Premium Essay

Poems and Prose

In: English and Literature

Submitted By payelsaha70
Words 1520
Pages 7
Chapter 1 The French Revolution
 French Society during the Late Eighteenth Century  1774: Louis XVI of the Bourbon family of kings ascended the throne of France.  Under Louis XVI, France helped America in gaining their independence from Britain.  France was experiencing financial instability due to the long years of wars fought by her and the cost of maintaining an extravagant court at the palace of Versailles.  Taxes were increased for meeting the expenses of maintaining an army, the court and running government offices or universities.  The French Society was divided into three estates–  First Estate: Clergy  Second Estate: Nobility  Third Estate: Big businessmen, merchants, court officials, lawyers, peasants, landless labourers and servants.  The first two estates enjoyed certain privileges by birth which also excluded them from paying any taxes to the French government.  The members of the third estate had to pay taxes to the State that included a direct tax called taille and a number of indirect taxes levied on the articles of daily consumption.  Peasants served in the fields and houses of the privileged classes and they also built the roads and served in the army.  The Church collected taxes known as tithes from the peasants.  The price of the food grains increased with an increase in the demand for the same.  Fixed-waged workers could not afford the expensive food grains. Hence, the gap between the poor and the rich widened.  A growing Middle Class  18th century: France witnessed the emergence of social groups and middle class, who earned through an expanding overseas trade and from the manufacture of goods such as woollen and silk textiles.  Philosophers such as John Locke and Jean Jacques Rousseau envisaged a society based on freedom and equal laws and opportunities for all.

 Locke refuted the doctrine of the divine and absolute...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay


...Poetry, prose, sonnets, drama, plays, short stories and novels are concepts that first came to my mind when I think in the question “What is literature?” The definition of literature has change over time. The only thing that is certain about the meaning of literature is that the definition will change. The concepts about what is literature about also change over time. In order to get a clear understanding of exactly what literature is, first we need to know its definition. According to the Merriam-Webster, literature is defined by “the body of written works produced in a particular language, country, or age; the body of writings on a particular subject: printed matter.”  Literature has to do with letters, but some people often think that literature is only one thing, not knowing that it is composed by several elements that we use every day. These important elements include poems, prose, sonnets, drama, plays, short stories and novels. Poetry is created from the soul. It comes from your emotions and it needs every piece of creativity inside you. It has been called the art of “saying the unsayable” because trough this you can express your feelings with no limit, and nobody can tell you that is wrong. If you make a poem and you think it is not good enough, well it is no good. You as the author or the reader, can only judge if it is good or but for you but maybe for some one else it is the opposite as it is for you. A good place to start when looking back at how......

Words: 4267 - Pages: 18

Free Essay

Definition of Poetry by Poets and Writers

...poetry is just the ash.  ~Leonard Cohen Poetry is a deal of joy and pain and wonder, with a dash of the dictionary.  ~Kahlil Gibran Ink runs from the corners of my mouth There is no happiness like mine. I have been eating poetry. ~Mark Strand, "Eating Poetry," Reasons for Moving, 1968 There's no money in poetry, but then there's no poetry in money, either.  ~Robert Graves, 1962 interview on BBC-TV, based on a very similar statement he overheard around 1955 Poetry is what gets lost in translation.  ~Robert Frost Imaginary gardens with real toads in them.  ~Marianne Moore's definition of poetry, "Poetry," Collected Poems, 1951 A poem is never finished, only abandoned.  ~Paul Valéry He who draws noble delights from sentiments of poetry is a true poet, though he has never written a line in all his life.  ~George Sand, 1851 Always be a poet, even in prose.  ~Charles Baudelaire, "My Heart Laid Bare," Intimate Journals, 1864 Poets are soldiers that liberate words from the steadfast possession of definition.  ~Eli Khamarov, The Shadow Zone Poetry is the journal of the sea animal living on land, wanting to fly in the air.  Poetry is a search for syllables to shoot at the barriers of the unknown and the unknowable.  Poetry is a phantom script telling how rainbows are made and why they go away.  ~Carl Sandburg, Poetry Considered Poetry is a mirror which makes beautiful that which is distorted.  ~Percy Shelley, A Defence of Poetry, 1821 Poetry is nearer to vital......

