Premium Essay

Poverty

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By ultracat
Words 4410
Pages 18
Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Paper no. 1044-94

Long-Term Poverty and Child Development in the United States: Results from the NLSY

Sanders Korenman Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs and Center for Population Analysis and Policy University of Minnesota Jane E. Miller Institute for Health, Health Care Policy, and Aging Research Rutgers University John E. Sjaastad Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs University of Minnesota

September 1994

This research was funded by a grant from the Institute for Research on Poverty at the University of Wisconsin. An earlier version of part of this paper appeared as part of Office of Population Research Working Paper No. 93-5, Princeton University, June 1993, which contains supplemental analyses and is available from the authors. We thank participants in seminars at the University of Maryland, the University of Michigan, Princeton University, the National Bureau of Economic Research in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and the 1993 meetings of the Population Association of America for their comments.

Abstract

The authors describe developmental deficits in early childhood associated with long-term poverty in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). They compare estimates of the effects of long-term poverty (based on a thirteen-year average of income) to estimates of the effects of poverty based on a single year of income (at the time of developmental assessment). They find substantial developmental deficits among children who, on average, are poor over a number of years relative to those who are not. These deficits are approximately twice as large according to the longterm income measure as compared to those based on the single-year measure, and are not explained by differences in maternal education, family structure, maternal behaviors during pregnancy, infant health, nutritional status, or age of...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Poverty

...It has always become hard to explain what poverty is, and the cause. Poverty has lots of different definitions which resulted from different understandings or perspectives of people. Poverty is an age-old concern’, however, we cannot talk about any common or general reason of poverty. We can find many different reasons that engendering poverty and it is obvious that in every different age, the causes of poverty are changing. So, the dynamics of societies and relations are very effective factor that directly affecting poverty. This assumption seems more accurate for especially capitalist era. Naturally, there could be many different reasons of poverty between nations or within nations. However, I think capitalist production relations and the structure of global economy are the most effective factors that create poverty in all around the world. According to an article in the New York time, written by Paul Krugman in 2008, “Poverty is Poison”. The article states that according to neuroscientists “many children growing up in very poor families with low social status experience unhealthy levels of stress hormones, which impair their neural development.” The effect is to impair language development and memory and hence the ability to escape poverty for the rest of the child’s life. I think this has great impact on both poverty among nations and poverty within nations. Poverty among nations can be thought as a direct result of the structure of global economy. Rich and......

Words: 1159 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Poverty

...War on Poverty Begun officially in 1964, the War on Poverty was an ambitious governmental effort to address the problem of persistent poverty in the United States. Over the next decade, the federal government—in conjunction with state and local governments, nonprofit organizations, and grassroots groups—created a new institutional base for antipoverty and civil rights action and, in the process, highlighted growing racial and ideological tensions in American politics and society. Marked by moments of controversy and consensus, the War on Poverty defined a new era for American liberalism and added new layers to the American welfare state. Legislatively, the first two years were the most active. Between President Lyndon Johnson’s State of the Union address in 1964 and the liberal setbacks suffered in the congressional elections of 1966, the Johnson administration pushed through an unprecedented amount of antipoverty legislation. The Economic Opportunity Act (1964) provided the basis for the Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO), the Job Corps, Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA), Upward Bound, Head Start, Legal Services, the Neighborhood Youth Corps, the Community Action Program (CAP), the college Work-Study program, Neighborhood Development Centers, small business loan programs, rural programs, migrant worker programs, remedial education projects, local health care centers, and others. The antipoverty effort, however, did not stop there. It encompassed a range of Great......

Words: 3201 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

Poverty

...More than 20 percent of the world’s population lives in poverty. Poverty is a big problem in the whole world, because thousands of people die each year due to this big issue. This research paper will tell us what poverty is, its cause, effects, what people could do to help stop it. Poverty is an issue that needs to be address by everybody in the world because if no one tries to something about it is going to keep getting worst as time goes on. This research paper is to inform people about poverty, to make sure people understand what poverty is, what is doing to us, and most important to inform about what they could do to stop it. By informing people with all this information I would like to see them taking action towers this issue, it would be very helpful if people help does with need after reading this research paper. To help stop poverty we must help each other in any way we can. Many of you may ask what poverty really means. Well poverty refers to the condition of not having the means to afford basic human needs such as clean water, nutrition, healthcare, clothing, food, and a warm place to live. Poverty is a deadly issue that’s killing our population slowly. Poverty has been around for a long time now, it started when all rich people began to get richer, by rich people getting richer they were making other people poor, and let them to live without the humans needs. In my opinion all those people that are now living in poor conditions should not be living like this if......

