Free Essay

Polio Eradication

In: Other Topics

Submitted By hansicak
Words 4286
Pages 18
A CRITIQUE OF THE RESEARCH EVEDENCE ON ERADICATION OF POLIO IN PAKISTAN & INDIA

Contents Abstract 3 Introduction 4 Challenges that were faced 6 The impact of Social mobilization 9 Making the influencers a part of the programm 10 The role of media 11 Conclusion 11 References 12

Abstract
Ever since the year 1988, there has been a challenge going on to eradicate polio. This has been possible because of the Global Polio Eradication Programme. This initiative has used various media resources to make people aware of the ill effects of polio thereby allowing immunization to take place all over the world so that this harmful disease can be combated. However one of the most challenging tasks that were faced during this initiative was to reach the far flung places which were poor in economy and had very little access to health facilities so that polio could be completely eradicated. The program used various strategies combined with research and innovation so that they could gain access to populations that had been unreached (Adedeji, Marquez, Moore & Gonzalez, 2007).
Here in this analysis we shall be reviewing the challenges that came while conquering the polio battle in both India and Pakistan during the years of 2000 up to 2007. This case study will delve upon the following points: 1. The epidemiological aspect of polio 2. The data analysis 3. Strategies of communication used to make people more conscious
It also deals about how findings are based on research projects and communication with the people via media formats such as the television, radio and newspapers and social mobilization. These forms of communication with the common people have helped to drastically cut down the occurrence of Polio in both the countries (Peek, 2000).
Communication campaigns that include social networking, listening to what the people have to say, learning about their demands, facing stigmas based on gender discrimination, not allowing their child to be vaccinated have been given utmost importance. The analysis will also conclude with numerous studies that have further elaborated the need for communication while eradicating polio along with the impact that it has both globally and locally upon the interventions concerning Public Health. The reason of selecting this topic is that India and Pakistan are two countries that lack basic health care services and eradicating polio will help both the countries to have a better future for its children along with being disease free.

Introduction

With the help of the Global Polio Eradication Programme since 1988, the world has been immensely close to eradicating this menace of Polio. For this initiative to be a success communicating with the people has played a very pivotal role. The World Health Organization created this program along with collaboration from the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention and the UNICEF (Paul, 2009). There have been several nongovernmental organisations such as the Bill and the Melinda Gates foundations that have been an imperative part of this program. Countries that have been severely stricken by Polio also are a part of the initiative (WHO. 2014). With the help of vaccination drives the numbers of cases suffering from Polio were brought down drastically. With the numbers being 350000 during the year 1988 and only 1643 in the year 2009 so we can say that ever since the program started it has certainly worked towards wiping polio off from the face of the earth. Communication programs have mainly helped in ensuring that these community immunization campaigns are a grand success but the issue of polio persisting in India and Pakistan still remains (Paul, 2007). They are some of the most hardest to reach countries with poor medical facilities thereby making them polio free has become a huge challenge that needs to be overcome in the coming times by utilizing modern research techniques and communicating plans and strategies.
Here we will be delving into the years 2000 – 2007(Afzal & Rai, 2009) and see the efforts that have been made to eradicate polio along with understanding about the strategies that have lead to a rise towards immunization of the disease especially to those populations that are very difficult to reach out to. There have been campaigns going on from quite some time in both India and Pakistan to combat polio and the time duration that has been analysed in this case study states the new techniques of using the epidemiological data and ideas of communicating so that people could understand the need of eradicating polio. The reason why I have chosen to lay emphasis on only India and Pakistan is because of the following reasons: 1. The both are countries that are very difficult to reach out to 2. People are not very well educated to understand the graveness of the situation 3. Needs a more plan oriented approach to deal with the problem 4. Communication interventions need to be monitored in both countries in order to ensure that the campaign is a success.

Reviews about the communication of Polio have been conducted at both national and international levels further these reviews have been conducted at the sub nation level as well, thereby helping immensely towards the collection of the data, its analysis and how it helps towards creating initiatives that can help to communicate with the people. It also includes getting help for expert analysts from the advisory groups that specialise in eradication of Polio programs (2015). In this assignment I will also highlight how data collected can be based on evidence study, the need of communication interventions along with the usage of social mobilisation have helped both India and Pakistan to address the problems related to Polio that both countries have faced. In the conclusion I will also state the observations that have been made that deal with the last stages of eradicating polio and what effects it has on the health communication modules (Oshinsky, 2005). The exact definition of public health communication is based on the application of communication intervention that include the following a) Social mobilization b) Communicating interpersonally c) Mass media d) Local medical
These following methods need to be extensively used so that all the objectives pertaining to public health can be achieved. The entire concept of social mobilization is based on attaining a goal by using efforts that are self reliant in nature which sometimes can include using help from different organisations and media resources.