Words: 2669 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay


...form or respond to the poetic innovations of non-traditional writers – responses to these assignments should appear in the portfolio. The original versions of anything you have translated don’t count toward the page total, of course; work for other courses does not count either, unless you’ve done workshops in class on the writing. Your final portfolio will contain the text of your presentation to the class of some work by a published writer you admire. MIDTERM PORTFOLIO This must be fifteen pages long, minimum. A page of poetry has twenty lines of poetry on it, on average. It is best to limit each page to one poem – though if you’re writing haikus, then that’s an exception. Single-space poems. Make sure your document has page numbers. Prose covers the whole page, but it’s double-spaced. If you’re writing short prose pieces (i.e. ‘flash fiction,’ ‘prose poems,’ ‘short shorts,’ etc.) then you may have lots of white space on the page. If this is the case, run the portfolio by me before you hand it in so that I can make sure it’s of acceptable length. Make sure your document has page numbers. FINAL PORTFOLIO The midterm’s fifteen pages PLUS fifteen new pages. Revisions of the first fifteen pages do not count as new material, unless you are substantially revising. Check this out with...

Words: 476 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Literature of the Old English and the Old Irish Periods (600-1100 A.D.)

...LITERATURE OF THE OLD ENGLISH AND THE OLD IRISH PERIODS (600-1100 A.D.) 1- OLD ENGLISH HISTORY AND LANGUAGE Initial literatures are spoken and that oral literature have been many amplifications, later appear the texts. Beowulf was oral first and then became written. There are lots of fragments written literally. Some texts were lost and now we only have fragments. These texts are writing in manuscripts, there weren’t books in that period. In particular there are four manuscripts that contain most of English literature: Cotton Vitelius, Exeter Book, Junius Manuscript and Vercelli Manuscript; they are from 10th century. However the poetry and the texts contain the literature from 9th century, but they originated in 7th century orally (all of them originated orally before they appear written). That manuscripts tell some things about the society of this period of time, so we know details of this century. This period is the Anglo-Saxon period, before them there were the Britons who were invaded by some different people. They spoke different dialects of old English, the stronger kingdom was Wessex, which dialect was the most important and it called “west saxon”. Beowulf was writing in this dialect. In 597 appeared the Christianization. This means that the English became Christian, it became familiar with the church language: Latin. Latin is the culture language. The entry of Christianity is the entry of the culture in Britain. 2- WRITTEN RECORDS OF THE ANGLOSAXON......

Words: 2629 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

William Carlos Williams

...14 March 2012 ENH 242 The British American Conversion American writer William Carlos Williams widely recognized for a frugal use of lexicon stands apart as one of the most significant forces of twentieth-century poetry. A myriad of ingredients, including people, experiences, and circumstances, combined to influence Williams’ poetry and prose. Williams’ writing, along with that of many of the emerging American Modernist poets, is also considered to be a reaction to the verbose poetry and prose he had been exposed to growing up. “The ‘New Poetry,’ as it was called, was largely a revolt against the Romanticism of the previous decades” (Scott 18). In addition, Williams’ poetry was inspired by societal and cultural changes occurring during the early twentieth century. William Carlos Williams led the way into an Americanized style of poetry, diverging from the grandiloquent manner of European writers, to create a form of modernist poetry that remains as relevant today as it did when it was written. The essence of William Carlos Williams’ innovative style of writing derives from his remarkably plebian upbringing. Born in 1883 to an English father and Puerto Rican mother in Rutherford, New Jersey, Williams was exposed to art, literature, and the Bible by his family. His father and mother instilled in him a sense of idealism and moral perfectionism that terrified Williams. In 1904 Williams wrote “I never did and never will do a premeditated bad deed in my life,” (Williams......

