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Power of Logic

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The Power of Logic

The Power of Logic

Frances Howard-Snyder Daniel Howard-Snyder Ryan Wasserman

Published by McGraw-Hill, an imprint of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020. Copyright © 2009, 2005, 2002, 1999, by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of The McGrawHill Companies, Inc., including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning. This book is printed on acid-free paper. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 DOC/DOC 0 9 8 ISBN: 978-0-07-340737-1 MHID: 0-07-340737-2 Editor in Chief: Michael Ryan Editorial Director: Beth Mejia Sponsoring Editor: Mark Georgiev Marketing Manager: Pamela Cooper Editorial Coordinator: Briana Porco Production Editors: Melissa Williams/Melanie Field, Strawberry Field Publishing Cover Designer: Ashley Bedell Cover Photo: © Dan Trist/Corbis Media Project Manager: Thomas Brierly Production Supervisor: Louis Swaim Composition: This text was set in 10.5/12.5 Goudy by Aptara, Inc. Printing: Printed on 45# New Era Matte by R.R. Donnelley & Sons, Inc. Credits: The credits section for this book is on page 647, following the Answer Key in the back of the book, and is considered an extension of the copyright page.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Howard-Snyder, Frances The power of logic—/Frances Howard-Snyder, Daniel Howard-Snyder, Ryan Wasserman—4th ed. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN: 978-0-07-340737-1; ISBN: 0-07-340737-2 (alk. paper) 1. Logic I. Title. BC61.L28 2009 160—dc22 2008365431

About the Authors
Frances Howard-Snyder is Professor of Philosophy at Western

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