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Poetry

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General Certificate of Secondary Education Higher Tier June 2014

1 2 3

Additional Science
Unit Biology B2

BL2HP

4 5

Biology
Unit Biology B2 Tuesday 13 May 2014 9.00 am to 10.00 am

H

6 7 TOTAL

For this paper you must have:  a ruler. You may use a calculator.

A

Time allowed  1 hour Instructions  Use black ink or black ball-point pen.  Fill in the boxes at the top of this page.  Answer all questions.  You must answer the questions in the spaces provided. Do not write outside the box around each page or on blank pages.  Do all rough work in this book. Cross through any work you do not want to be marked. Information  The marks for questions are shown in brackets.  The maximum mark for this paper is 60.  You are expected to use a calculator where appropriate.  You are reminded of the need for good English and clear presentation in your answers.  Question 2 should be answered in continuous prose. In this question you will be marked on your ability to: – use good English – organise information clearly – use specialist vocabulary where appropriate. Advice  In all calculations, show clearly how you work out your answer.

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2 Answer all questions in the spaces provided.

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1

Some students investigated the effect of pH on the digestion of boiled egg white by an enzyme called pepsin. Egg white contains protein. The students:
   

put a glass tube containing boiled egg white into a test tube added a solution containing pepsin at pH 7 set up six more tubes with solutions of pepsin at different pH values left the test tubes for 24 hours at room temperature.

Figure 1 shows one of the test tubes, at the start and at the end of the 24 hours. Figure 1

Solution of pepsin 24 hours 50 mm

Glass tube Boiled egg white

At start

24 hours later

1 (a) (i)

Name the product of protein digestion. [1 mark] ............................................................................................................................................

1 (a) (ii) What type of enzyme digests protein? Tick () one box. [1 mark] amylase

lipase

protease

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3 1 (b) The egg white in each tube was 50 mm long at the start of the investigation. Table 1 shows the students’ results. Table 1 pH 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Length in mm of boiled egg white after 24 hours 38 20 34 45 50 50 50

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1 (b) (i)

At which pH did the pepsin work best? [1 mark] pH ..................................

1 (b) (ii) The answer you gave in part (b)(i) may not be the exact pH at which pepsin works best. What could the students do to find a more accurate value for this pH? [2 marks] ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ 1 (b) (iii) There was no change in the length of the egg white from pH 5 to pH 7. Explain why. [2 marks] ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ Question 1 continues on the next page Turn over 

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4 1 (c) Pepsin is made by the stomach. Name the acid made by the stomach which allows pepsin to work well. [1 mark] ............................................................................................................................................

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5 2 In this question you will be assessed on using good English, organising information clearly and using specialist terms where appropriate. Diffusion is an important process in animals and plants. The movement of many substances into and out of cells occurs by diffusion. Describe why diffusion is important to animals and plants. In your answer you should refer to:
  

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animals plants examples of the diffusion of named substances. [6 marks]

............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ Extra space ........................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ Turn over 

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6 3 Figure 2 shows an athlete running on a treadmill. Figure 2

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After running for several minutes, the athlete’s leg muscles began to ache. This ache was caused by a high concentration of lactic acid in the muscles. 3 (a) The equation shows how lactic acid is made. glucose lactic acid (+ energy) [1 mark] ............................................................................................................................................ 3 (b) Scientists investigated the production of lactic acid by an athlete running at different speeds. In the investigation:
 

Name the process that makes lactic acid in the athlete’s muscles.

the athlete ran on the treadmill at 4 km per hour the scientists measured the concentration of lactic acid in the athlete’s blood after 2 minutes of running.

The investigation was repeated for different running speeds. Figure 3 shows the scientists’ results.

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7 Figure 3
8.0 7.0 6.0 Concentration of lactic acid in the blood in mmol per dm3 5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.0

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0

2

4 6 8 10 12 14 Treadmill speed in km per hour

16

3 (b) (i)

How much more lactic acid was there in the athlete’s blood when he ran at 14 km per hour than when he ran at 8 km per hour? [2 marks] ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ Answer = ......................... mmol per dm3

3 (b) (ii) Why is more lactic acid made in the muscles when running at 14 km per hour than when running at 8 km per hour? [3 marks] ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................