Words: 1267 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Chinese Literature

...celebration of life as recurring topics. Almost every poem we’ve analyzed and discussed in class has included references to one or more of these subjects. Nature is the perennial subject that has resonated with me most, as it has encompassed the majority of metaphors and comparisons in the poetry we’ve read. Chinese and Japanese poetry metaphorically incorporate animals and the seasons. The animals will often represent humans. Their actions also symbolize different human actions. In no other cultural tradition has nature played a more important role artistically than in that of China. Since China’s earliest dynasty, real and imagined creatures of the earth (serpents, cicadas, and dragons) were gifted with special powers. In the Chinese imagination, mountains were also infused with sacred power since ancient times. They attracted the rain clouds that watered the farmer’s crops. They concealed herbs used for medicines, magical fruits, and minerals that held the promise of longevity. Mountains with caves and grottos were viewed as gateways to other realms, “cave heavens” leading to Daoist paradises where aging is stopped and inhabitants live in harmony. Men roamed in the mountains not only in search of immortality but to purify the soul and seek renewal. Du Fu has written dozens of works about nature. “A Guest Arrives” by Du Fu talks of a gentleman who arrives amidst a period of solitude. The poem is begun by a...

Words: 1798 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay


...language. It represents the art of one person’s mind through various abstracts and concretive ideas translated to beautiful language that produces different representations and meanings according to the developer and his readers. Readers and listeners of this literary works may interpret the author’s ideas into them and applying them into their lives. It is also the process of encoding one’s beautiful ideas and decoding by interpreter’s imaginative mind. Events or subjects shown in these works are that of the author’s experiences, environment, culture or just a pure imagination. 2. State the classification of prose. Prose is a continual narration and written in common sentence trend. It is the most typical form of written language that uses basic and ordinary grammatical structure with natural flow of sentences or speech. There are different classifications of a prose. Myth is a story or narrative about the origin of the universe, beliefs about the gods and goddesses, stories about man and mystical and mysterious beings. Legend is a narrative or tale of human actions that orally resurfaced version of ordinary source of things. An anecdote is a short and amusing or interesting story about a real incident or person. Essay is written piece that often come from author’s personal point of view. Biography is a narrative about the life of a person. Fable is a story about talking animals that leaves a good moral to readers. Parable is a narrative about the holy bible that......

Words: 548 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Socialist Realism In Albania Essay

...The method of socialist realism did not develop uniformly in all literary types. Scholars generally agree that poetry in Albania suffered a greater influence from socialist realism rather than prose, unlike Kosovo, where prose was more exposed to changes from this art-leveler method. 3.1 Development of poetry One of the main reasons why socialist realism influenced more the Albanian poetry was related to the fact that this literary genre was considered a follower of partisan songs. Since they were the strongest expression of liberation cause, partisan songs embedded in the recipient, thus conveying psychological and propaganda effects. As Milazim Krasniqi explains "lyrics of partisan songs written by Andrea Varfi, Fatmir Gjata, Kole Jakova, Qamil Buxheli, Shefqet Musaraj, and even Mehmet Shehu and Shefqet Peci, began the process of changing the function of the aesthetic text and promoted that as an exclusively ideological function" (Krasniqi, 2005, p. 164). This feature propaganda function spread through poetry prevailed in a powerful way,...

