Premium Essay

Plato vs. Christianity

In: Religion Topics

Submitted By jpat
Words 331
Pages 2
Throughout time there have been many different views of what afterlife is. Plato and Christianity are no different; between the two ideas there are many similarities and differences that can be distinguished. Plato believed in the idea of immortality and dualism. He believed that the soul was immortal both before and after death, and that the body was mortal and ceased to function after death. Plato believed that your soul has always existed and always will, and that your embodied life as a human is just a small part of your existence. Plato believed that the disembodied soul was the highest form of survival because the immaterial realm of the forms is the highest form of existence. In other words Plato suggests that your embodied existence is not nearly as ideal as your disembodied existence. The basis of Christianity is bodily resurrection. Like Plato’s theory Christianity also believes in the cessation of bodily functions after death, and also believes that the soul does exist for a time disembodied. However in Christianity the soul begins at birth and is not immortal, it dies with the body, and then is resurrected after an unknown period of time by God. Christianity suggests the theory that people follow the Christian Doctrine of Predestination. This is essentially the theory that humans cannot chose whether they will be saved to heaven and from hell. It is the idea that some humans are chosen by God as elect, and some humans are damned by God. In other words; a person can do nothing about their predestination. The idea of predestination is not contingent upon status, or moral character, it is only by the grace of God that a person may be saved. This idea has been controversial, but many well known Christians were known to believe in predestination. Many Christians also believe in the idea that humans have partial control over their afterlife. They believe that...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Plato vs. Christianity

...Plato and Christianity are views with different ideas of afterlife. They differ in several aspects but both share the belief that the human person is immortal and death is the cessation of bodily functions but one’s soul exists for a time disembodied. Plato believed in immortality and dualism (the idea that humans are composed of two substances, a material substance or body and an immaterial substance or soul). Plato believed that the soul was immortal in both directions, past and future, in which you’ll always exist and believed that humans will survive past their deaths. Plato believed that souls were simple and that simple things could not be destroyed because they don’t have parts, hence leading to the idea that the soul survives death. After death the soul is disembodied. Plato believed that this state was the highest form of survival because the immaterial realm of the Forms is the highest form of existence. The physical world is the lower kind of existence because it’s constantly changing unlike the immaterial world. Hence, bodily existence is less perfect than disembodied existence. Christianity also believes in an immortal soul and that death is a transition to disembodied existence, however it carries the idea that this disembodied state is temporary until the act of resurrection performed by God (he creates a new body for the soul). Thus Christians believe the human person is mortal and death is the extinction of consciousness, but at resurrection God......

Words: 513 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Literary Masterpieces Matrix

...University of Phoenix Material Literary Masterpieces Matrix Complete the following matrix for each of the cultural periods that are shown. Provide examples from at least two (2) literary works to illustrate your entries in each category. If discussing contemporary literature, for example, a thematic focus might be relationship of mainstream with minority literatures and your examples incorporate Rushdie' and Cronin's works. Your entries in these columns must go beyond a few words or a simple bullet point. There is no required minimum word length, but you must go into sufficient detail to demonstrate your comprehension of these literary components. This assignment is designed to be completed throughout the course. It is easier to complete when approached this way; it also functions better as a foundation for your Learning Team paper—The Literary Masterpiece in Contemporary Society Paper—due in Week Five. Note. Ancient and classical literature are grouped together in the first week's readings, but they are separated here to sharpen your understanding of the distinctions between the two periods. | |Thematic Focus |Literary Qualities |Shared Characteristics |Influence of Earlier | | | | | |Periods | |Ancient Literature |The book of Genesis has |Genesis is mainly written |Both books are......

Words: 1199 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Ethics

...free will * Virtue is the acceptance of fate * We only think something is critically +ve/-ve * Peace of mind = self-mastery spiritual peace * Freedom from material attachments * Accept that certain things cannot change (∴ should not be feared) * Passive ethical approach Criticism – * Free will vs. fate * Believes that God/ powerful being predetermined everything * Indifference = callous * Passive only +ve for non-extreme situaltions Hedonism: * Based on pleasure is the sole +ve * Philosopher Epicurus 341 – 270 BC created a garden in Athens that was devoted to beauty and pleasure. (became a way of life) * Pleasure +ve (↓ -ves = happiness) Types * Dynamic = pain (often) (i.e. drinking) * Passive = no pain * Always made sure their decisions were based on achieving pleasure. (psychological H.) * Range of advocating these self-gravitation, despite the pain and expense to others Criticism – * Clear distinction between dynamic and passive * Finding pleasure in the basic things (i.e. looking at a rock) T/F * Do not consider H. as a moral person Platonism: * Plato (428-348BC)...

