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Planning and Implementation of Library Automation Bangladesh Perspective

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Planning and implementation of Library Automation
Bangladesh perspective

Prepared by
M Hossam Haider Chowdhury
Associate Librarian, Independent University, Bangladesh (IUB)

Workshop on “Digitization of Medical Library and Information Services”, 2002, Mohakhali, Dhaka

Automation, i.e., dependency on machine, has remarkable influence at our work place. With the help of machine people perform their job comfortably and quickly and ultimately it increases people’s efficiency and effectiveness. In case of library the term “automation” basically means computerization of library activity. Computer influences all fields of human activity. Pandey S.K. Sharma describes influence of computer very nicely in his book on library automation.

“The invention and increasing use of computers in various fields of human activity is witness to the fact that the computer is considered to be essential component for all-round development. Computers’ entry and its continuance in almost all fields of human endeavor is due to its invincible qualities, viz., the splendid speed to act in nano-second, the superb capabilities to do unmanageable and impossible looking things, the unlimited capacity to store ocean of information on to tiny storage mediums, immense capability to perform repetitive jobs without fatigue, the radical power to sort, arrange, retrieve and disseminate information almost instantaneously etc., etc. Day by day it is becoming more and more indispensable for the society and has swayed all fields of human activities. Its use in the library is the need of the day and its application will certainly increase the use and utility of libraries.”9

Benefits of library automation

Increases storage capacity Organizes huge information easily and quickly Disseminates information efficiently Makes resource sharing easy and quick Avoids waste of time in repetitive works Accommodates increase work load with the available frame Increases communication facility Empowers access to information Ensures timely access to learning resources Opens avenue of better education Saves time of library personnel and users Increases performance of individual Facilitates marketing of library services Provides facility to surf on ocean of information Benefits the organization/institution and society

Areas for library automation

1. Administration and maintenance: Following tasks may be computerized: - Making employee’s directory - Duty chart - Duty roster for weekend/holidays - Record of committees - Library rules - Periodical statistics - Periodical reports - Stock verification - Leave record of employees - Internal office order

2. Acquisition - Vendor directory - List of books recommended - List of books approved - Placing orders to vendors - Receiving items’ list - Accessioning - Integration of Acquisition data with other library service modules

3. Classification: Though selection of notation is done manually, but the computer can support with respective key word. Stored classification number can show what is/are the key word(s) involved with same notation selected before.

4. Cataloguing - Integration with acquisition module - Printing catalogue cards - Searching a document from different angles - Preparing reading list on the basis of catalog - Establishing open access catalog with user friendly menus

5. Circulation - Integrating with acquisition and cataloging modules - Issue and return of library materials with use of ID number for materials and borrowers - Impose maximum limit of materials to be issued to a particular borrower - Maintaining different category of borrowers with different borrowing limits - Over ride the maximum limit if necessary - Show/print/e-mail reminder in respect of overdue books in a language preferred by the library, on time basis and user basis. - Charging/discharging with barcode - Inter library loan

6. Serial control - Input of bibliographic detail of periodicals - Output on various forms (such as consolidate list, subject wise list, frequency wise list, country of origin wise list etc.) - Editing, addition, deletion etc. - Search a particular issue - Issue reminder in respect of missing issues - Input articles’ information - Searching articles from different ways

7. Documentation - CAS - SDI - Preparation of subject bibliography - Electronic alert service

8. Electronic access - In house digitization - CD library - The Internet - Surfing - Subscription to electronic journals and libraries - Web page maintenance

9. Networking - LAN - MAN - WAN

(Most of the above points are taken from Mr. Sharma’s book. For detail description one may consult with his library automation book.)

Library database software

On the basis of one’s need and ability in terms of resources and skill, the area for automation will be considered. Acquisition, cataloguing and circulation modules of computerization are frequently used in any library. One can even start computerization from cataloguing module and then initiate for circulation and acquisition modules respectively. But small or a new library may start form acquisition module and then go for catalogue and circulation module. Gradually the library can go for other modules.

For having modules, i.e., software, one may purchase from reputed vendor or develop internally. There are many tested library software in the market. Internationally reputed software is very expensive. Readymade software facilitates to have it in hand quickly. Being these software are already been tested, there is little possibility to disturb at the implementation phase and needs little maintenance initiative. Some vendors in Dhaka developed library software for some organizations or universities. Those are yet in test phase. But these Bangladeshi library software are comparatively cheaper. Dhaka University and Parliament Library procured internationally reputed software which is costly. Small or medium size library cannot effort to buy such software. In house development of software takes time, it can be one year or more. The software development process goes through system analysis, programme development, testing, implementation and maintenance. So skill manpower is needed not only for development but for maintenance also.