Method of research
A wide range of data was collected that was segregated into primary and secondary data, this data contained the research along with the reports that were made from the technical departments and the papers that had documented all the efforts that were being taken to eradicate polio in both the countries. An examination of the data was done in a very random format over the reports that were collected from the surveys that were held in some regions of India and Pakistan (Ahmad, 2003); interviews of people from various polio vaccination camps and some surveys that were conducted by the Technical Advisory Group were also studied. Apart from this all the data that was collected from various meeting of the advisory groups and campaigns was also taken into account. All these provided significant data pertaining to polio eradication in India and in Pakistan also measures that were taken by different countries to deal with polio were taken into account (Obregón et al., 2009). The findings of the research are backed by quantitative and qualitative data that has been collected in the time span of 7 years for this research.
Challenges that were faced

There was a huge challenge that was faced in the form of coordination of the a logistics that were available, the number of health workers that were a part of the program , the people who volunteered at the booth for polio vaccinations and those who were part of teams conducting house visits. India certainly has taken steps and has show immense progress in reducing the numbers of polio since the year 1995. By the year 2005, nearly 170 million of the population of children had been immunized by the oral poliomyelitis vaccine when the days for national immunization were held and more than 100 million were immunised when sub national days of immunization were held. Also the percentage of children that were immunised went up from 86% to 96% (Ansari et al., 2014) in the years 2000 to 2007. Here the children were given a minimum of two doses of the oral poliomyelitis vaccine. Apart from this the polio eradication drive in Pakistan commenced in the year 1995 and their numbers also reduced from 3000 cases to a mere 156 cases that were primarily of wild polio. There has been a certain downfall in the occurrence of polio till the recent years (Nair, 2002).

Fig 1. Cases of wild polio in Pakistan from 1998 -2007
The massive camps that were held in the formative years have contributed significantly for the decrement of cases of polio that lead most of the people to believe that eradicating polio was of utmost importance. However a major setback in these numbers was seen in India during the year 2001- 2002 when the numbers increased from 268 to 1600. (Seen in Figure 2.) And this rise went on to 66 cases in the year 2005 to nearly 875 in the year 2007. 80%(Athar Ansari, Khan & Khan, 2007) of the polio cases were from the state of Uttar Pradesh in India where the most affected were people who belong to the lowliest economic strata of the society that had no access to health services. There was a rise in the number of cases in Pakistan as well with the maximum rise was witnessed during 2003 to 2006, which led to believing that more stringent actions needed to be taken so that this increment could be dealt with so that all the people could have access to the vaccine for Polio so that its transmission could be stopped.

Fig 2. Cases of Wild Polio in India.
Mostly the cases of Polio that were reported were of children who were 2 years of age and were a part of Muslim communities that were very poor and basic sanitation was not available to them. They also missed most of the oral polio vaccine campaigns and thus had received a lesser number of the doses of the vaccine. Thus the question that arises is why did the children miss out on the OPV drives? ('Polio Eradication Plan', 2004) A large percentage of the parents were aware of the importance of polio drops so that their children could be protected from the disease while some simply failed to understand the need to give so many doses of the vaccine to their children.
Numerous doubts pertaining to the vaccines and some people were even suspicious of the agenda behind these campaigns. Hence they were pulled out and it was seen that the basic problems were clinics that had lack of staff, the connectivity via mode of transport was poor and prevalence of other diseases. Some misconceptions that surrounded the vaccine were that it caused unknown illness in the children who were given the dose; it was not very effective, gave way to infertility and mainly was a huge campaign that was started so that the Muslim population could be curbed and the Hindu population could have an upper hand (Bagchi, 2007). In the mean while Pakistan also had its own share of misconceptions surrounding the Oral polio vaccine. Very few children were brought by their parents for the vaccine, people were not comfortable of a team comprising of only males who visited their homes as a part of the campaigns. The people who volunteered to be a part of the program were fed up of the endless questions that were related to the OPV and the scenario was worsened further when a news channel stated that sub standard OPV were used. Hence a large number of families resisted the vaccine and thus their children did not get immunized. However in countries like Nigeria the campaign faced the same kind of resistance because of similar misconceptions. The most pivotal challenges that both the countries faced was reaching out to the population that lived in far flung areas of India and Pakistan and had a very low form of immunity so that cases of Wild Polio could be curbed because the environment that these people lived in was very conducive for the spread of polio. Therefore reaching out to the population that are undeserved has become one of the most important agendas of the initiative as their communication interventions were not enough to bring about a reform in the people so that they would be open to the vaccine(Brown, 2001). Thus a challenge has been set that deals with convincing the parents and the care givers of the children to understand the numerous benefits of immunizing their children and to further educate those people whose children have already been vaccinated so that they do not stop the doses in the coming times.