Words: 311 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Poverty

...TERM PAPER NAME: Richmond Sagoe TOPIC: Eliminating poverty in rural areas in Ghana THESIS STATEMENT: Rural poverty as an economic woe; eliminating poverty through agriculture and natural resource management, women empowerment, rural infrastructure and education. In Ghana, poverty is primarily rural, with the northern regions recording the highest incidence of poverty in the country (GSS, 2007). Low agriculture productivity, undeveloped markets and lack of gainful wage employment opportunities as well as restrictive access of the less endowed to productive resources have been identified as the major causes of poverty. Governmental policies hardly favour rural areas, leading to rural-urban migration. The number of job opportunities in these poor remote areas is limited and therefore, standard of living in rural areas is generally low. Farming activities which is taunted as the backbone of the economy is left to the old-aged to pursue since the youth sees farming as an activity for people who ‘have nothing to do’. Rural poverty as an economic woe; eliminating poverty through agriculture and natural resource management, women empowerment, rural infrastructure and education. According to the FAO (2015), the severity of the natural resource constraints facing the rural poor in Ghana requires that government focus a good number of projects on natural resource management. Many rural areas in Ghana have natural resources that are untapped. The majority of the rural poor are......

Words: 1197 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Poverty

...The issue of poverty seems proves to be more of an issue for other emergent countries, but is just as much an issue for the United States of America. For Americans, the average person’s earnings are not enough income necessary to maintain a comfortable living. Most of us all know what it is to struggle; but for some the struggle worse. . America, a promising country said to be the land of “milk and honey’, and one of opportunity, but we can only estimate the number of our population that doesn’t know if they are going to make it from day to day. People living in this country are often misrepresented by the wealthy because the cameras are on the celebrities, athletes, and politicians. These people are not the image of every American. There are the reappearing infomercials showing starving children and people dying to bring awareness to the conditions of other countries, when more attention should be directed to our own communities. There are so many homeless, and even more hardly making ends meet. Analyzing the causes of poverty in America really calls for you to look in to people’s lives. Majority of Americans are not born with money, and cannot depend on trust funds and inheritances. Many of us are us are living from check to check. The concept of saving today for tomorrow is almost impossible when you have to do so much with so little. Not everyone can take what they have and open up a business. Even so in this economy, we have seen businesses start and fail. For......

Words: 628 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Essay On Poverty And Poverty

...WEALTH AND POVERTY – JUDAISM The Jewish scholar of old viewed poverty as a great trouble and said that “he who is crushed by poverty is as though he were liable to every one of the sufferings of the world" (Midrash Rabbah, Exodus, 31:12). Poverty is a challenge and an opportunity for poor and most importantly for those with the means to help the needy. The bible lays down the brief precept as follow: In the event that, there is a poor individual among you, don't solidify your heart and close your hand. Maybe, you should open your hand and loan him, adequate for whatever he needs. Be careful keeping in mind that you harbor the base thought, with the goal that you are stingy towards your penniless brother and give him nothing and he shouts out to the Lord against you and you have sinned. Provide for him promptly and have no second thoughts when you do as such … the Lord your God will favor you in every one of your endeavors and in every one of your endeavors. For there will never stop to be destitute individuals in your property, which is the reason I charge you; open your hand to poor people and penniless family in your territory...

Words: 1043 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Poverty

...To start with, we need to know what poverty is. In all over the world many countries have this global problem. The fact is that poverty includes a lack of access to services like education, markets, health care, lack of ability to make a decision, and lack of communal facilities such as water, sanitation, roads, transportation etc. So lets take a look what kind of causes the poverty has. First of all, it is overpopulation. High birth rates contribute to overpopulation in many developing countries. Overpopulation is defined as the situation of having large numbers of people with too few resources and too little space. A high population density pressures the available resources in the country, as the resources can only support a certain number of people. For instance, usually in very poor countries the families have a lot of children because they need somebody to help them with keeping their agricultural. Here the problem is that the governments of developing countries often provide little, or even no support. Second, lack of education. Illiteracy and lack of education are common in poor countries. Sometimes the governments can’t provide for good public schools, especially in rural areas. Sometimes just student doesn’t want to study because he doesn’t focus on his education. Their priorities just in finding a new girlfriend, spending more time with friends, smoking and so on. These kinds of students don’t think about their future. Finally, it is disability to earn......