In the meantime some libraries, such as libraries of Independent University, Bangladesh (IUB), North South University, American International University, etc., developed their own database as per local need. As far I know none of these are complete library database. These databases mostly concentrate on circulation system of the library.

Library with economic hardship may write to UNESCO for CDS/ISIS software which is available with no cost. This particular software can be used for library catalogue at least. Working with CDS/ISIS will be a nice start for library computerization. However let us point out some qualities of a library application software6:

- DBMS features - High level integration - Data entry facility - Data updating/Editing - Search/Enquires with Boolean expression - Facility for developing query with structured query language by the user - Report/Display/Print - Menu driven and user friendly - Exchange compatibility; CCF, MARC, etc., even text - Reputation of sponsoring agency - Scope of local variation - Network compatible - Internet compatibility

Other software

Operating software: Windows 98, Windows 2000 professional, Macintosh OS, OS2, etc.
Operating software for Server: Windows 2000 Server, Novel, Linux, Unix, etc.
Word processing software: Word 97, Word 2000, WordPerfect, etc.
Database software: MS Access, Oracle, FoxPro, dBase, etc.

Hardware Requirement

Whatever software we take that will be installed in a computer. Now-a-days personal computer is very popular. Depending on the area of computerization, number of computers and work load, one library needs to plan for hardware procurement. Given bellow high and low performance computers specification and price:

Table 1: High Performance Computer (Estimated price)
|Components of computers |Price in Taka |
|Pentium IV Processor 1.2 GHz /Mother Board /RD RAM |23,700.00 |
|AGP 128 Gforce Ultra (with vedio in/out, capture, 3D glass) |48,000.00 |
|Zip drive |6,000.00 |
|HDD |5,600.00 |
|FDD |550.00 |
|DVD & CD Player (player & writer capacity 2.4GB |34,000.00 |
|Sound card creative platinum gold |25,000.00 |
|Speaker Boss 36 series |1,20,000.00 |
|Monitor LCD Display 17” |45,000.00 |
|Casing |4,500.00 |
|Mouse and Keyboard (wireless) |7,000.00 |
|UPS 1hr backup |25,000.00 |
|HP Colour laser Printer |90,000.00 |
| |3,34,351.00 |

Table 2: Low Performance Computer (Estimated price)
|Components of computers |Price in Taka |
|AMD K6 II 500 Mhz |2,800.00 |
|Motherboard |2,700.00 |
|RAM 128 MB |1,200.00 |
|AGP 16 MB |1,200.00 |
|FDD |550.00 |
|HDD |4,500.00 |
|CD ROM 52X |2,400.00 |
|Sound card creative vibra 128 |1,200.00 |
|Speaker |1,100.00 |
|Monitor 15” |6,700.00 |
|Keuboard & Mouse |500.00 |
|Casing |1,700.00 |
|Stabilizer |2,000.00 |
|Canon BJC 2000 Printer |2,400.00 |
| |30,950.00 |

Number of computers to be procured depends on load of use, facilities available and space of the library. Dedicated computers may be needed for catalogue or OPAC. Library having busy circulation unit will need separate workstations or PCs. Naturally in large library every section, in fact almost all persons of a section, needs independent PCs. The CD/AV section (if any) should have multimedia computers. All PCs may be connected through local area network (LAN). Star topology in LAN gives better performance. So at least a server will be needed to dominate the LAN. A large library may have several servers to perform specific job by a specific server, such as database server for maintaining central database. Star topology needs hub or switch which connects computers through cables. Of course some other accessories, i.e., network card, connector, etc., will also be needed for LAN. For better security one library may decide to use Unix operating system; in such case Unix machine should be procured.

Some other hardware may also be needed. Barcode reader or chips technology for circulation is essential for automated charging/discharging system. Scanner for scanning internal resources may be procured with a cost of Tk.7,000.00. CD writers are a useful addon for library. Library can make backups, save different databases and make copies of CD-ROMs for internal use with the CD writer. Medical library may keep medical records and photographs on CD-ROMs. Costing around Tk.25,000.00 medical library may procure digital camera with which the picture are simply copied from camera to PC.