The impact of Social mobilization

There are various campaigns that are being held and are being advertised on various social media platforms, however these media advertisements are visible only at the national level and those people who are a part of the underserved populations do not have an access to these communication campaigns hence it’s imperative that an intervention pertaining to social mobilization is brought into order('WHO is to add a monovalent oral poliomyelitis vaccine to its existing polio eradication regimen in India,', 2006). In India alone only health workers have been pulled up so that the deal with the issue directly so that they can work along with the health workers at the local level, the district level and the community level can educate the population about the various benefits of the OPV (Chaturvedi, 2008). They thus coordinated with the teams so that they could conduct a follow up at several time intervals to check with the families of the children. Also a significant rise was seen in the number of activities that the campaign held communicating interpersonally was spiked up in the form of house visits and making use of influencing people of the society and religious leaders such as the doctors and the priests of that area.
Studies have shown that these rises in the activities has led to a reduction in the number of polio cases. Places where there was lack of awareness before these social mobilization initiatives have seen a rise in number of people who attended the vaccine both in comparison to those families who did not partake in these activities. In nearly 4 districts of Uttar Pradesh which were at high risk saw a drop in the number of wild polio cases and there was an increment in the number of polio booths that were set up as well. The percentage rose from 50% to 57% during the period of 2000- 2007(Closser, 2010).
Pakistan also saw its own share of changes and a series of social mobilization campaigns were set into motion and more than 95% of the people agreed to the fact that polio was indeed a grave issue that needed to be eradicated while only 83% people who did not have these activities believed in the importance of eradicating polio. In districts where these activities were increased saw a rise in people who believed that the OPV was the solution to eradicating polio (Mail, 2002). The polio eradication drive that Pakistan started revised its plans pertaining to communicating plans so that they could focus completely on those people who had high chances of accepting the oral polio vaccine. By the year 2005 nearly 98% of the people were aware of the polio initiative and more than 50% (Coates, Waisbord, Awale, Solomon & Dey, 2013) of the people said that they discussed the benefits of the oral polio vaccine with their family and friends. Thus these findings led the campaign to lay more emphasis on educating women as they were the primary care givers to their children.
Hence this communication plan now focused solely on making women aware of the benefits of the oral polio vaccine (Silk, 2007). Women were trained as health workers which led to intensification of the communication plans. They thus helped to influence women in families about the importance of OPV, support was provided to them from religious leaders and doctors from the neighbouring areas.
Making the influencers a part of the program

The most imperative challenge that has been faced by the program is reaching out to the far flung population, which includes large number of the Muslim community. Which led to the form a strategy that focused only on educating the people about the wild polio cases and the lack of sanitation that was available to the people? Famous institutions like the Aligarh Muslim University along with doctors and religious leaders were made a part of the initiative so that the people could be motivated. Nearly 87% increment as seen because of this program. A similar change was seen in Pakistan a rise as well. As per data collected in the year 2007 an increment was seen from 37% to 50 %('Polio Eradication Plan', 2004) for immunization of children as well. Hence including religious leaders and celebrities indeed worked like a charm to educate the people.