Words: 353 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Poverty

...Poverty as a Global Issue Name of Student Institutional affiliation Introduction The word poverty is familiar to every person living under the sun. Everyone understands the meaning. However, the specific meaning attached to that word is dependent on the concepts of poverty that are present in the mind. Poverty can be conceptualized in many distinct ways. Each way leads to a marked out understanding of the significance of the term. The simplest definition states that, poverty is a lack of the basic means of survival. Poor people are not able to put food on the table and they face death as a consequence. Many studies suggest that the definition of poverty as absolute lack is of relevance in regions where the income is low. In other regions, the living standards could be higher. Such countries experience apparent reductions and rapid growth. The definition of poverty in such regions is subject to change. Globally, more than 3 billion people use less than 2.5 USD in a day, while approximately 1.3 billion use 1.25 USD or less. In a nut shell, more than a half of the world’s population is living in poverty. According to UNICEF, 1 billion children in the whole world are living in poverty and 22,000 children die on a daily basis as a result of poverty. More than 800 million people worldwide are lacking food. Some other 750 million people lack access to drinking water. The lack of clean water often leads to diarrhea which kills some 842000 people globally. The figure can also......

Words: 1534 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Poverty

...Mahatma Ghandi once said that “poverty is the worst form of violence.” Today, more than half the population on Earth is living in poverty. Some people may think that poverty is being hungry and homeless, but poverty has deep roots spread throughout the countries and making it even more implanted in the people. The causes of poverty are several, and each country can have causes that differ from other countries. But still, the main causes of poverty can be narrowed down into three main ideas, social causes, political causes and economic causes. The social causes of poverty can be narrowed down to two main topics, overpopulation and education. Overpopulation, as defined by Fight Poverty organization (n.d), is when a number of people live in a mass of land with deficiency in resources to support them. For example, Bangladesh is one of the most overpopulated countries with 1,078 persons per square km and the people there work in manual farming, but because of overpopulation, this contributes to the country's high level of poverty. Also, the land there is infertile and lacks the economic resources and technology to boost productivity. As a consequence it is in a state of poverty. In conclusion, overpopulation plus the lack of resources in the land contribute to poverty. When an area has more people than it can support, some of them would have sufficient resources and the others would live in shortage. This would lead to poverty and to class separation in the community......

Words: 909 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Poverty

...TermPaperWarehouse.com - Free Term Papers, Essays and Research Documents The Research Paper Factory JoinSearchBrowseSaved Papers Home Page » Other Topics Poverty in the Philippines In: Other Topics Poverty in the Philippines POVERTY IN PHILIPPINES AMONG THE COLLEGE STUDENT Hannah Joyrose R. Abgona AAIM-1styr-Section1 ENGL.2 I. Introduction a. Outline I. Title “POVERTY IN PHILIPPINES AMONG THE COLLEGE STUDENT II. a.cause of poverty in the Philippines Poverty in the Philippines: Causes, Constraints, and Opportunities comprehensively analyzes the causes of poverty and recommends ways to accelerate poverty reduction and achieve more inclusive growth. The report provides an overview of current government responses, strategies, and achievements in the fight against poverty and identifies and prioritizes future needs and interventions. The analysis is based on current literature and the latest available data, including the 2006 Family Income and Expenditure Survey. Other cause The incomplete land reform aiming at overthrowing the traditionally unequal agrarian society coupled with lack of support for farmers has been a long-lasting flaw in the governments’ development policies that can still massively reduce poverty in the Philippines. Thus, the role of the state remains central to redistribute more equally the wealth created in the country, in order to avoid leaving the poor behind. Supporting the extremely poor must be seen as a long-term......

Words: 458 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Poverty

...Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM AND REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Introduction Poverty is a condition where people's basic needs for food, clothing, and shelter are not being met, which remains at the core of concept today. However, “food, clothing, and shelter” are itself no less problematic than the concept of poverty. Townsend (2010) posited that people can be said to be in poverty when they are deprived of income and other resources needed to obtain the conditions of life such as the diets, material goods, amenities, standards and services that enable them to play the roles, meet the obligations and participate in the relationships and customs of their society. In most developing countries, poverty is more widespread and severe in rural than in urban areas. According to International Fund for Agricultural Development (2011), the largest segment of the world’s poor is the women, children and men who live in rural environments. These are the farmers and herders, the fishers and migrant workers, the artisans and indigenous peoples whose daily struggles seldom capture world attention. Furthermore, Olinto (2013) cited that more than three quarters of those living in extreme poverty are in rural areas and nearly two thirds of the extremely poor earn a living from agriculture. The world of today performs strikingly well in terms of important measurable indicators of human development: nearly all children are immunized, almost all children of school going age are enrolled and......