Words: 803 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Augustine vs. Plotinus

...Augustine vs. Plotinus Augustine began to distance himself from Manicheism soon after he moved toRome, which he had been interested in since he was a teenager, in 372. As he went through a difficult period in his life, which contributed to his increasingly disinterest with Manicheism, the Academics, the disciples of Arcesilaus and the New Academy briefly engaged him with the skeptical view. This viewpoint was that everything was a matter of doubt and asserted that we can know nothing for certain. The main argument within this essay is to ask whether Augustine, from previously being tempted by skepticism, managed to overcome this through his writing, and whether his dismissal of skepticism holds up as a major criticism for others. After his conversion, he wrote Contra Academicos 386-387, focused mainly on arguments against skepticism and the ability to have knowledge. His ultimate victory over the attraction of skepticism he expressed within this, and laid claim that we can ultimately possess knowledge. In the Contra Academicos Augustine writes of wisdom leading to happiness, and knowledge of truth to wisdom. The version of skepticism that Augustine takes from Cicero’s Academic books is that adopted by Cicero himself. The skepticism Augustine concerns himself is the form it took in the Platonic ‘New’ Academy from the middle of the third century, to which the key figure was Arcesilaus in the earliest stages, to the middle of the first century where Carneades came to......

Words: 665 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Journal Entry for Chapter 5

...I wondered, how different would the education system be if we had follow Socrates way of teaching? Socrates is one of the most important people in western philosophy. I found it interesting that we have no writings from his own hand, from his two students Plato and Xenophon. I agreed with Socrates claim that appearance of the body is less important than how it functions and true beauty comes from spirit and character. I questioned if spirit and character is more important than the physical appearance, why do modern society judge an individual based on their physical appearance? Journal Entry 12. Chapter 6: the Theory of forms. Pages 144. Thursday, February 20, 2014. Knowledge Vs. Opinion Plato is one of the philosophers that interest me the most because of his search for knowledge outside his “comfort zone.” Plato left the Athens and wandered for twelve years and during that time he studied mathematics and mysticism. For me, as a math minor, it was interesting to see how mathematics influenced Plato’s philosophy and I wondered, does an individual’s knowledge in science and math affect their philosophy claims and theories? After he finished most of his writing he founded his academy “Academos.” I was fascinated how Plato lectured without notes for forty years. Does knowledge come from the heart and soul? In Plato’s work theory of Forms he attempted to provide a rational explanation on what knowledge really is and he wanted to identify...

Words: 1901 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Socates V. Perpetua

...The Death of Socrates vs. The Death of Perpetua Civil disobedience has been a common element in human behavior. From the time of antiquity to the present, people lash out in various ways against standards that society has placed upon citizens. Two ancient examples of disobedient actions come from different ages revered for standards that hold today and provide a basis for modern law; the Greek and ancient Roman empires. From the Greeks, we have come to know the story of Socrates as memorialized by Plato, and the Roman age was the time of Perpetua, an early Christian woman. The fate of those individuals is the same – a death sentence handed down by the society they lived in. Although the conclusion of their respective lives is the same, the differences that lie in the reasoning of their death run deeper, with several key factors impacting their individual destiny. As we will see, these factors affect their relationship to the states and time periods they existed. Understanding the differences between Socrates and Perpetua rests in two major elements. The first one is the role of religion and understanding of deities. Their respective beliefs affected their relationship with the state that decided their deaths. Beginning with Socrates, we must first remember that Greek society was polytheistic. Standards such as monotheism in Catholic terms did not exist. There were Gods that ruled over emotions, the land, sea, and even realms outside of human reach, such as Zeus in heaven......

Words: 1787 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Why Was Socrates Regarded as a Man of Virtue?

...Why was Socrates regarded as a man of virtue? Why was Socrates regarded as a man of virtue? Socrates: Man of Virtue (470-399 B.C.E.) Socrates proposed the theory of value in which there are two sorts of good: virtue and happiness. Both are unconditional goods. But happiness is a "self-generated" good in that it "derives its value strictly from its inherent properties;" whereas virtue is an "other-generated" good in that it derives its value from happiness, precisely from its conduciveness to happiness. Virtue is an instinct in all humanity which can be aroused through self-examination. This universal truth is accessible to everyone who thinks and question. Socrates assumes that any person with whom he talks has the resource to answer his question correctly, that is, that no specialist knowledge is required. Socrates thought that knowledge is virtue, and virtue leads to happiness. It makes sense to think that moral people know what morality is. If you know right from wrong, then you might be able to choose to do what you know to be right. It also makes some sense to suspect that our beliefs about right and wrong influence our decisions. If we believe its right to help a drowning child, then it would be fairly shocking to decide not to do so—and it would less surprising when we decide to help the child. It is quite a shocking statement to say that virtue always leads to happiness. Criminals commit crimes that hurt others to help themselves. To think that their crimes......