The role of media Media has had a very crucial role to play when it comes to eradicating polio. Most people stated that they had heard about polio booths and immunization days either on the television or on the radio. The percentage went up to 89 %( John, 2009) in the year 2007. Thus we can state that communication in the form of social media does influence peoples thinking’s to a large extent thus leading to a larger turn out of people to the various polio booths.
Lessons learnt from improving communication include the following: 1. Using interventions that are based on communication that can monitor the data on the underserved populations. 2. Excessive utilisation of social mobilization at all levels so that the overall efficiency of the polio eradication initiative can be increased. 3. Using influencers such as leaders and building relationship with the families along with the caregivers who are resistant towards the oral polio vaccine. 4. Using doctors and celebrities as spokespersons for campaigns to reach out to the people. 5. Conduct more house visits for administering polio drops 6. Work at the grass root level so that people can become aware of the implications of polio and understand the dire need for immunization. Conclusion
Communication in the past few years for eradicating polio has been based mainly on the information that has been provided by the health care sector, through various media platforms which have all worked with one goal that is to increase the rise for the vaccines of polio mostly in those areas that have complete access to immunization booths and services. But the cases of polio in India and Pakistan (Kew, 2012) have given rise to a complete new set of challenges which are based mostly on having the need for interventions which are mainly helpful in dealing with epidemic along with immunization of the children. The two countries have come up with various plans and initiatives that can improve the problem of immunizing children in far flung areas (Durante & Dal Poz, 2014). The data that has been collected by the epidemiology state that interventions in the form of communication methods are the best approach to follow. Therefore setting up various programs that deal with eradication, increasing the demand for vaccines, improving the attendance for the polio booths, making more efforts to advertise about the immunization days and working over the resistant areas of the population.
Even though there have been numerous setbacks when it came to eradicating polio both the countries of India and Pakistan has certainly made progress in eliminating the diseases. The strategies of communication have made a significant contribution to change the perspective of the people towards OPV('India “number one” polio eradication priority, says WHO', 2003), overcoming the resistance towards the vaccine, gender obstacles and most imperative of all reaching out to the undeserved population have been done. They thus need to continue with all these initiatives so that polio can be eliminated completely with not a trace left behind (Salgado, 2003).
This case stud hence shows the complete contribution of communication so that a wide network of support can be built while addressing the population that is far flung and resists the vaccine. The problem lies mainly in the social stigma against the vaccine and no vaccine can cure it, it can only be cured by educating the masses and making them aware of the implication of not vaccinating their children. Doctors cannot do the job alone as it needs to be addressed at the grass root levels (Islam & Rizwan, 2014). This is why polio drops are being provided at the doorstep. Hence these problems need to be based solely on communication strategies. All the lessons that have been learned by this program need to be collaborated so that further issues can be dealt with in a more stream lined manner.

References

1. (2015) (1st ed.). Retrieved from http://www.polioeradication.org/content/publications/PolioStrategicPlan09-13_Framework.pdf 2. Adedeji, A., Marquez, S., Moore, F., & Gonzalez, A. (2007). The global initiative to eradicate polio. 3. Afzal, O., & Rai, M. (2009). Battling polio in Pakistan: Breaking new ground. Vaccine, 27(40), 5431. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.07.019 4. Ahmad, K. (2003). Much needed aid helps Pakistan step up polio fight. The Lancet, 361(9372), 1876. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(03)13545-3 5. Ansari, M., Khan, Z., Mehnaz, S., Shah, M., Abedi, A., & Ahmad, A. (2014). Role of social mobilization in tackling the resistance to polio eradication program in underserved communities of Aligarh, India. SE Asia J. Pub. Health, 3(2). doi:10.3329/seajph.v3i2.20035 6. Athar Ansari, M., Khan, Z., & Khan, I. (2007). Reducing resistance against polio drops. The Journal Of The Royal Society For The Promotion Of Health, 127(6), 276-279. doi:10.1177/1466424007083705 7. Bagchi, S. (2007). Polio eradication setback in India. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 176(3), 311-311. doi:10.1503/cmaj.061716 8. Brown, F. (2001). Progress in polio eradication. Basel: Karger. 9. Chaturvedi, G. (2008). The vital drop. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: SAGE Publications. 10. Closser, S. (2010). Chasing polio in Pakistan. Nashville, Tenn.: Vanderbilt University Press. 11. Coates, E., Waisbord, S., Awale, J., Solomon, R., & Dey, R. (2013). Successful polio eradication in Uttar Pradesh, India: the pivotal contribution of the Social Mobilization Network, an NGO/UNICEF collaboration. Global Health: Science And Practice, 1(1), 68-83. doi:10.9745/ghsp-d-12-00018 12. Durante, A., & Dal Poz, M. (2014). Global health and brazilian health responsibility: the case of polio eradication. Saúde Em Debate, 38(100). doi:10.5935/0103-104.20140007 13. India “number one” polio eradication priority, says WHO. (2003). Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes News, 407(1), 11-11. doi:10.1007/bf03276107 14. Islam, A., & Rizwan, K. (2014). A Comprehensive Analysis of Pakistan's Polio Eradication Program. Saarbrücken: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing. 15. John, J. (2009). Role of injectable and oral polio vaccines in polio eradication. Expert Review Of Vaccines, 8(1), 5-8. doi:10.1586/14760584.8.1.5 16. Kew, O. (2012). Reaching the last one per cent: progress and challenges in global polio eradication.Current Opinion In Virology, 2(2), 188-198. doi:10.1016/j.coviro.2012.02.006 17. Mail, P. (2002). Book Review: Public Health Communication: Evidence for Behavior Change. Health Education & Behavior, 29(6), 771-772. doi:10.1177/109019802237943 18. Nair, V. (2002). Polio eradication - global initiative; strategy challenged in Kerala, India. Journal Of Public Health, 24(3), 207-210. doi:10.1093/pubmed/24.3.207 19. Obregón, R., Chitnis, K., Morry, C., Feek, W., Bates, J., Galway, M., & Ogden, E. (2009). Achieving polio eradication: a review of health communication evidence and lessons learned in India and Pakistan. Bulletin Of The World Health Organization, 87(8), 624-630. doi:10.2471/blt.08.060863 20. Oshinsky, D. (2005). Polio. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 21. Paul, Y. (2007). What needs to be done for polio eradication in India?. Vaccine, 25(35), 6431-6436. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2007.05.059 22. Paul, Y. (2009). Credibility of polio data from India. Vaccine, 27(24), 3130. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.03.031 23. Peek, P. (2000). Drew in West Africa: Some Observations. African Issues, 28(1/2), 101. doi:10.2307/1167068 24. Polio Eradication Plan. (2004). JAMA, 291(7), 813. doi:10.1001/jama.291.7.813-d 25. Polio Eradication Plan. (2004). JAMA, 291(7), 813. doi:10.1001/jama.291.7.813-d 26. Progress Toward Poliomyelitis Eradication--Pakistan, 1994-1998. (1999). JAMA: The Journal Of The American Medical Association, 281(18), 1691-1692. doi:10.1001/jama.281.18.1691 27. Salgado, S. (2003). The end of polio. Boston: Bulfinch Press, AOL Time Warner Book Group. 28. Silk, K. (2007). A Review of: “Haider, M. (2005). Global public health communication: Challenges, perspectives, and strategies.”. Journal Of Health Communication, 12(8), 815-817. doi:10.1080/10810730701672686 29. WHO is to add a monovalent oral poliomyelitis vaccine to its existing polio eradication regimen in India,. (2006). Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes News, &NA;(517), 10. doi:10.2165/00151234-200605170-00026 30. WHO.,. (2014). Weekly Epidemiological Record Vol. 89 No 44 2014. Geneva: World Health Organization.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Sucess of Polio Virus

