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Pollution

In: Science

Submitted By Antjuan357
Words 2059
Pages 9
Markquice Carson
11-27-12
Portfolio Report
Indu/Agri/Mun Pollution
Dr. Buckner

There are a bundle of problems in America today involving pollution in every from, and this bring about solutions to solving these problems. There are several technologies to manage waste pollution. These technologies include recycling, incineration, and sanitary landfills. This will strictly discuss the problem, Methods/Technology, and Beneficial aspects of Incineration. Incineration is a waste treatment process that involves the combustion of organic substances contained in waste materials. Incineration and other high temperature waste treatment systems are described as "thermal treatment". Incineration of waste materials converts the waste into ash, flue gas, and heat. The ash is mostly formed by the inorganic constituents of the waste, and may take the form of solid lumps or particulates carried by the flue gas. The flue gases must be cleaned of gaseous and particulate pollutants before they are dispersed into the atmosphere. In some cases, the heat generated by incineration can be used to generate electric power. There are several types of incineration technologies: Rotary-kiln, Burn Barrels, Fixed grates the typical amount of net energy that can be produced per ton municipal waste is about 2/3 MWh of electricity and 2 MWh of district heating. Thus, incinerating about 600 metric tons (660 short tons) per day of waste will produce about 400 MWh of electrical energy per day (17 MW of electrical power continuously for 24 hours) and 1200 MWh of district heating energy each day. Incineration has a number of outputs such as the ash and the emission to the atmosphere of flue gas. Before the flue gas cleaning system, if installed, the flue gases may contain significant amounts of particulate matter, heavy metals, dioxins, furans, sulfur dioxide, and hydrochloric acid. If plants have inadequate controls, these outputs may add a significant pollution component to stack emissions. In a study from 1994, Delaware Solid Waste Authority found that, for same amount of produced energy, incineration plants emitted fewer particles, hydrocarbons and less SO2, HCl, CO and NOx than coal-fired power plants, but more than natural gas fired power plants. According to Germany's Ministry of the Environment, waste incinerators reduce the amount of some atmospheric pollutants by substituting power produced by coal-fired plants with power from waste-fired plants.(Delaware Solid Waste Authority 1994).
To begin with, burn barrels are a very commonly used incineration technology. They particulates, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide represent the largest portion of pollutants (of an estimated 5,000 tons annually) emitted from open burning of household waste. Because burn barrels receive little oxygen, they create low temperature fires that generate other toxic pollutants as well, such as benzene, styrene oxide, formaldehyde, dioxins and furans. Dioxins are produced in burn barrels at levels more than two times greater (per ton of refuse) than from municipal incinerators. Some metals (e.g., lead, cadmium and chromium) are also released. Burn barrels have been used extensively at Alaska residences. These devices are essentially 55- gallon drums that are modified with passive under-fire draft. Burn barrels operate at extensive but low temperatures ranging from 400 F to 500 F. Burning materials such as plastics, asphalt, and rubber generates hazardous air pollutants. This may be a health threat and a nuisance for nearby residents. Burn barrels often emit acid vapors, carcinogenic tars, and “heavy metals” as well as very high levels of carbon monoxide and generate (smoke) when burning non-separated household garbage. Generally, the materials that can be burned effectively in a burn barrel include dry leaves, plant clippings, and paper, cardboard and clean untreated wood. The closer one stands to the burn barrel, the more harmful chemicals one inhales. Burn barrels should not be used in close proximity to homes or areas where people can be exposed to the smoke. Burn barrels and burn piles can also lead to uncontrolled fires unless the following precautionary steps are taken:
• Clear all combustible materials and vegetation within 10 feet of the burn barrel;
• Place a metal mesh screen (spark arrestor) over the top of the burn barrel. The openings
Should be 1/2 inch or smaller.
• Place your burn barrel on concrete blocks and drill some small holes in the bottom to
Allow rainwater to drain.
• Don't start your fire unless you are prepared to monitor it until it is completely out. - 16 -
• Check with your local fire department for burn barrel regulations and permits
(www.akenergyauthority.org/AEAdocument/BurningGarage 2012) Next, is the usage of fluidized beds as another waste technology. Fluidized beds are widely used in industry for mixing solid particles with gases or liquids. In most industrial applications, a fluidized bed consists of a vertically-oriented column filled with granular material, and a fluid (gas or liquid) is pumped upward through a distributor at the bottom of the bed. When the the drag force of flowing fluid exceeds gravity, particles are lifted and fluidization occurs. A uniform fluidization which is the most desirable regime of operation of industrial fluidized beds is prone to instabilities. At the fluid flow increases, bubbles of clear fluid are formed at the bottom of the bed and these bubbles travel to the surface. The study of mechanisms of fluid bed instability and the classification of ensuing regimes (slugging, bubbling, etc) has been an active area of research among engineers and physicists. (www.inls.ucsd.edu/grain/fluidbed)