Words: 7161 - Pages: 29

Premium Essay

Different of Art

...ASSIGNMENT NO: 01 | Title: Evolution of Old Masters Painting & Modern Art | Spring 2012History of World and ArchitectureSubject Code: GED 302Semester: 6thSection: 01Submitted To: Selima Quader ChowdhrySubmission Date: April 4, 2012 | Submitted By NAME: SHAIKH KHADIJA NO ID: 102011058 | “Evolution of Old Masters Painting & Modern Art” Index: Subject | Page No | I. Introduction | 03 | II. Italian Renaissance | 04 | III. Comparison between the paintings of the Italian Renaissance artists | 05 | IV. Modern Art | 08 | V. Comparison Between The Old Masters Painting And Modern Art | 09 | VI. Conclusion | 11 | VII. Reference | 12 | Introduction I am a student of “history of World Art and Architecture”. In this subject I am learning about analyze and evaluate the major movement, and trends in the visual arts of “Western Civilization”. For this reason, In 29 February, 2012 my classmate and I went to Bangladesh National Museum with our course teacher. It was a magnificent experience in my life. The 3rd Floor decorated with Pictures of International politicians, artists, scientists, famous pictures and three international galleries- Korean, Iranian and Swiss. We had a class on the Western arts gallery. The “Western Arts” gallery is enhancing with many famous artists painting. They all are reproduction of original work. (http://www.quiltindex.org/~quilti/wiki/index.php/Bangladesh_National_Museum) In the museum I saw many works......

Words: 2557 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Renaissance and Reformation: Ahead to the Past

...the Americas led to the further discovery of information difficult to reconcile with Aristotle. Maps before Columbus look like this: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/De_revolutionibus_orbium_coelestium Twenty-five years after the map above was printed we see the Waldseemuller map: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/home/moslive/article-1272921/Ten-greatest-maps-changed-world.html . A whole new continent is added! Worse, in 1572 a new star appeared in the sky. Tycho Brahe’s careful observations showed that it was beyond the moon (Gingerich). According to Medieval Aristotelianism the celestial regions (beyond the moon) were unchanging. 5) Guns! The Knights were not so important as fighters and this again tended to raise the value of the common person vs, the noble. In the Battle of Castillon artillery was important in the final French victory of the Hundred Years War. The New Learning and newly discovered texts. The new classical texts that were discovered led to the Renaissance (the rebirth of classical...

Words: 3122 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

Death and Afterlife : Christianity, Buddhism and Atheism

...1.0 Introduction “No one knows whether death is really the greatest blessing a man can have, but they fear it is the greatest curse, as if they knew well” (Plato). This quote emphasizes that death is an aspect in life that all mankind have to deal with in their lives and for some people; it is considered as an uncomfortable subject and they try to avoid the subject in every possible way simply because they are afraid of what lies after death. The definitions of death have been one of the most debated issues for thousands of years as different individuals have different views on death depending on religions, culture, personal belief and medical profession. Basically, in medical terms death is defined as the termination of all the vital functions that supports a living organism (Godbole 2009). The answer as to whether there is life after death is simply a question of faith for some individuals. Religions generally interpret death as the death of the body and not of the soul. To this day, there is no precise answer to this issue and over the centuries experts have tried to explore and unravel the mysteries of this complicated or rather confusing phenomenon but have failed to arrive at a concrete conclusion. It has long been established that the Western and Eastern society have very different views on death that have been developed over the centuries. In the Western society, death is viewed as something that is permanent and emphasized the notion of Heaven and Hell. Heaven is...

Words: 3053 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

A Review of Ethics Concepts & Theories

...Machiavelli and Kant. 4. Describe what is meant by a social contract. 5. Analyze a given situation and tell why it would be appropriate or inappropriate to lie. 6. Explain the views of Kierkegaard and contrast him from other existentialists. 7. Discuss the concept that ethics cannot be based on religion. 8. Explain the use of ethical reasoning and how it can be used in your professional life. Introduction The major ethical principles accepted in the western world follow guidelines and rules that must be universally applied in all situations. These ethical principles are established primarily on the basis of teachings set forth by philosophers throughout the ages, starting with the great Greek thinkers Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. As you might expect, there have been many alterations 修改 to these moral principles throughout the years. What was considered ethically correct by some was rejected by others and replaced with their own concept of what constituted moral or ethical behavior. A Comment about Philosophy: Philosophy, unlike science, addresses issues that cannot be solved. In fact, some philosophers state that if a problem can be solved, philosophers will not even address the issue, feeling that it should be considered by other disciplines. One of the most notable examples of philosophical inquiry is the commonly quoted question posed by Bertrand Russell: “If a tree falls in the forest and there is no one there to hear it,......

