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 503 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

35. _____ reflects a moderate amount of concern for both people and production. a. | Team Management | b. | Country Club Management | c. | Middle of the Road Management | d. | Impoverished Management | e. | Authority-Compliance |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 503 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

36. According to the Leadership Grid, which of the following occurs when efficiency in operations is the dominant orientation? a. | Team Management | b. | Country Club Management | c. | Middle of the Road Management | d. | Impoverished Management | e. | Authority-Compliance |

ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 503 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

37. The Leadership Grid used the two leader behaviors which were called: a. | employee-centered and job centered. | b. | consideration and initiating structure. | c. | concern for people and concern for production. | d. | relationship-oriented and task-oriented. | e. | employee-oriented and relationship oriented. |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 503 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

38. According to the leadership grid, _____ means the absence of a management philosophy, where managers exert little effort toward interpersonal relationships or work accomplishment. a. | solitary management | b. | middle-of-the-road management | c. | low-road management | d. | authority-compliance management | e. | impoverished management |

ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 503 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

39. Sandra views herself as a tough but fair supervisor. She gives explicit directions to her subordinates about how tasks should be accomplished, but is not always approachable when they come to her with questions. Her employees sometimes feel that she is too gruff and impersonal. Which category on the situational leadership grid does Sandra fit into? a. | Following style | b. | Delegating style | c. | Participating style | d. | Telling style | e. | Selling style |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 503 OBJ: LO: 15-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

40. The key assumption of Hersey and Blanchard's situational theory is that subordinates vary in their: a. | readiness level. | b. | satisfaction level. | c. | level of commitment. | d. | level of security. | e. | all of these. |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 504 OBJ: LO: 15-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

41. Hersey and Blanchard are responsible for which theory? a. | Theory of leadership | b. | ERG Theory | c. | Situational theory | d. | Contingency theory | e. | Leadership |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 504 OBJ: LO: 15-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

42. Which of the following is a model of leadership that describes the relationship between leadership styles and specific organizational situations? a. | Contingency approach | b. | Behavioral approach | c. | Trait approach | d. | Organizational approach | e. | None of these |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 504 OBJ: LO: 15-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

43. According to the situational theory of Hersey and Blanchard, which of the following leader styles matches up best with low readiness subordinates? a. | Delegating style | b. | Selling style | c. | Telling style | d. | Participating style | e. | None of these |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 504 OBJ: LO: 15-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

44. Ryan is a manager at Steve's Stoneworks, Inc. Hersey and Blanchard would consider most of his subordinates highly ready. Based on this, which of the following leadership styles is best for Ryan? a. | Participating | b. | Delegating | c. | Selling | d. | Telling | e. | Forcing |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 506 OBJ: LO: 15-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

45. _____ works best for employees with moderate readiness, according to Hersey and Blanchard. a. | Selling and telling | b. | Telling and participating | c. | Selling and participating | d. | Telling and delegating | e. | Selling and delegating |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 506 OBJ: LO: 15-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

46. Two leadership styles used by Fiedler in his contingency theory were: a. | employee-centered and job-centered. | b. | consideration and initiating structure. | c. | concern for people and concern for production. | d. | relationship-oriented and task-oriented. | e. | employee-oriented and relations-oriented. |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 507 OBJ: LO: 15-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

47. Fiedler used all of the following to describe how leaders fit the situation EXCEPT: a. | leader-member relations. | b. | task structure. | c. | personal power. | d. | leader position power. | e. | all of these were used by Fiedler to describe the situation. |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 507 OBJ: LO: 15-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

48. In situations of _____, according to Fiedler, relationship-oriented leaders are more effective. a. | high favorability | b. | moderate favorability | c. | high unfavorability | d. | no favorability | e. | none of these |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 507 OBJ: LO: 15-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

49. Which of the following refers to group atmosphere and members' attitude toward and acceptance of the leader? a. | Task structure | b. | Leader relations | c. | Contingency | d. | Position power | e. | Leader-member relations |

ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 507 OBJ: LO: 15-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

50. According to MANAGER'S SHOPTALK in Chapter 15, when delegating leaders do all of the following EXCEPT: a. | delegate the whole task. | b. | maintain feedback. | c. | give thorough instructions. | d. | work alone to accomplish important tasks. | e. | evaluate and reward performance. |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 508 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

51. A _____ is a situational variable that makes a leadership style unnecessary or redundant. a. | neutralizer | b. | substitute | c. | contingency | d. | transaction | e. | transformation |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 510 OBJ: LO: 15-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

