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Plastic Cups as Additives to Garden Tiles

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A Research Study on the Effectiveness of Shredded Plastic Cups as an Additive in Making Decorative Garden Tiles

CHAPTER I A. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY B. RESEARCH PROBLEM
General Problem: How effective are shredded plastic cups as additives in making decorative garden tiles?
Specific Problems: 1. How effective are shredded plastic cups as additives in making decorative garden tiles in terms of compressive strength? 2. How effective are shredded plastic cups as additives in making decorative garden tiles in terms of durability? 3. How effective are shredded plastic cups as additives in making decorative garden tiles in terms of load bearing capacity? C. RESEARCH OBJECTIVE
General Objective: The primary concern of this study is to determine the effectiveness of compressed plastic bottles as fillers for pathways.
Specific Objectives: 1. To determine the effectiveness of shredded plastic cups as additives in making decorative garden tiles in terms of compressive strength. 2. To determine the effectiveness of shredded plastic cups as additives in making decorative garden tiles in terms of durability. D. To determine the effectiveness of shredded plastic cups as additives in making decorative garden tiles in terms of load bearing capacity. E. HYPOTHESES It is hypothesized that: 1. The shredded plastic cups have no significant effect as additives in making decorative garden tiles in terms of compressive strength. 2. The shredded plastic cups have no significant effect as additives in making decorative garden tiles in terms of durability. 3. The shredded plastic cups have no significant effect as additives in making decorative garden tiles in terms of load bearing capacity.

F. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY G. SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS H. Decorative Garden Tiles with Shredded Plastic Cups
RESEARCH FRAMEWORK

Load Bearing Capacity
Durability
Compressive Strength i I. DEFINITION OF TERMS 1. Plastic Cups * are commonly used around the workplace and at home as a vessel to drink from. There are various types of plastic used to make the cups and there are recycling facilities that can now recycle most plastic cups.
In this study, this term refers to the material which shredded to be used as an additive in making decorative garden tiles. 2. Compressive Strength * the natural ability of a substance to change volume when under varying pressures
In this study, this term refers to as a parameter to test how effective shredded plastic cups are when used as additives in making decorative garden tiles. 3. Load-Bearing Capacity * is the value of bearing stress which causes a sudden catastrophic settlement of the foundation.
In this study, this term refers to as a parameter to test how effective shredded plastic cups are when used as additives in making decorative garden tiles. 4. Durability * capability of withstanding wear and tear or decay
In this study, this term refers to as a parameter to test how effective shredded plastic cups are when used as additives in making decorative garden tiles. 5. Tile * a flat or curved piece of fired clay, stone, or concrete used especially for roofs, floors, or walls and often for ornamental work. 6. Shred * a strip of some material, such as paper, cloth, or food, that has been torn, cut, or scraped from something larger.

CHAPTER II A. FOREIGN LITERATURE
Plastic Cups Most plastic cups are made of polyethylene terephthalate, or PET. That’s a petroleum product. “4% of the world’s oil production is used as “feedstock” for plastic," according to Bryant, “and another 4% provides the energy to transform it into plastic.”
(http://science.kqed.org/quest/2011/05/24/producers-notes-quest-lab-properties-of-plastic/)
Plastic materials have revolutionized the consumption of durable goods and virtually all major manufacturing industries in the United States. From 1960 to 2000, the volume of production and consumption of plastics in the US increased by a factor of 13. The impact of plastics is derived from their numerous desirable properties for materials used in products ranging from milk jugs to water pipes to microprocessor packages. Such diverse applications result from plastic material properties such as resistance to chemical and environmental degradation, tunable optical properties, ease of shaping and molding, dependence of mechanical and thermal properties on degree of cross-linking, and temperature dependence of plasticity and flow properties.
( http://www.lurj.org/article.php/vol3n2/plastic.xml)
Many paper and plastic cups are recyclable. Approximately 80 percent of Americans have access to recycling facilities. However, disposable cups end up in landfills more often than not. When the cups decompose, they may leech toxic chemicals into the ground and water. This can lead to the poisoning of marine life and other animals.
(http://www.business.com/retail-and-restaurant/paper-and-plastic-cups)
Compressive Strength Adipates and phthalates are used as softeners in the production of certain types of plastics and packaging materials (e.g. PVC). Adding these substances to the plastic makes it more flexible and easier to work. Although these softeners are not particularly toxic, they do represent a threat to health if they are consumed in large quantities. However, softeners are not needed in the production of PET. If softeners are found in the water from PET bottles, they must have been in the water before the bottles were filled.) (http://www.sodis.ch/methode/forschung/pet/index_EN)

Tensile Strength Polyethylene Terephthalate performs very well for carbonated beverage and water bottles. PET is a very good barrier against alcohol and essential oils. It has good chemical resistance as well as a high degree of impact resistance and tensile strength. The barrier properties and impact strength result from the orienting process in PET manufacturing.
(http://www.newbeveragebottles.com/)