Words: 1148 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Educational Planning

...Narrative Report The group first meeting was held last September 5, 2014. First meeting took place in the school library, the meeting was planned in advance. The said meeting was attended by 5 participants namely: Mrs. Bernadette Siman, Mrs. Banogon , Mrs. Cherrie Chico Pascual, Ms. Mary Grace Dollisen and Mr. Rodolfo Fabillar. The main aim was to discuss collaboratively the strategies to facilitate effective and efficient teaching. During this session the teachers have discussed the different strategies/techniques and activities to be used in discussing Lesson 2 of Module 2 in the learners material. For Day one the group has decided to discuss the poem “The Man with the Hoe”. For Day two the topic will be sonnet 29, and Rhyme scheme for day three. The students will be able to identify the rhyme scheme and use it in a poem and illustrate their own version of “ The Man with the Hoe”. These will be their outputs for Lesson 2. The second TQC was held last Septembe11, 2014. On this day the group shared the problems encountered while executing the activities discussed last TQC. After the discussion of the problems the group collaboratively worked on the strategies to be used for Lesson 3 of module 2. The group has decided to discuss the story “The Last Leaf” by O’ Henry. The strategies chosen were presenting a Poster of the...

Words: 718 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay


...EN4 Hand Outs Lifelong Learning Intuitive Insight ( realization) Theatre of Life Enriching Education Radical richness Artistry of form and language /described : Philosophical choice of word Truth in the telling Undeniably pleasurable Rapturous appreciation Epiphany in experience * Literature * an art whose medium is language used to affect the imagination. * words themselves can evoke a response even when they are spoken independently of a grammatical setting such as a sentence. * Fiction writers & poets share many of the techniques of literature because their effects depend or universal language art. * points up it’s relationship to other serial arts such as music, dance,& film ( Humanities) * Happens in time * In order to receive it, we must be aware of what is happening now,remember what happened before anticipate what is to come. * A Work of Literature * A construction of separable elements like a structure. * The details of the scene , character or event/group of symbols can be conceived of as the bricks in the wall of literary structure. * If we miss one detail of the story,it would be incomplete comprehension for the readers. * The most important reason why we study literature is not about “what” but “How”.(Literature statement should be beyond peripheral) * Theme * Main idea of literary work is usually a structural decision,comparable to an architectural decisions. * consistency...

Words: 1452 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay


...creative imagination, including works of poetry, drama, fiction, and nonfiction.  Literature, in its broadest sense, is any written work; etymologically the term derives from Latinliteratura/litteratura "writing formed with letters", although some definitions include spoken or sung texts. More restrictively, it is writing that possesses literary merit, and language that foregrounds literariness, as opposed toordinary language. Literature can be classified according to whether it is fiction or non-fiction and whether it ispoetry or prose; it can be further distinguished according to major forms such as the novel, short story or drama; and works are often categorised according to historical periods or their adherence to certain aesthetic features or expectations (genre). IMPORTANCE OF LITERATURE It also encourages students to think critically, specifically for the discussing and thinking components. Those people studying literature look at poems, plays, essays, stories and novels. Reading and learning about these helps people to sympathize with others and see how complex humans truly are. It aids in broadening a person's intellectual horizons and it stimulates a more active imagination. Literature explores different human beliefs, ideas and societies. This allows people to learn about where they came from and how past events work to shape the different cultures. Literature offers students the opportunity to discover, think, evaluate, and analyze the world around them in......

Words: 1459 - Pages: 6

Free Essay


...manuscripts in which Old English poems are found ? 8. Who is the author of Sermo Lupi ad Anglos ? 9. Who is the author of Lives of the Saints ? 10. Name two Anglo Saxon Christian poets ? 11. Name the 'earliest extant' Anglo-Saxon poem ? 12. When was Beowulf written ? 13. Mention one Christian element in Beowulf ? 14. Refer to one Pagan element in Beowulf ? 15. What is the name of the pleasure hall in Beowulf ? 16. What is the name of Hrothgar's wife ?(the queen) 17. Name the sword of Beowulf with which he killed Grendel ? 18. Which Anglo-Saxon poem records the fight between the English and Danes ? 19. When did the Battle of Maldon take place ? 20. Who is the author of Death Song ? 21. Who is the author of the poem Brut ? how many lines are there in this poem ? 22. Name two battles referred to in the Anglo-Saxon poems ? 23. What is the name of the monster Beowulf killed ? 24. What is the name of Beowulf's father ? 25. What is the name of the king Beowulf helped ? 26. Name two Anglo-Saxon Elegies ? 27. Name the Anglo-Saxon poem written in dream vision ? 28. Who is the author of Beowulf ? 29. When was Thomas Becket murdered ? 30. Name a middle English poem written in the form of debate between two birds ? 31. Name two historian of the Middle English period ? 32. Who is the writer of Historia Regum Britanniac ? 33. Name the earliest poem of the medieval romance tradition ? 34. Name four middle English alliterative poems ? 35. Give the......