52. Ahmad is a new manager at AJ Homes Company. He has absolutely no experience as a manager nor does he know the technology of his department well. These two factors prevent Ahmad from directing his workforce. This is an example of _____ impacting leadership styles and behaviors. a. | substitutes | b. | neutralizers | c. | contingencies | d. | citizenship | e. | transformation |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 510 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

53. Which of the following types of leader is one who has the ability to motivate subordinates to transcend their expected performance? a. | Transactional | b. | Charismatic | c. | Traditional | d. | Supportive | e. | Team |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 511 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

54. Marion is a great manager and he has a number of special skills. In particular, Marion has the ability to get his subordinates to do more than would be normally expected. Which of the following terms best describes Marion? a. | Transactional leader | b. | Supportive leader | c. | Charismatic leader | d. | People-oriented leader | e. | Production-oriented leader |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 511 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

55. “A fire that ignites followers” is used to describe which leadership characteristic? a. | Vision | b. | Charisma | c. | Service | d. | Tenacity | e. | Authority |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 511 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

56. Charismatic leaders are often _____ than transactional leaders. a. | less emotional | b. | more predictable | c. | less predictable | d. | more directive | e. | none of these |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 511 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

57. Some of the key characteristics associated with charismatic leaders include: a. | visionary skills. | b. | communication skills. | c. | motivation skills. | d. | all of these. | e. | none of these. |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 511 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

58. Andy’s subordinates say that they love working for Andy because he inspires them to not only believe in the organization but to believe in their own potential as well. Based on this example, Andy can best be described as what type of leader? a. | Transformational | b. | Servant | c. | Authentic | d. | Transactional | e. | Interactive |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 513 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

59. The _____ leader is distinguished by his/her ability to bring about organizational change. a. | transformational | b. | participative | c. | charismatic | d. | achievement-oriented | e. | people-oriented leader |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 513 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

60. Which type of leader clarifies the role and task requirements of subordinates? a. | Transactional | b. | Charismatic | c. | Transformational | d. | Supportive | e. | Team |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 513 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

61. Which of the following is a passive, independent, critical thinker? a. | Conformist | b. | Passive follower | c. | Pragmatic survivor | d. | Effective follower | e. | Alienated follower |

ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 515 OBJ: LO: 15-09 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

62. Which of the following is a follower who participates actively in the organization but does not use critical thinking skills? a. | Passive follower | b. | Effective follower | c. | Alienated follower | d. | Conformist | e. | Pragmatic survivor |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 515 OBJ: LO: 15-09 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

63. One of Ruby’s few flaws is that she does not consider possibilities beyond what she is told, accepting her supervisor’s ideas without thinking. She can best be described as what type of thinker? a. | Transformational | b. | Servant | c. | Uncritical | d. | Transactional | e. | Critical |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 515 OBJ: LO: 15-09 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

64. Which of these is the potential ability to influence the behavior of others? a. | Leadership | b. | Management | c. | Power | d. | Control | e. | Motivation |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 516 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

65. _____ power comes from organizational structure and promotes stability, order, and problem solving within the structure. a. | Motivation | b. | Position | c. | Leadership | d. | Control | e. | Referent |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 516 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

66. _____ power comes from personal sources that are not as invested in the organization, such as personal interests, goals, and values. a. | Motivation | b. | Management | c. | Personal | d. | Control | e. | Positional |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

67. Which of the following is the power coming from a formal management position in the organization? a. | Referent power | b. | Coercive power | c. | Reward power | d. | Legitimate power | e. | Expert power |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

68. Ian does not have much of a relationship with his subordinates. They feel obligated to do as he says because he's the boss. This is an example of: a. | referent power. | b. | legitimate power. | c. | coercive power. | d. | reward power. | e. | expert power. |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

69. Candice uses praise, letters of support, and pats on the back as ways of influencing her subordinate's behaviors. All of these actions are highly valued by the work group. This is an example of: a. | coercive power. | b. | legitimate power. | c. | reward power. | d. | expert power. | e. | referent power. |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

70. _____ power is based in the ability of the leader to do such things as recommend promotions. a. | Coercive | b. | Expert | c. | Reward | d. | Referent | e. | Personal |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

71. Which of the following types of power is vested in the manager's ability to punish employees? a. | Coercive | b. | Reward | c. | Expert | d. | Referent | e. | Personal |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