...virus that has paralyzed millions of people throughout the years. Although some cases of polio virus infections still occur (mostly in third-world countries), the mainstream spread of the virus was eradicated in 1988, when 99.9% of annual diagnosed cases were reduced. Now, 80% of the world’s population live in polio-free zones (Our Progress Against Polio, 2014). This vaccine is now considered to be one of the most successful vaccines ever discovered. Currently, there are four different types of polio vaccines: Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV), Monovalent Oral Polio Vaccines (mOPV1 and mOPV3), Bivalent Oral Polio Vaccine (bOPV) and Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV) (Inactivated Polio Vaccine, 2014). The OPV vaccine was created to have a unique ability to produce unmatched gastrointestinal immunity, thereby preventing infection with wild-type virus (Jesus, 2007). The OPV is composed of att strains of all three PV serotypes, grown in vitro. When creating the vaccine, scientists were looking for strains that would be able to replicate efficiently in the GI tract and central nervous system, as well as have the genetic stability to survive replication within the human host (Jesus, 2007). However, the temperature sensitive phenotype of the strains is thought to be the most efficient and important part of the vaccine, that lead to this medical phenomena (Jesus, 2007). Thus, the OPV became the preferred polio vaccine in most countries. The fact that the vaccine was able to produce......

Words: 344 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Polio Disease

...an effective ‘lifeline’ in preventing the spread and occurrence of common diseases such as polio. Polio also known as poliomyelitis is a common, acute viral disease that invades the central nervous system. The disease is sub-divided into three types as either; Sub-Clinical (no symptoms), Non-Paralytic (mild symptoms) or Paralytic (produces full/partial paralysis). Polio is caused by the pathogen poliovirus, a highly contagious virus specific to humans. There are three known types of polioviruses (1, 2 and 3) each causing a different strain of the disease. All are members of the viral genus Enterovirus; a group of RNA viruses that colonise the gastrointestinal tract (specifically the intestines). Polio is a highly infectious disease transmitted by direct contact to an infected individual, via primarily the faecal-oral route, which occurs with poor sanitary conditions. The virus enters the body through the mouth and multiplies in the lymphoid tissues in the throat and gastrointestinal tract. Once absorbed, it moves to the central nervous system through the bloodstream where it destroys the motor neuron cells. Factors that increase the risk of polio infection or affect the severity of the disease include malnutrition, physical activity and pregnancy. The incubation period of polio, from the time of first exposure to first symptoms, ranges from three to 35 days. Although polio can cause paralysis and death, the vast majority of people who are infected with the......