The fluidized bed incinerator is also used for waste with a low density and it must be homogenic . Fluidized beds also are used to clean paint from iron or steel. The most difficult step within fluidized bed process is controlling the correct air-gas mixture and flow regulations at the bottom of the combustion chamber. The fluid bed incinerator normally consists of the wind box, the fluid bed, and the freeboard. Fluidizing air is introduced into the wind box and distributed uniformly to the bed area by tuyeres or orifices in the constriction plate or refractory dome. The bed becomes fluidized and oxygen is available for combustion. Feed material to be incinerated normally is injected into the fluid bed and combustion takes place on the surface of individual particles. Heat resulting from combustion is absorbed by the bed material and, in turn, released to evaporate moisture from the reed and volatilize the organic fractions. The highly turbulent motion of the bed provides an ideal environment of rapid and intimate contact of combustibles with the bed material at a high temperature. A typical bed is made up of inert material such as sand, sized from 20 to 80 meshes. Inert ash and some bed material are elutriated from the bed by combustion gases. In the free­board, most solids disengage from the upward moving combustion gas stream and fall back to the bed. However, the off-gas stream always entrains some solids and the bed material is continuously depleted. The first municipal fluid bed was installed in the USA at the Lynnwood, WA wastewater treatment plant in 1962. There have been over 125 fluid bed incinerators installed since then in North America. Since 1988 there have been 43 new municipal fluid bed systems installed. Among these new fluid bed installations, 11 replaced existing multiple hearths. . (www.seas.columbia.edu/earth/wtert/sofos/nawtec/1978-National-Waste-Processing-Conference). The fluid bed system also showed economic advantages. Vendor quotations showed that the installed cost of the complete multiple hearth system would be 5 to 10% higher than that for the fluid bed for systems of the same capacity. Even more important were the potential savings in life cycle costs. Because of the ability of the fluid bed system to preheat the combustion air using the exiting flue gas, the fluid bed could operate without the need for auxiliary fuel except during start-up and shutdown of the system. Further savings in fuel cost derive from the thermal flywheel effect of the hot sand in the bed. Short maintenance shutdowns can be accomplished without significant heat losses from the unit. Return to operating temperature would thus take less fuel and less time. The multiple hearths could be maintained at operating temperature during such periods, but only with the continuous use of auxiliary fuel. The power costs for the fluid bed would be higher because of the higher pressure drop across the bed, but this would be mitigated in part by the lower airflow due to lower excess air requirements. It was also estimated that the fluid bed would provide a reduction in operating and maintenance labor costs. In total, the projected total cost of all operation and maintenance showed a substantial advantage for the fluid bed.
Last but last least, the rotary-kiln incineration technology is also used in management and disposal of waste. Rotary kiln incineration systems are ideal for processing mixed industrial and hazardous wastes that include a combination of solid, sludge, and liquid waste streams. Verantis provides complete rotary kiln incineration packages including a broad range of waste storage and feed systems (ram feeders, sludge feed systems, liquid injection systems), complete combustion system packages, and many different options for continuous ash removal. Rotary kiln incinerators can be paired with custom engineered air pollution control systems for a turnkey environmental solution. (www.verantis.com/solutions/categories/by-system/incineration-system/rotary-kiln-incineration-systems) The RKI is a chemical reactor especially designed to burn solids, usually wastes that contaminate adsorbents (such as fuller's earth soaked with crude oil from an oil spill, or soil contaminated by liquids or solids in a landfill). Liquid wastes may
Also be treated either by direct feed to burners or in drums (plastic, fiber or steel).
Although rotary kilns are not specifically designed to burn gases, they are used for that
Purpose in chemical manufacturing plants where advantage can be taken of pollution
Control equipment associated with a rotary kiln burning other waste. The incineration of waste materials in a rotary kiln is an extremely complex process involving physical movement of solids, liquids, and gases, in addition to chemical reactions. The primary oxidation chamber, (POC), is a steel cylinder, lined with refractory brick. The kiln rotates so that the particles of the solid wastes that are fed to it are agitated and tumbled repeatedly as they move through the inclined cylinder. The 5 objective in mixing the solids is to expose surfaces of the waste material to heat from auxiliary burner flames, heat from flames of burning solids, flames from burning organic material (that which is to be destroyed), and to radiant heat from the walls of the kiln as well as heat conducted from the walls of the kiln. The heating results in desorption and evaporation of volatile compounds. The organic material undergoes chemical decomposition by heat and reaction with the oxygen-rich atmosphere of the kiln. (www.etd.isu.edu./doc/available/etd-0919103-103154/unrestricted/Earl-dis)
Locals would be offered subsidized energy bills for homes or leisure centres and profit sharing in an attempt to persuade councils not to block planning applications. Benefits might include community/shared ownership of a facility (direct income through share ownership), cost-sharing between local businesses and the community, subsidized energy bills, local heat supply to residential housing, leisure centres and/or commercial premises, or employment offers to residents. Local authorities must assist community groups in developing options whereby a benefit accrues to the host community. (www.guardian.co.uk/business/2010/dec/12) The five specific benefits of incineration are: 1. a reduction in the volume and weight of waste. 2. Destruction of some wastes and detoxification of others. 3. Destruction of the organic component of biodegradable waste. 4. The recovery of energy from organic waste. 5. Replacement of fossil fuels for energy. (www.rsc.org/ebooks/archive/free/BK9780854042050)

Reference Page * www.iwtonline.com * www.freedictenary.com/incineration * Delaware Solid Waste Authority 1994 * www.epa.state.il.us/burn-barrels * www.akenergyauthority.org/AEAdocument/burninggarbage * www.inls.ucsd.edu/grain/fluidbed * www.bicgroup.com.sg/fluidziedbed-incinerator * www.seas.columbia.edu/earth/wtatt/sofos/nawtec/1978-natonal-waste * www.environmental-except.com/files/7980/articles/greenboro * www.verantis.com/solutions/categories/by-system/incineratonsystem * www.etd.isu.edu/doc/avaliable/etd-0919103-103154/urrestricted/Earle-dis * www.guardian.co.uk/business/2010/dec/12/sita-offers * www.rsc.org/ebooks/archive/free/BK9780854042050

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