Words: 2657 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Philippine Catholic

...Contrast Between Catholic and Baptist Religion - Ask most people today if they have heard of Baptist and Catholic religion and most would say yes. In many ways the two are very similar. For instance, both are based on the Christian faith, belief in the trinity, and that God is the one true God. The two religions agree that Jesus died on the cross and rose again to atone for our sins. They share a 27 book New Testament and insist that salvation comes from Christ alone. On the other hand, while the Baptist and Catholic religions do have similarities, they also have differences, such as their services, communion, and views regarding salvation. The Catholic Religion - The world has more than one billion Catholics and with the ever growing population, it will only get larger in number. To be a Catholic means to have complete faith in God and his divine grace. Having God's divine grace means to obey it and keep it holy as it was created by God and given to his people. The religion itself is based on this and the people take it very seriously. Catholics believe that all people are of good nature but when one commits a sin it not only hurts that one person but the people and the Church.... [tags: Catholicism, What Catholics Believe, informative] 1922 words (5.5 pages) $14.95 [preview] Catholic religion - CATHOLIC RELIGION To belong to the church one must accept as factually true the gospel of Jesus as handed down in tradition and as interpreted by the bishops in union with the......

Words: 9141 - Pages: 37

Free Essay

Fascism

...City of God – Utopian Reader – include a little bit on it – 22 volumes in all. Christianity – Augustine – classicly trained greek scholar. City in north Africa. Story like apostle Paul – orginially a person who persecuted Christians – north African wealth family from – found enlightenment in Christianity. Once he joined became one of the early scholars trained in greek – regulized Christian theology. Influence on western world – top four or five who influenced. Confessions and City of God his writings…look up! What’s the purpose of improving human society – complex – why do it? Can human society be made better? Why bother, what is the point, justification? Takes effort, misery involved, change, unknowns, takes energy, takes risks. HAPPINESS – justification for improving society. What do you have to have to be happy? What is happiness – PHI 101 – happiness according to whom? Lack of misery; literally the elimination of misery. Secondly, food – gives pleasure – Happiness is lack of human misery and maximizing /pleasure and happiness. Bliss 24/7 – hedonism Epicureanism – eliminating misery and maximizing happiness. The justification of utopianism = why did plato want the republic? Justisifcation for improving human society among the Greeks? Poor always poor, always unhappy, death claims everyone - it is rational to maximize pleasure and eliminate misery. Do eternally accouding to plato. Opinions – 1. Relativism is a retreat in the 20th century. Can’t voice......

Words: 44275 - Pages: 178

Premium Essay

Ethics

...A Summary of the Terms and Types of Ethical Theories Ethics is a branch of philosophy addressing questions about morality. Ethics is divided into two different ways of looking at the morality of humanity. They are Consequential and Non-Consequential. CONSEQUENTIAL ETHICS In Consequential Ethics, the outcomes determine the morality of the act. What make the act wrong are the consequences. It says, it will be legitimate to lie in order to get out of a serious problem, such as to save a persons life. In other words a white lie is fine. So the essence of morality is determined by the result or outcome of the act. NON – CONSEQUENTIAL ETHICS In non-Consequential Ethics, the source of morality comes from something else: law, God’s law, moral law, sense of duty, and your definition of what is the virtuous thing to do. All those considerations are built into the act itself before you could think of consequences, before it makes it right or wrong. One classic example is this system is lying. Lying could be wrong because in one system, it’s a violation of the nature of speech. It’s wrong to use a lie to achieve a good end. Simply put, a lie is a lie, is a lie. Egoism – Utilitarianism – Pragmatism Egoism - Means, act in your own self-interest. Utilitarianism - Do that which is moral only if the act produces the greatest amount of good for the greatest number of people. There are two brands of Utilitarianism: 1. Act Utilitarianism- Do the act. No consideration of before or......

Words: 2474 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Sexuality

...Sexuality over the years has been a very debatable topic and has lead many to different understanding based on their own ideologies as it relates to gender and sexuality. These beliefs have shaped our society as to the appropriateness of sexual behavior as it relates to masculinity and femininity. First let us look at the how sexuality was viewed in ancient times. “The origins of sexual orientation have long since been a question that scientists and psychologists have longed to find an answer. While there has recently been more and more reliable and unbiased studies done in past and present years, there are still no conclusive answers as to what makes a person hetero- or homo- sexual. Many theories have been and still are being developed on what causes different sexual orientations. They range from the way the child is brought up within his family, from inheriting specific genes, hormonal imbalances, brain “mis-wirings” and other environmental factors. Familial and environmental influence tends to be one of the most supported and believed theories of the causation of sexual orientation. Many researchers and other psychological professionals believe that whether a person becomes heterosexual or homosexual is determined and greatly influenced by the type of environment they have experienced as a child. For example twin studies have shown that “52% of the MZ co-twins of male homosexual twins were also homosexual or bisexual. For DZ male twins, this fell to 22%” (“Genetics &......

Words: 1976 - Pages: 8