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8 4 Farmers sometimes grow crops in greenhouses without using any soil. Figure 4 shows one way this can be done. Figure 4

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Image of hydroponic system cannot be reproduced here due to third-party copyright constraints.

The pump for the solution sends water and ions to the plant roots. The solution flows slowly past the roots and returns to the reservoir. The concentration of the ions in the solution and its pH are controlled automatically. 4 (a) (i) It is an advantage to give ions to the plants as shown in Figure 4 instead of growing the plants in a container of soil. Give one reason why. [1 mark] ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ 4 (a) (ii) The air pump and airstone make bubbles of air in the solution of ions. Gases from the air will dissolve in the solution. Explain how this helps to keep the plants’ roots alive. [3 marks] ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................

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9 4 (b) Figure 5 shows how easy it is for plants to take in some ions at different pH values. The thicker the bar in Figure 5, the easier it is for the plants to take in the ion. Figure 5 Nitrate Phosphate Potassium Sulfate Calcium Magnesium 4 5 6 7 pH 8 9 10

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4 (b) (i)

The plants will grow better if the farmer keeps the solution at pH 7. Use information from Figure 5 to suggest why. [1 mark] ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................

4 (b) (ii) Each molecule of chlorophyll contains a magnesium ion. Why do plants need magnesium ions for healthy growth? [2 marks] ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ 4 (b) (iii) Name one ion that plants take in to supply them with nitrogen. [1 mark] ............................................................................................................................................ 4 (b) (iv) Give one reason why plants need a supply of the element nitrogen. [1 mark] ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ Turn over 

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10 5 At the seashore, the tide comes in and goes out twice each day. Some students investigated whether two different species of seaweed could live only at certain positions on a rocky shore. Seaweeds are plant-like organisms that make their food by photosynthesis. Figure 6 shows the two species of seaweed that the students investigated. Figure 6 Bladder wrack Air bladders Sea lettuce

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Not to scale

Holdfast (fixes seaweed to the rock)

5 (a)

The students: 1 2 3 placed a 50-metre tape measure on the rocks at right angles to the sea placed a quadrat next to the tape measure recorded whether each species was present or not.

The students repeated steps 2 and 3 every metre down the shore. Figure 7 shows a section of the seashore and the students’ results.

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11 Figure 7
2.0 1.5 metres 1.0 Rock 0.5 0.0 0 10 20 metres Students’ results Bladder wrack Sea lettuce 30 40 Sea Pools of seawater Section of the seashore

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0

10

20 metres

30

40

5 (a) (i)

The students placed the quadrat at regular intervals along a transect line rather than placing the quadrat at random positions anywhere on the rocky shore. Explain why. [2 marks] ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................

5 (a) (ii) How could the students have improved their investigation to ensure that they produced valid data? [2 marks] ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ Question 5 continues on the next page Turn over 

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12 5 (a) (iii) Figure 7 is repeated here to help you answer this question. Figure 7
2.0 1.5 metres 1.0 Rock 0.5 0.0 0 10 20 metres Students’ results Bladder wrack Sea lettuce 30 40 Sea Pools of seawater Section of the seashore

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0

10

20 metres

30

40

The students concluded that bladder wrack is better adapted than sea lettuce to survive in dry conditions. What is the evidence for this conclusion? Use information from Figure 7. [2 marks] ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................

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13 5 (b) The bladder wrack has many air bladders. The air bladders help the bladder wrack to float upwards when the sea covers it. Suggest how this helps the bladder wrack to survive. [2 marks] ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................

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Turn over for the next question

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14 6 6 (a) 6 (a) (i) Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inherited condition. PKU makes people ill. PKU is caused by a recessive allele. What is an allele? [1 mark] ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ 6 (a) (ii) What is meant by recessive? [1 mark] ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ 6 (b) Figure 8 shows the inheritance of PKU in one family. Figure 8 Key Male with PKU Female with PKU 5 6 7 8 9 Male without PKU Female without PKU 10 11

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1

2

3

4

6 (b) (i)

Give one piece of evidence from Figure 8 that PKU is caused by a recessive allele. [1 mark] ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................