Words: 857 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Combating Wild Poliovirus

...age there are vaccines available to prevent a wide variety of diseases. The use of vaccines in a systematic fashion was successful in the eradication of smallpox. This has given many epidemiologists hope that society can eventually eradicate all infectious diseases. An example of a disease that is currently being combated and near eradication is poliomyelitis. Surveillance is the primary method of data collection used by epidemiologists to identify outbreaks, track the origin of the virus, and target vaccination efforts. The World Health Organization has identified the need and more importantly the medical ability to eradicate polio. Subsequently the World Health Organization launched the Global Polio Eradication Initiative with the goal of polio eradication in mind ("Progress towards global," 2012). When wild poliovirus is suspected the medical personal will have the samples tested at accredited facilities that identifies if wild poliovirus is present in the sample being tested. If wild poliovirus is present then further testing is conducted. Once a sample has tested positive for wild poliovirus genetic screening is used to identify which strain of wild poliovirus is present in the sample ("Progress towards global," 2012). Making use of the genetic profile of the sample and current medical knowledge the Global Polio Eradication Initiative can identify the origin of the wild poliovirus in the sample. Obviously this can be useful in tracking the movement of wild......

Words: 478 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Global Development Case Study

...The program ultimately targets to prevent 1.8 million malnutrition-related deaths by 2020 and to develop and test new solutions to address the burden of malnutrition that cannot be alleviated using existing interventions. It focuses on country impact, new solutions, food systems, data, analytics and evidence and policy initiatives. 9) Polio Aim of this program is to eradicate Polio disease from the whole planet and make the world polio free. Being a top priority for the foundation, proven strategies such as targeted vaccination campaigns, community mobilization and stronger immunization efforts have been worked upon extensively. The foundation has also been working with partners on innovative ways to enhance polio surveillance and outbreak response, accelerate the development and use of safer, more effective polio vaccines, and build financial and political support for polio eradication efforts. It focuses on - a) Polio Vaccination Campaign b) Routine Immunization...

Words: 1075 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Vaccinate or Not to Vaccinate

...resembles a disease-ridden microorganism or a weakened form of a microbe. Vaccines do not guarantee complete protection from a disease, and many people are beginning to question the effectiveness of vaccines. Parents wonder if vaccinations really help in the prevention of illnesses. Although vaccinations can bring adverse effects, it is necessary to provide oneself with the protection against various diseases. This is why schools make it mandatory for children to have their up to date immunizations before entering school. I know there are some cases that gets waived for religious reasons. When children aren’t vaccinated, they are left defenseless against diseases like Hepatitis B, Measles, Mumps, Chicken Pox (that can lead to shingles), Polio, Pertussis (whooping cough), and Rubella just to name the ones we hear about more often. All these diseases have the ability to easily kill, and if it weren’t for the vaccines protecting many children in the United States, the spread of these...

Words: 939 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Expanded Program on Immunization

...individual vaccines has improved as shown in Figure 1: (Demographic Health Survey 2003 and 2008).  Fully Immunized Child (FIC) coverage improved by 10% and the Child Protected at Birth (CPAB) against Tetanus improved by 13% compared to any prior period.  Thus, the Philippines has now historically the highest coverage for these two major indicators.    Figure 1:  Comparison of the 2003 and 2008 EPI indicators, Source: NDHS III.    Interventions/ Strategies Program Objectives/Goals:  Over-all Goal: To reduce the morbidity and mortality among children against the most common vaccine-preventable diseases.  Specific Goals: 1.   To immunize all infants/children against the most common vaccine-preventable diseases. 2.   To sustain the polio-free status of the Philippines. 3.   To eliminate measles infection. 4.   To eliminate maternal and neonatal tetanus 5.   To control diphtheria, pertussis, hepatitis b and German measles. 6.   To prevent extra pulmonary tuberculosis among...

Words: 1616 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Fragile Administration Is a Big Hurdle for Pulse Polio Immunization Program.

