Postmodernism in Steinbeck's Novel

In: English and Literature

Submitted By swatisingh
Words 3495
Pages 14
America in 1942 Initially, the outbreak of World War II did not bring about any large changes in the German economy. Germany had spent six years preparing for war, and a large portion of the economy was already devoted to military production. During the war, as Germany acquired new territories (either by direct annexation or by installing puppet governments in defeated countries), these new territories were forced to sell raw materials and agricultural products to German buyers at extremely low prices.

Fiction as Reconstruction of History: Narratives of the Civil War in American Literature

by Reinhard Isensee

Even after more than 140 years the American Civil War continues to serve as a major source of inspiration for a plethora of literature in various genres. While only amounting to a brief period in American history in terms of years, this war has proved to be one of the central moments for defining the American nation since the second half of the nineteenth century. The facets of the Civil War, its protagonists, places, events, and political, social and cultural underpinnings seem to hold an ongoing fascination for both academic studies and fictional representations. Thus, it has been considered by many the most written-about war in the United States.

The War That Never Goes Away: The Significance of the Civil War for the Cultural Imagination in the United States

Despite the overwhelming body of academic work on the Civil War produced in the United States (and beyond) most of the American public (as well as the international audience) has been exposed to it through cultural texts such as novels, poems, songs, motion pictures, TV series, and documentaries. Hence the Civil War has been regarded “A War that Never Goes Away,” as most convincingly suggested by American historian James McPherson in his ground breaking studies on the Civil War and its…...

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Postmodernism in Steinbeck's Novel

... (and beyond) most of the American public (as well as the international audience) has been exposed to it through cultural texts such as novels, poems, songs, motion pictures, TV series, and documentaries. Hence the Civil War has been regarded “A War that Never Goes Away,” as most convincingly suggested by American historian James McPherson in his ground breaking studies on the Civil War and its significant impact on American society. Even a cursory glance at the presence of the Civil War in both public and academic discussions in the past century reveals that the growing temporal distance to this historical event itself has increasingly resulted in ongoing controversies about the representation and evaluation of this war as a fundamental matrix for the self-perception of American society. On the one hand, the rapidly growing number of publications about this event in academic disciplines such as history as well as in literary fiction and literary criticism since the 1980s is indicative of the particular relevance of the Civil War in the present cultural discourse. On the other hand, visual media have provided important impulses for an intense public conversation about the Civil War as the conflict that was decisive for the political, social and cultural past of he United States. Documentaries such as The Civil War (1990) by Ken Burns or TV series like North and South (based on John Jakes’ 1982 novel) as well as movies like Summersby (1995) and Cold Mountain (2003) have...

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...Postmodernism However in postmodernism, it holds an subjectivist ontology that reality is formed by one’s own experiences, assumptions and beliefs, which challenge the perspective of modernism (Hatch & Cunliffe 2006). Postmodernists view reality as an illusion that is formed based on language which is an instrument used by the elite to control the employee interpretation of a scenario and so lead them to satisfy their interests (Robbins & Barnwell 2002). In addition, through discourse and deconstruction, postmodernists can unveil the multiple interpretations of organizational reality, hidden power relationships, the repressed and marginalized of groups (Cunliffe 2008). It will provide a better understanding on the interpretations of the organizational reality, the influence on one thought and the constraints of the organizations. Postmodernist built their structure of organization on a horizontal level of hierarchy and they perceive power and control are integrated in everyday social relationships and organizational practices (Hatch & Cunliffe, 2006). Postmodernist applies the concept of disciplinary power that was developed by Michael Foucault, a French philosopher. According to Foucault (1980), the concept of disciplinary power causes employees to engage in a self-surveillance behavior due to the anticipation of control and the self-disciplinary behavior which is view by the postmodernist as a discourse of power within the organization. He believes that disciplinary...

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