Words: 3960 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

Poverty

...Assignment 1: Investigate a Social Issue Part 1 Poverty Author: Josue Benitez Instructor: Tasha Anderson SOC100030VA016-1122-001: Intro To Sociology Publish Date: 03/17/2012 1 Abstract In this report we will define poverty in society, as well as describe the affects that it has on society today. We will also discuss how society has changed over time in regards to poverty. In addition, we will attempt to find at least two possible solutions to improve the social issue of poverty that is affecting mankind on a global scale. 2 Poverty When some people live below a level which a society defines as a reasonable minimum, they are in poverty, but there is no agreement on how to define it more precisely. Poverty is often identified as a lack of resources or its causes, or its deleterious consequences in human experience or behavior, but meanings and usages change over time. Debate often focuses on people in poverty (the poor) or disparate measurement methods rather than the concept of poverty itself. Many incompatible discourses are separately but simultaneously used to discuss its forms, dimensions, causes and cures, and to address different audiences in the industrialized societies and in developing nations, with little attempt to integrate the approaches. Until the twentieth century, poverty was used to describe the conditions in which much of the......

Words: 1238 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Poverty

...Poverty, poverty and poverty. Poverty is a curse for Bangladesh. I myself feel proud to born in this beautiful Bangladesh but I can’t do fun any more as I see maximum people are living within the limitation of poverty. I become astonished to see the sky-scrapers of Dhaka but I feel worried whenever I see there are some peoples living in pavement and they even don’t have any space to pass their night. I see, peoples are rolling Pazero, Mercedes, BMW and Hummer; beside, maximum of us are being devastated by the perspiration during hanging on Local Bus. I see, enormous 5 star hotels, motels, dazzling restaurants are growing and I also see peoples who are not being able to take rice thee time in a day. I see luxurious shopping mall, fashion houses and besides I see people without a complete cloth standing alone on pavement. So, is this the Bangladesh that the freedom fighters were dreamt? Is this the Bangladesh for which a lot of life had to be dedicated? Let us find some probable reason of the poverty of Bangladesh : 1. Corruption: Corruption by the top level workforce of Bangladesh government can causes the poverty of Bangladesh. When a project is passed to enrich the poor peoples; the corrupted manager, contractor and other government authority claim a percentage from the total budget and ultimately a little portion of money is reached to the poor people. That’s why the rich people are being richer and the poor people still remains poor and being poorer day by day. ...

Words: 544 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Poverty

...11/14/13 Review on Poverty Definition: the state or condition of having little or no money, goods, or means of support; condition of being poor.  deficiency of necessary or desirable ingredients, qualities, etc.: poverty of the soil.  scantiness; insufficiency: Their efforts to stamp out disease were hampered by a poverty of medicalsupplies.  Causes of Poverty Poverty is the state for the majority of the world’s people and nations. Why is this? Is it enough to blame poor people for their own predicament? Have they been lazy, made poor decisions, and been solely responsible for their plight? What about their governments? Have they pursued policies that actually harm successful development? Such causes of poverty and inequality are no doubt real. But deeper and more global causes of poverty are often less discussed. Behind the increasing interconnectedness promised by globalization are global decisions, policies, and practices. These are typically influenced, driven, or formulated by the rich and powerful. These can be leaders of rich countries or other global actors such as multinational corporations, institutions, and influential people. In the face of such enormous external influence, the governments of poor nations and their people are often powerless. As a result, in the global context, a few get wealthy while the majority struggle. Poverty Facts And Stats Most of humanity lives on just a few pennies a day. Whether you live in the wealthiest......

Words: 1756 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Poverty

...II. BODY POVERTY DEFINEDhbernard Shhtaw, “peducation, housing and fair treatment under the law. We will examine the inequalities of treatment recorded to the poor in each of these areas, and the resulting degradation is the quality of their lives. The World Bank Organization describes poverty in this way: “Povergrgfrbfr I n addition to a lack of money, poverty is about not being able to participate in recreational activities; not being able to send children on a vdsvcdsour economy. Whilevrdvny definitions, one thing is certain; poverty is a complex societal issue. No matter how poverty is defined, it can be agreed that it is an issue that requires everyone’s attention.  It is important that all members of our society work together to provide the opportunities for all our members to reach their full potential. It helps all of us to help one another. Joseph Julian, Social Problems: 3rd Edition (Prentice Hall, Inc. 1980), p.256. George Ritzer, Social Problems: Second Edition (Random House, Inc. 1986), p.341. http://www2.gnb.ca/content/gnb/en/departments/esic/overview/content/what_is_poverty.html CAUSES OF POVERTY 2. Cutback’s in health, education and other vital social services around the world resulted from structural adjustment policies prescribed by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank as conditions for loans and repayment. In addition, developing nation governments are required to open their economies to compete with each......

Words: 1107 - Pages: 5