72. Beth, a middle manager at Heather's Handbags, uses threats and punishments as ways of influencing the behavior of his subordinates. Which of the following sources of power is Beth relying on? a. | Reward power | b. | Coercive power | c. | Expert power | d. | Referent power | e. | Personal power |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

73. Which of the following types of power stems from a leader's special knowledge? a. | Reward power | b. | Referent power | c. | Legitimate power | d. | Coercive power | e. | None of these |

ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

74. Referent power depends on the leader's: a. | formal title. | b. | position in the hierarchy. | c. | personal characteristics. | d. | salary. | e. | reward power. |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

75. All of the following are essential parts of any definition of leadership EXCEPT: a. | influence. | b. | people. | c. | goals. | d. | coercive power. | e. | influence and people only. |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

76. Peter has the ability to convince others to work toward organizational objectives. This ability is known as _____. a. | motivation | b. | leadership | c. | commitment | d. | a conceptual skill | e. | personal agenda |

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

77. Which of the following is the most frequently used and a highly effective influence strategy? a. | Using rational persuasion | b. | Rewarding desired behaviors | c. | Relying on the rule of reciprocity | d. | Making people like you | e. | Developing allies |

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 519 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

78. When leaders influence others through the exchange of benefits or favors, which influence tactic is being used? a. | Develop allies | b. | Use rational persuasion | c. | Make people like you | d. | Rule of reciprocity | e. | Reward behaviors |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 519 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

79. The six interpersonal influence tactics for leaders include all of the following EXCEPT: a. | use rational persuasion. | b. | rely on the rule of reciprocity. | c. | develop allies. | d. | do not worry about people liking you. | e. | reward the behaviors you want. |

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 519-520 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

80. All of the following are interpersonal influence tactics EXCEPT: a. | reward the behaviors you want. | b. | develop allies. | c. | rely on the rule of demand. | d. | make use of higher authority. | e. | ask for what you want. |

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Easy REF: 520 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

CASE

Scenario - Barry Bailey

The mandatory leadership-training seminar had just been concluded. All of the newly promoted managers at Marc's Music, Inc. had been asked to attend and participate in the two-day seminar, and Barry Bailey had been fascinated with what she had learned. She is now reviewing the material she covered.

1. Barry will develop strong skills in working with her people and also strong ability in accomplishing the task achieving the goals of Marc's Music. On the managerial grid, her style will be: a. | 1,1. | b. | 9,9. | c. | 9,1. | d. | 1,9. | e. | 5,5. |

ANS: b PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 495 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

2. Barry recognizes that her power can come from five sources, including all of the following EXCEPT: a. | referent power. | b. | reward power. | c. | coercive power. | d. | mechanistic power. | e. | All of the sources of power. |

ANS: d PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 497 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

3. Barry learns of a recent study on gender differences in leadership behaviors. In which area of leadership do women score more highly than men? a. | Motivating others | b. | Fostering communication | c. | Producing high-quality work | d. | Listening to others | e. | All of the above |

ANS: e PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 498 OBJ: LO: 15-03 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

4. To become a level 5 leader, Barry would have to hone which personal characteristic? a. | Humility | b. | Tenacity | c. | Ruthlessness | d. | Drive | e. | Ego |

ANS: a PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 512 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Application

COMPLETION

1. The ability to influence people toward the attainment of goals is known as _____.

ANS: leadership

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 494 OBJ: LO: 15-01 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

2. _____ leadership transcends self interest to serve others and the organization.

ANS: Servant

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 496 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

3. In _____, the leader favors a consensual and collaborative process, and influence derives from relationships rather than position power and formal authority.

ANS: interactive leadership

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 498 OBJ: LO: 15-02 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

4. _____ are the distinguishing personal characteristics of a leader, such as intelligence, values, and appearance.

ANS: Traits

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 501 OBJ: LO: 15-04 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

5. _____ is the extent to which the leader is mindful of subordinates, respects their ideas and feelings, and establishes mutual trust.

ANS: Consideration

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 502 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

6. _____ is the extent to which the leader is task oriented and directs subordinates’ work activities toward goal attainment.

ANS: Initiating structure

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 502 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

7. _____, according to the Leadership Grid, occurs when efficiency in operations is the dominant orientation.

ANS: Authority-Compliance

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 503 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

8. A model of leadership that describes the relationship between leadership styles and specific organizational situations is called a(n) _____ approach.