Words: 1688 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Phil Literature

...distinctions between genres and categories are flexible and loosely defined, often with subgroups. The most general genres in literature are (in loose chronological order) epic, tragedy,[1] comedy, and creative nonfiction.[citation needed] They can all be in the form of prose or poetry. Additionally, a genre such as satire, allegory or pastoral might appear in any of the above, not only as a subgenre (see below), but as a mixture of genres. Finally, they are defined by the general cultural movement of the historical period in which they were composed. Genre should not be confused with age categories, by which literature may be classified as either adult, young-adult, or children's. They also must not be confused with format, such as graphic novel or picture book. GenresEdit For more details on this topic, see List of literary genres. Just as in painting, there are different types: the landscape, the still life, the portrait; there are different types of literary works. These types tend to share specific characteristics. Genres describe those works which share specific conventions.[2] Genres are often divided into subgenres. Literature, is divided into the classic three forms of Ancient Greece, poetry, drama, and prose. Poetry may then be subdivided into the genres of lyric, epic, and dramatic. The lyric includes all the shorter forms of poetry, e.g., song, ode, ballad, elegy, sonnet.[2] Dramatic poetry might include comedy, tragedy, melodrama, and mixtures like......

Words: 3155 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

Compare the Methods the Poets Use to Explore the Connection Between People and the Places in Which They Live in ‘Hurricane Hits England’ and One Other Poem.

...England’ and one other poem. In the two poems ‘Hurricane Hits England’ and ‘Presents From My Aunts In Pakistan’ both poets use a variety of literary techniques such as the setting style and themes to invoke within the reader a sense of the narrators nationality in the poem. The poem ‘Presents From My Aunts In Pakistan’ is set in England with a girl remembering her previous life in Pakistan. The poet Moniza Alvi depicts the dilemma of the young Asian girl who is growing up in England but family and relatives are strongly rooted in Pakistani culture and traditions. She feels lost, she’s confused about her identity and she feels ‘half-English.’ This indicates that she is not truly identifying with English cultures. The poem is written as a first person narrative to enable us to share her story, the reader can identify more easily with one person. Imagery is used throughout the poem, ‘Glistening like an orange split open.’ This enables the reader to visualise, hence become more involved and the poem becomes more alive. The conflict between her two cultures felt by this young girl is juxtaposed throughout the poem this reinforces the differences between the two nationalities. ‘My salwar kameez didn’t impress the school friend.’ Her friends did not like beautiful, top quality, traditional Pakistani clothes. The poet also makes a political comment by mentioning the ‘Fractured land’ she is referring to the conflict in Kashmir. ‘Hurricane Hits England.’ The poem is set in......

Words: 813 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

George Crabbe And Pre-Romanticism

...The Romantic poetry was limited to a few poets, still, those few altered the aspect of literature forevermore. In a group of such prominent poets were George Crabbe and Thomas Moore who gave vivacious renderings of natural scenes with Romantic emotionality. George Crabbe was one of the first poets whose works provided the link between Pre- Romanticism and Romanticism. He was a great bard of nature who portrayed it as strange being and arresting as no other Romantic poet did and therefore was named by Byron as “Nature’s sternest painter”. Throughout the age, Crabbe persisted in his precise, realistic portraits of rural life and landscape, writing mainly in the heroic couplets of the neoclassical age. His poems described village manners without...

Words: 812 - Pages: 4