...Fragile Administration is a big hurdle for Pulse Polio Immunization program. Vijay, 1 Fragile Administration is a big hurdle for Pulse Polio Immunization program. Gautam Vijay Johns Hopkins Carey Business School Author Note This paper is prepared as a review of Pulse Polio Immunization Program monitored by the author on behalf of WHO-INDIA as an external monitor. FRAGILE ADMINISTRATION…. Vijay, 2 Introduction Year 2007, Pulse Polio Immunization Program was conducted in the Northern part of Gujarat, a state/province in the western part of India. In past few years, despite of repeated periodical Pulse Polio Immunization programs, Government had failed to curb the menace of Polio in this region. This review points out the various loci of laxity observed, while monitoring the program as an External Monitor on behalf of WHO – India, under following headings: - 1. Polio – long standing challenge 2. Emergence of Pulse Polio 3. Role of External Monitors 4. Personal experience with the programme in North Gujarat in 2007 Polio – long lasting challenge Polio, also known as Poliomyelitis is a viral contagious disease, caused by Polio virus. It is an intestinal virus which attacks the nervous system. The disease is contracted through contact with contaminated feces or through airborne droplets in food and water. Port of entry into the human body is via nostrils or oral cavity, the virus then reaches the intestines. After incubation it......

Words: 1051 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

The Important Public Health Developments During the Last 20 Years

...The Important Public Health Care Developments during the Last 200 Years Michael K. Kivuva Uvocorp The field of public health has witnessed many changes over the past two centuries. The transformations have been fueled by various scientific innovations which have helped to reduce the prevalence of infectious diseases. Technological advancements have also led to various developments. The developments that have occurred in this field include improved sanitation and hygiene, vaccination, and improved methods of detection of diseases. These developments have led to the formulation of policies, public health programs and health promotion campaigns that have helped to control infectious diseases. In the 19th century, industrialization encouraged people to migrate from rural to urban areas as they searched for opportunities in the industrialized centers. This shift led to overcrowding which created various public health concerns. The overcrowded areas had poorly built houses that lacked proper sewerage drainage systems. Moreover, they did not have clean water supply systems. These shortcomings led to frequent outbreaks of diseases like cholera, typhoid fever, malaria, dysentery and yellow fever. However, various public health interventions that started in 1900 helped to overcome these challenges. In the first half of the 20th century, most local and state governments set up infrastructure for sewage disposal and clean water supply to homes. Moreover, water for...

Words: 665 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Gobalization

...Running head: GLOBALIZATION AND DIVERSITY IMPACT ON HEALTHCARE Globalization and Diversity Impact on Healthcare Organizations LaWanda D. Williams Kaplan University Health-care is one of the fastest-growing sectors in the world, and international trade in health services has created economic and diplomatic opportunities for both medical personnel and countries especially those that are low- or middle-income. The Infectious Disease Threat and Implications for the United States, health threats and issues have continued to have significant impacts on the world stage. Highly publicized virulent infectious diseases---- including HIV/AIDS, a potential influenza pandemic, and “mystery” illnesses such as the 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) –remain the most direct health-related threats to the United States, but are not the only health indicators with strategic significance. Chronic, non-communicable diseases; neglected tropical diseases; maternal and child mortality; malnutrition; sanitation and access to clean water; and availability of basic healthcare also affect the US national interest through their impacts on the economies, governments, and militaries of key countries and regions. The greatest infectious disease challenge for the US since the beginning of the decade has been the potential emergence of a severe influenza pandemic. Although the H5N1 avian influenza virus remains primarily a threat to poultry, it and other such viruses continue to evolve...

Words: 1362 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Midterm Report

...Reservoir : Rabies outbreaks are related to concurrent increased human activity that contact with animals. Rabies is a zoonotic disease that is caused by a virus. The disease infects domestic and wild animals, and is spread to people through close contact with infected saliva via bites or scratches. 4.Vectors : Japanese encephalitis is a disease transmitted via mosquitoes from Domestic pigs and wild birds. The outbreak occurred when the vector mosquitoes proliferated in rustic countries in summer. The widespread use of vaccine and cleaning living environment can control of the disease. Public Health Biology 2. Compare and contrast the Salk killed polio vaccine (IPV) and the Sabin live, attenuated polio vaccine (OPV) in terms of effectiveness, duration of immunity, safety, and ease of distribution. State under what conditions the use of one is preferable over the other....