ANS: contingency approach

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 503 OBJ: LO: 15-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

9. According to Hersey and Blanchard, _____ and _____ works best for employees with moderate readiness.

ANS: selling; participating participating; selling

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 503 OBJ: LO: 15-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

10. A contingency approach to leadership that links the leader's behavioral style with the task readiness of subordinates is called the _____.

ANS: situational theory

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 504 OBJ: LO: 15-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

11. A(n) _____ for leadership makes the leadership style unnecessary or redundant.

ANS: substitute

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 510 OBJ: LO: 15-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

12. A situational variable that counteracts a leadership style is known as a(n) _____.

ANS: neutralizer

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 510 OBJ: LO: 15-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

13. _____ clarify the role and task requirements of subordinates, initiate structure, provide appropriate rewards, and try to be considerate to and meet the social needs of subordinates.

ANS: Transactional leaders

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 513 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

14. The _____ has the ability to inspire and motivate people to do more than they would normally do, despite obstacles and personal sacrifice.

ANS: charismatic leader

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 514 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

15. A(n) _____ leader is distinguished by a special ability to bring about innovation and change.

ANS: transformational

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 514 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

16. _____ is the potential ability to influence the behavior of others.

ANS: Power

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

17. Power coming from a formal management position in an organization and the authority granted to it is called _____.

ANS: legitimate power

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

18. Power that results from the authority to reward others is called _____.

ANS: reward power

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

19. Power that stems from the authority to punish or recommend punishment is called _____.

ANS: coercive power

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

20. Power resulting from a leader's special knowledge or skill regarding the tasks performed by followers is referred to as _____.

ANS: expert power

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 518 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

21. Power that results from characteristics that command subordinates' identification with, respect and admiration for and desire to emulate the leader is called _____.

ANS: referent power

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 518 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

SHORT ANSWER

1. List the two dimensions used in Blake and Mouton's Leadership Grid.

ANS:
The two dimensions are concern for people and concern for production.

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 503 OBJ: LO: 15-06 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

2. List the two types of personal power.

ANS:
Expert power and referent power.

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Knowledge

ESSAY

1. What is the basic difference between consideration behavior and initiating structure behavior?

ANS:
The difference between these two major leadership behaviors is their focus. The focus of consideration behavior is people, with the leader being mindful of subordinates, respecting their ideas and feelings, and building trust. Initiating structure has a task orientation, with the leader directing subordinate work activities toward goal attainment, giving instructions, planning, and scheduling.

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 502 OBJ: LO: 15-05 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

2. Describe the three situational elements under Fiedler's Contingency Theory that can be described as either favorable or unfavorable.

ANS:
Leader-member relations refers to group atmosphere and members' attitude toward and acceptance of the leader. Task structure refers to the extent to which tasks performed by the group are defined. Position power is the extent to which the leader has formal authority over subordinated.

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 507 OBJ: LO: 15-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Analysis

3. What three factors combine to create the situation in Fiedler's Leadership Contingency Theory? Explain each.

ANS:
The three factors are leader-member relations, task structure, and position power.

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Difficult REF: 507 OBJ: LO: 15-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Analysis

4. Differentiate between a substitute and a neutralizer.

ANS:
A substitute is a situational variable that makes a leadership style unnecessary or redundant. A neutralizer is a situational variable that counteracts a leadership style and prevents the leader from displaying certain behaviors.

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 510 OBJ: LO: 15-07 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Analysis

5. Distinguish between charismatic and transformational leadership.

ANS:
A charismatic leader has the ability to motivate subordinates to transcend their expected performance. Vision, value, and trust mark their impact. They tend to have an emotional impact on followers. Transformational leaders are distinguished from charismatic leaders by their special ability to bring about innovation and change. They usually emerge to take an organization through a major strategic change, focusing on the intangible qualities that facilitate the change process.

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 511-513 OBJ: LO: 15-08 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Analysis

6. Describe the five bases of power typical in organizations.

ANS:
The five bases of power are legitimate, reward, coercive, expert, and referent.

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 517 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

7. Describe the six interpersonal influence tactics for leaders.

ANS: 1. | Use rational persuasion. | 2. | Help people like you. | 3. | Rely on the rule of reciprocity. | 4. | Develop allies. | 5. | Be assertive--ask for what you want. | 6. | Make use of higher authority. | | |

PTS: 1 DIF: Difficulty: Moderate REF: 519-520 OBJ: LO: 15-10 NAT: BUSPROG: Analytic STA: DISC: Leadership Principles KEY: Bloom's: Comprehension

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