Load-Bearing Capacity Most of water bottles are made as a Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET). In the properties of this, it is high impact capability and shatter resistance and also it has a capability for hot-filling
(http://www.thebottleguide.com/plastic-bottles/pet.html)

B. LOCAL LITERATURE
Plastic Cups
A remarkable transformation takes place when injection molded PET is stretched at the right temperatures and to the right extent. The long chains undergo strain-hardening and strain-induced crystallization, which gives the properly-made PET bottle exceptional clarity, resistance to internal pressure, uniform wall thickness, toughness, and a host of other features. To achieve these useful properties, however, care must be taken in choosing the right grade of resin, as well as the right perform and bottle designs, and good molding practices.
(http://www.kenplas.com/project/pet/)

Load-Bearing Capacity The introduction of the Eurocodes makes plastic design criteria available also for compositebridges, leading to more economical solutions compared with previous elastic design rules. Particularly for refurbishment old bridges with higher actual traffic loads, up to date outside the scope of the Eurocodes, strengthening should therefore be avoidable or at least be necessary only to a minor extent. For bridges with smaller spans and compact cross sections, the plastic load bearing capacity is clearly justified. In this work, however, the focus is placed on long span continuous composite bridges with deep, longitudinally stiffened girders, susceptible to local buckling. In a first step, the elastic - plastic cross section capacity of the main girder in bending is studied as an isolated case, based on high preloads acting on the steel girder only, due tothe common assembling procedure without scaffolding. In a second step, the effects on the whole structure are studied, because utilising the plastic section capacity at midspan leads to a redistribution of internal forces to the supports. Based on the comprehensive study of an old, actual strengthened composite bridge, some limitations for plastic design are identified. Moreover, fully plastic design will sometimes need additional global analysis. Practical recommendations are given for design purposes.

CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY
A. PROCEDURAL DESIGN
Gathering of Plastic Cups
Shredding of Plastic Cups
Making of Molder
Mixing of Cement, Sand, Shredded Plastic Cups and Water
Curing of Tiles
Gathering of Data

Data Analysis

B. MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENTS
B.1. Gathering of Plastic Cups * Plastic Cups * Sacks
B.2. Shredding of Plastic Cups * Sack * Plastic Shredder * Box
B.3. Making of Molder for the Tiles * Plywood
B.4. Mixing of Cement, Sand, Shredded Plastic Cups and Water * Cement * Sand * Shredded Plastic Cups * Water * Shovel
B.5. Curing of Tiles * Water
B.6. Data Gathering * Logbook * Pen C. PROCUREMENT AND PREPARATION
The plastic cups were collected from all around the Bacolod City National High School Campus. The researchers also asked from the teachers and students. The cement and sand that were used was bought from the G&G Hardware. The rest of the equipments were provided by the researchers. D. RESEARCH LOCALE
The research experiment has been done at Destacamento’s Residence at St. Mark, Doña Juliana, Bacolod City where the materials and equipments were readily available. The tests were done at the University of Negros Occidental- Recoletos. E. RESEARCH DESIGN
Posttest-Only Design in a Completely Randomized Design was employed in achieving the aim of the study. The independent variable was the shredded plastic cups. The dependent variables were the compressive strength, durability and load bearing capacity of the decorative garden tiles. F. VARIABLES AND TREATMENTS
The research investigation studied the effectiveness of shredded plastic cups as an additive in making decorative garden tiles. The independent variable was the shredded plastic cups. The dependent variables were the compressive strength, durability and load bearing capacity of the decorative garden tiles. Treatments of the study are as follows: Treatment 1: Test of Compressive Strength Treatment 2: Test of Durability Treatment 3: Test of Load-Bearing Capacity G. RESEARCH LAY-OUT

TRIALS | TREATMENT 1 | TREATMENT 2 | TREATMENT 3 | 1 | X | X | X | 2 | X | X | X | 3 | X | X | X |

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...The Wealth of Networks The Wealth of Networks How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom Yochai Benkler Yale University Press New Haven and London Copyright _ 2006 by Yochai Benkler. All rights reserved. Subject to the exception immediately following, this book may not be reproduced, in whole or in part, including illustrations, in any form (beyond that copying permitted by Sections 107 and 108 of the U.S. Copyright Law and except by reviewers for the public press), without written permission from the publishers. The author has made an online version of the book available under a Creative Commons Noncommercial Sharealike license; it can be accessed through the author’s website at http://www.benkler.org. Printed in the United States of America. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Benkler, Yochai. The wealth of networks : how social production transforms markets and freedom / Yochai Benkler. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13: 978-0-300-11056-2 (alk. paper) ISBN-10: 0-300-11056-1 (alk. paper) 1. Information society. 2. Information networks. 3. Computer networks—Social aspects. 4. Computer networks—Economic aspects. I. Title. HM851.B457 2006 303.48'33—dc22 2005028316 A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. The paper in this book meets the guidelines for permanence and durability of the Committee on Production Guidelines for Book Longevity of the Council on Library Resources. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1...

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