Connecting with ISP

The Internet is now-a-days becoming an important, probably integral, part of a library. For the internet connection one library needs to have connection with the Internet Service Provider (ISP). Broadband connection proves efficiency over the dialup connection. Consider higher bandwidth for establishing cyber café section in your library. A list of Internet Service Provider given bellow (this list is taken from the web site of and form national daily the Independent 2002 July 14:p.9):

Dhaka : Access Telecom (Bangladesh) Ltd. Agni Systems Ltd. Aftab IT Ltd. Bangladesh Computer Council Bangladesh Online Ltd. Bdcom Online Ltd. Bijoy Online Ltd. Brac Bdmail Network CIMA Ltd. ConnectBD Ltd. Cyber Acts IT Ltd. Datanet Corporation Ltd. Dhakacom Ltd. Dotcom Network Drik Online Ltd. E-Net Communications Ltd. Fast Net Global link Telecommunication Ltd. Global online Services Ltd. Gonophone Grameen Cybernet Ltd. Grmeenphone Bangladesh Ltd. HRC Technologies Ltd. IDS Bangladesh Ltd. Information Services Network Ltd. InTech Online Ltd. KLBD Online Link-3 Technologies Ltd. Maisha Technologies Ltd. NCLL Network Computer Line Ltd Pradeshta Ltd. Proshika Prositel Bangladesh Ltd. Ranks ITT Raspit Data Management and Tele Ltd. Span Internetworks Ltd. Spark Systems Ltd. Spectra Solutions Ltd. Square Informatics Ltd. Techcious Electronics Tetrod (Bangladesh) Ltd Trans-Net Systems Ltd. Vas Digital Communications Ltd. Westec Ltd. Western Network Ltd. Your Cyber Gateway

Chittagong: AB Online Global Information Network(BD) Ltd. Gonophone Bangladesh Ltd. Echi-Net Ltd. ITech SpectraNet Spectra Solutions Ltd. Zero One

Khulna Information Services Network Ltd.

Rajshahi: LibraBd.Net Three Sons System Ltd.

Sylhet Bill Communications BTS Comminications (BD) Ltd. Gonophone Bangladesh Ltd. Spectra Solutions Sylhet Communication System Sysltech Vally Wester Network Ltd.

Cox’sBazar Grameen Shakhti

Power support

Power failure is a normal phenomenon in our country. The country is facing power shortage so we need to live with this problem. UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) is a solution for a short period. Power back up for long period IPS (Instant Power Service) may be installed with UPS. Rahim Afroz of Bangladesh is producing IPS.


Securing libraries hard copy library may introduce the Integrated Book Protection System. This system installs sensor at the exit door of the library and affix labels in side the cover page of the books. Only sensor gate costs around Tk.6,00,000.00.

Human Resource Development

Computerized system is not a substitute for personnel. It is just a tool for managing library activity. Success of computerized system depends upon how effectively it is used by the people in performing their activity. These people should be trained properly. Very good system may flop due to mishandling of the system. Without appropriate personnel the system output cannot be maximized. In fact before procuring or developing a computerized system people working in libraries should become familiar with computers and computerized database system. This familiarity will help the library to procure or develop and install appropriate system. The system then can be run with a very little disturbance. Sustainability of the system depends on efficient and effective manpower. Of course appropriate and logical salary and status should be ensured to the skilled manpower for the sake of sustainability of the system.

Case of IUB Library Automation

Library of the Independent University, Bangladesh (IUB) has been utilizing information technology since 1993. At that time the IUB Library used DOS version CDS/ISIS for its catalogue. The IUB Library never use card catalogue. One computer of the IUB Library was engaged for both bibliographic search and information processing. In every succeeding year the library received at least one computer. In the year 2002 IUB Library received five computers at a time. Now it has twelve computers and one server, one twelve-port hub, one eight-port switch and a transceiver. In 1998 January the IUB Library received windows version of CDS/ISIS, i.e., WINISIS. After that the library’s main database is maintained with the WINISIS. Being CDS/ISIS has little capacity for number manipulation, the library developed a circulation system with the Microsoft Access to ensure putting automatic due date, calculate fines, etc. and installed it in mid 2000. The library also developed a separate system with MS Access for acquisition in 1999. For recording students’ roster work the IUB Library developed another system with MS Access in 1998. Microsoft Access again has limitation. Huge data makes it drastically slower. Finally the library decided to migrate into Oracle. Two IUB computer science students worked for developing a circulation software as part of their internship. They keep Oracle in backend and use Visual Basic in front end. They named it Librarium. It is now running. But yet it needs further development to make it a complete circulation software. For reporting we are depending on Crystal Report software. Yet we continue to keep our WINISIS database. There is a mechanism for transferring database from WINISIS to Librarium.


