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Political Parties

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Political Parties and the Electoral Process
Timothy M Mcalister
Professor Julie Waldon
POL110
6/09/2014
Strayer University

Abstract
This paper explores the political parties and the electoral process. In this paper I have identified ideological differences between the two major parties, the conservative and liberals of the democratic and republican parties. Though I do not directly state democratic nor republican, it is widely known that the republicans are liberal while the republicans are conservative. Anything to do with the government is always debatable and can quickly change but based on the information I have gathered from books and the internet, listed in my references, I can only conclude from what I have read. Based on the writings of Theodore J. Lowi and Herbert Alexander I have been able to look into a third-party system how it is set up to fail. Between the electoral and presidential lead parties that are wanted and are there for the people, and what they want, will make it.

Political Parties and the Electoral Process Both major political parties in the United States have their pros and cons when it comes to the views on abortion, gun control, taxes, affirmative action, and gay marriage. The liberal views of most democrats want everyone to have the rights they deserve, but then they know some of those rights should be limited. Though this seems hypocritical the rights, they want to see, restricted are gun control to name one. This is a right we are allowed by the founding fathers, but it is true there are some who should never get their hands on a gun. The conservative views of most republicans follow the teachings of the Bible very strictly, and issues such as gay marriage and abortions are, in their minds, corrupt. When it comes to gun control or taxes, it seems they want to control the government but do not want to government to control them. In my opinion republicans are the most hypocritical of them all. The major issues that come up in the liberal and conservative discussions turn and rotate quite often. Abortion was and always will be a significant issue in debates. The liberals see abortion, as long as it is before viability, as a right the woman has. The conservatives believe that an abortion is immoral and should be banned, at any stage of growth. Though issues of abortion have settled down a bit, though not completely, gay marriage has taken the lead. The problem with gay marriage comes from the religious groups that feel that being gay is a sin and for them to be married is an abomination. Though being gay is becoming less of an issue over the years, and more states have allowed gay marriage, there are still many out there who wish to get rid of the problem and all connected to it. Two issues that are always on the back burner when issues of religion or state are not being discussed would be gun control and taxes. “A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.” (Second Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, 1791) Though this was originally thought to mean that only the Federal government could bear arms, the fourteenth amendment has cleared this up to mean the states have this right as well. (Cornell University Legal Information Institute) The liberal views on gun restriction have always been about gun safety and a substantial restriction. The better the restrictions, the less likely issues involving gun violence will occur. On the other hand, the conservative views on gun control have been with fewer restrictions. Conservatives want to be able to have any gun they want and get one any time they want. This can cause issues though when it comes to applying for a gun and the person applying for it only wants it to cause harm to another. Restrictions on the time it takes to apply for a gun and the person's background are a much needed restriction. The other significant problem is always going to be taxes. We do not want to pay taxes but then we expect all the stuff taxes pay for. The conservatives feel that taxes should be lower and flatter while the liberals want higher and progressive taxes. Conservatives want to pay taxes on issues that show up in their own life, roads, schools, military. Liberals, on the other hand, want to help as many as they can and to do this they needed funding from taxes. When it comes to employers and their potential employees, a gap in this comes to affirmative action. Conservatives want the employers to be able to hire who they want and need, while the liberals feel that the employers should hire on an equal opportunity basis. This issue has mainly involved Women, African Americans, and those with a disability. "Discrimination because of race, creed, color, or national origin is contrary to the Constitutional principles and policies of the United States" (JFK 1960) Many conservatives feel it is unfair because it reversely favors some and excludes others, while the liberals feel it is necessary to make up for centuries of discrimination. To make it to the presidential elections as a third party, you have to jump through so many hoops. Between the application process and getting people to take you seriously, it has become harder and harder to stand up to the two major parties. “Candidates working outside the major party machine face challenges like not being allowed to appear in presidential debates and to convince a skeptical media that their candidacies are dangerous. It's also a primary task to qualify for states' ballots. The process can be expensive and require hundreds of thousands of petition signatures.” (Liptak, 2012) Without name recognition, there can be major problems and point to the person running their own campaign. Someone who has access to a lot of money are usually the ones seen as credible. Because not every third party can raise the funds that the major parties have access to this can lead to fewer media attention and thus less of a face to the names, people would see on the ballot. When a third-party wants to run for the presidency, they have to look for endorsements from current legislators, this being a problem because most legislators will only pick someone in their own party. The electoral system can be a block on third parties. Throdore Lowei said, "Interestingly enough, although many scholars present the two-party system as being inevitable, it has never been left to accomplish its wonders alone." (Lanham, 1998) When it comes to the presidency another block to the breakthrough of a third-party is the allowance to the electorate to be able to split their votes, most American seem to find this divided government acceptable. (Alexander, 1999) When a third-party appears, they must show that they are not some radical group in hope os changing the government as they know it. The electoral system is there to make sure they will benefit the government and that the people want them there. Without the people and their votes there is no chance.

References
Theodore J. Lowi, "Toward a Responsible Three-Party System: Prospects and Obstacles," in A Republic of Parties? Debating the Two-Party System, ed. Theodore J. Lowi and Joseph Romance (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 1998), 4.
Herbert Alexander, "Lifeblood of American Politics of Lock-Up of American Government? The Meaning of the Two Party System." Panel discussion at a conference entitled "The Two-Party System and Its Discontents." American University, Washington, DC, 13 May 1999.

Second Amendment | Wex Legal Dictionary / Encyclopedia | LII ... (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/second_amendment

Executive Order 10925 - Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.eeoc.gov/eeoc/history/35th/thelaw/eo-10925.html

'Fatally flawed': Why third parties still fail despite voter ... (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.cnn.com/2012/05/21/politics/third-party-fail/index.html

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