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15 6 (b) (ii) Persons 6 and 7 are planning to have another child. Use a genetic diagram to find the probability that the new child will have PKU. Use the following symbols in your answer: N = the dominant allele for not having PKU n = the recessive allele for PKU. [4 marks]

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Probability = .................................................. 6 (c) Persons 6 and 7 wish to avoid having another child with PKU. A genetic counsellor advises that they could produce several embryos by IVF treatment. 6 (c) (i) During IVF treatment, each fertilised egg cell forms an embryo by cell division. Name this type of cell division. [1 mark] ............................................................................................................................................ 6 (c) (ii) An embryo screening technique could be used to find the genotype of each embryo. An unaffected embryo could then be placed in person 7’s uterus. The screening technique is carried out on a cell from an embryo after just three cell divisions of the fertilised egg. How many cells will there be in an embryo after the fertilised egg has divided three times? [1 mark] Question 6 continues on the next page Turn over 

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16 6 (c) (iii) During embryo screening, a technician tests the genetic material of the embryo to find out which alleles are present. The genetic material is made up of large molecules of a chemical substance. Name this chemical substance. [1 mark] ............................................................................................................................................ 6 (d) 6 (d) (i) Some people have ethical objections to embryo screening. Give one ethical objection to embryo screening. [1 mark] ............................................................................................................................................ 6 (d) (ii) Give one reason in favour of embryo screening. [1 mark] ............................................................................................................................................

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17 Turn over for the next question

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DO NOT WRITE ON THIS PAGE ANSWER IN THE SPACES PROVIDED

Turn over 

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18 7 (a) Fossils provide evidence for what early life forms were like. From the evidence, scientists think that life began on Earth more than 3 billion years ago. Many early life forms were soft-bodied. Explain why this makes it difficult for scientists to be certain about what these early life forms were like. [2 marks] ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ 7 (b) Figure 9 shows two types of pistol shrimp. The shrimps live in shallow, tropical seas on opposite sides of Panama. Figure 9
Panama Pacific Ocean Caribbean Sea

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Type A

Type B Not to scale

Scientists put one Type A shrimp and one Type B shrimp together in a tank of seawater. The two types of shrimp snapped their claws aggressively at each other. They did not mate. The scientists said that this was evidence for the Type A and Type B shrimps being classified as two different species. 7 (b) (i) Give one reason why the scientists’ opinion may be correct. [1 mark] ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................

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19 7 (b) (ii) Suggest two reasons why the scientists’ opinion may not be correct. [2 marks] 1 ......................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................ 2 ......................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................ 7 (c) Panama is a narrow strip of land which today joins North America and South America. It was formed by land moving up from beneath the sea. Panama has separated the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea for the past 3 million years. Explain how two different species of pistol shrimp could have developed from an ancestral species of shrimp. [6 marks] ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ END OF QUESTIONS

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20 There are no questions printed on this page

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DO NOT WRITE ON THIS PAGE ANSWER IN THE SPACES PROVIDED

Acknowledgement of copyright-holders and publishers Permission to reproduce all copyright material has been applied for. In some cases, efforts to contact copyright-holders have been unsuccessful and AQA will be happy to rectify any omissions of acknowledgements in future papers if notified. Figure 2: © Getty Images

Copyright © 2014 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved.

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...absorbed in it… That is really seeing it.” – Poetry teacher, Kim Yongtak The significance of seeing the world in a meaningful way is at the heart of Lee Chang-dong’s gentle, yet devastatingly humanistic film, Poetry. The masterwork grasps a certain intangibility of life; a certain meaning of existence that can only be seen if, coincidentally, one tries to understand the film like a poem. In the same way that we’ll never “see” an apple until we try to “understand” it, we’ll never truly see a tree, hear a bird sing, or come to fathom, in any meaningful way, the existence of another human being until we really try. Mija, the film’s protagonist, is a 66-year old raising her teenage grandson, Wook, in a tiny, cluttered apartment in an unnamed South Korean city. The film begins with her being diagnosed as an Alzheimer’s patient. With the onset of this disease, her life begins to lose meaning: words fade from her vocabulary, connections with the material word diminish, and people don’t seem to make much sense to her. Considering this, her pursuit to study poetry is a way to imbue her life with new meaning. And while this pursuit begins as a pastime, it soon transforms into a passion and, finally, becomes a means of transcendence; a means of seeing the world and the people close to her in a way that could only be described as beautiful, genuine and poetic. For while Mija does not initially understand the death of the young girl, Agnes, through poetry, she is able to see it......

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