There are some limitations of computerized system that may still remain in spite of best efforts taken in the development process. Information technology is growing very fast. So even the most advanced system bears some risk of becoming obsolete. Though flexibility is an important characteristic of computerization system yet it takes some effort to change the system. So it put some obstacles to any change process in the organization. Innovativeness and intuition of persons based on experience are very important for development. But computer lacks this ability which is the hallmark of a successful person. The other limitation of computerization is data entry, which is a slow manual operation. In spite of all the progress made in the field of information technology, we are still away from truly paperless office.5


How large could be a library? The limit in fact could be the sky. But resource constrain gives us no chance to touch the sky. I want to quote from Mr. Pandey again:

“No library can think of getting additional space every year, although collection will grow continuously. Weeding of library materials is a small solution because these cannot be weeded out as speedily as these are acquired. Computer application can solve this problem, as computer is capable of storing huge bulk of information on tiny storage mediums. Catalogue of the library can be stored easily on the primary/internal memory/storage mediums. Text of old volumes of serials, bulky reference books etc. can be stored in CD/ROM. Serials, abstracts, indexing periodicals etc. are already available in CD/ROM.”9

E-library provides access facility to other libraries and its users. Instead of acquiring library may try to have access to e-libraries elsewhere. IFLA 2003 Conference, Berlin, selects “Access Point Library” as its primary theme. Future library may be the centre for accessing into electronic resources. To prepare ourselves for future we should implement computerized system in our libraries. Commercial cyber café may come up to take the responsibility of information service. But they may not find subscription to e-resources feasible for their business. It’s the library’s duty to take appropriate step for smooth accessing to relevant resources and support research of the country and ensure people for the authentic information and their sources. Benefits of information technology can be reached to a broader range of users who would miss the opportunity to participate in the information age through the library.


1. Bangladesh ISP Discussion Board 2. Gomez, Ricardo; Ospina, Anilica. The lamp without a genie : using telecenters for development without expecting miracles. In: The Journal of Development Communication 2001 Dec; 12(2):p. 3. Jensen, Mike. Information technology and infrastructure for telecenters : combining best practice with new developments. In: The Journal of Development Communication 2001 Dec; 12(2):p.130-137 4. Leintz, BP; Rea, KP. Data communications for business. St. Louis : Times Mirror/Mosby Coilege Publishing, 1987. 5. Mishra, J; Mohanty, A. Design of information systems ; a modern approach. New Delhi : Narosa Publishing House, 2000. 6. The new access codes for the ISP houses. In: The Independent 2002 July 14 : p.9 7. Post, GV; Anderson, DL. Management information system. 2nd edn. Boston : Irwin McGraw-Hill, 2000. 8. Schultheis, R; Sumner, M. Management information system : the manager’s view. 3rd edn. Chicago : Irwin, 1995. 9. Sharma, Pandey S. Fundamentals of library automation. New Delhi : Ess Ess Publications, 1995.

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...[pic] Department of Accounting Term Paper On [pic] (Value Added Tax) Submitted To – Supervisor Mrs. Ummea Hazera Khatun Assistant Professor Department of Accounting Lalmatia Mahila College Submitted By – Nilima Akther BBA (Honor’s) 2nd year Roll No. - 9808944 Registration No. – 1860636 Session – 2010-2011 Department of Accounting Lalmatia Mahila College Date of Submission – 21 May 2014 Acknowledgement At first I would like to express my gratitude to the almighty Allah. It is the part of BBA program to submit a term paper. And as a student of BBA program of Lalmatia Mahila College, I have to submit a term paper report. My term paper topic is “Value Added Tax”. I have completed this term paper with the supervision of the Department of Accounting of Lalmatia Mahila College. Her cordial assistance and advice have influenced me much to complete this task. I would like to express my sincere gratitude to all my teachers of the Department of Accounting of Lalmatia Mahila College, who have conveyed all the knowledge and necessary information to make enable to complete my Term paper successfully and provide me the opportunity to prove myself in the vigorously competitive modern area. I would like to deliver my special thanks to all my classmates and my entire well-wishers for their inspiration without which I would not be able to complete this term paper report. Declaration I do hereby...

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