Words: 1390 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Childhood Vaccinations

...Samuel Allen Issue Proposal draft English 1302 August 30, 2015 Should Vaccinations be Mandated? How many cases of polio or smallpox have we gotten in the last 20 years? The answer to that is none. Vaccinations are one of public health’s greatest achievements. However, an ethical dilemma lies in the balance of personal autonomy and choice versus protection of the entire at-risk population. Vaccinations in the US are responsible for the eradication of smallpox. They have also helped with significant reductions in other serious infections like influenza, polio and the measles. The issue for me is then why are diseases becoming more prevalent in our country recently? What has changed? I believe the issue is two-fold. The first issue is our children. New mothers in the United States are now refusing to vaccinate their children because of a financial burden to get the shots, a religious belief that goes against what they see as truth, as well as the reactions and possible death they may cause. The second issue is that our country has become lazy with protecting its citizens. People from other countries are allowed to come to our country, possible even infected with the virus, and live amongst us infecting us. The second tier to this is that there is no follow up on the people who have got vaccinated to see if their bodies have produced enough antibodies for protection. So the issue I have, that I hope to answer is, should vaccinations be mandated for anyone living and......

Words: 794 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

The Use of Vaccines

...antigens that stimulate the immune system to create antibodies that prevent future infections from the disease. There are fourteen vaccine-preventable diseases that are considered potentially serious and have been routinely vaccinated against; these are: Measles, Mumps, Rubella, Meningococcal, Rotavirus, Diptheria, Tetanus, Pertussis (Whooping Cough), Polio, Hepatitis A and B, Pneumococcal disease, Varicella (Chicken Pox), and Haemophilus Influenza Type B (HIB disease). Not long ago, these diseases disabled and killed millions of American children but because of the United States high compliance with childhood immunization schedules, these diseases have now become very uncommon (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2015).  Immunization is a subject that evokes very strong opinions in the public and usually creates a lot of debate as to their efficacy, safety, and reliability. The main questions parents have to answer are whether to immunize or not, and do the risks of the disease outweigh the risks of the vaccine. To condense, some normal advantages of being immunized are the entire eradication of specific illnesses, the prevention of epidemics and a decline in the...

Words: 1426 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Vaccinate or Not to Vaccinate

...vaccinations to eradicate the small pox epidemic through community immunity. “Community immunity” or “herd immunity” is where a significant percentage of the population is immune to a disease, either through vaccination or prior illness, so the spread of the disease is unlikely. ( National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases). Since 1800, many vaccines have been developed including the polio vaccine by Dr. Salk in 1954. With massive polio vaccinations since 1954, eradication of the disease was declared in 1994 in the Americas. However nowadays there are many groups that believe vaccines are doing more harm than good. A recent perceived rise in autism rates and the push for more vaccines during infancy has caused some parents and researchers to believe there is a relationship between the vaccines and autism. Out of concern for safety of their children, some parents are choosing not to vaccinate or alter the government recommended vaccination schedule. Many doctors agree with government schedules for vaccinations and relate them to the elimination and reduction of diseases such as polio, measles, mumps, pertussis and more. This essay will explore the positions of parents, researchers and physicians regarding vaccines against disease. Most parents evaluate the risks and benefits of vaccines based on what their pediatrician recommends. This paragraph should talk about what parent’s believe and why. Doctors typically follow the Centers for Disease Control......

Words: 1435 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Perspective on Health Care

...a systematic way of evaluating human infections and learning more about human health with the aim of discovering the human health disorders and inventing strategies for the preventing and treating human diseases (Jacobsen, 2012). It also involves the evaluation of safety and effectiveness of particular treatment procedures, validation of a course of treatment and collection of data that will allow future analysis of the study. History of Health Research and the Future Although health research dates back to early 14th century, active scientific approach to health care challenges started with studies about the antibiotics after the Second World War. The discovery of penicillin and vaccines like polio and measles opened studies for several drug and disease which later led to eradication of certain communicable diseases (Jacobsen, 2012). The research has enabled development of over 1,000 drugs which are approved by Food and Drug Administration (Polgar and Thomas, 2008). These drugs have successfully been used treat threatening diseases like leprosy. Furthermore the drugs have been used to manage modern chronic terminal...

Words: 989 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Negative Externalities In Public Health

...the other hand the utility of third parties would be increased at no cost by a positive externalities. So the collaborative welfare of society is improved but he providers cannot calculate this profit in terms of money. Positive externalities of some programs like increase budget of education will increase educated people, can improve the political future of country because an educated person has a good sense to elect right person. Public health initiatives programs may decrease the health risks and costs for third parties. Law enforcement may reduce accidents and traumas etc. Some times we have to face problems in case of positive externalities in the shape of free riders. For example take the case of eradication of polio in Pakistan, why are we not yet succeeded to eradicate polio while most of the countries eradicate it, the reason behind it, the people that refuse vaccination, still avoiding the disease by “free riding” on the cost paid by others....

Words: 854 - Pages: 4