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Powerpoint Presentation Towards Academic Performance

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CARLOS HILADO MEMORIAL STATE COLLEGE
GRADUATESCHOOL
-------------------------------------------------
Talisay City

POWERPOINT PRESENTATION: TOWARDS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF FILIPINO STUDENTS

An Abstract of
A Thesis Presented to the
Faculty of the Graduate School
Carlos Hilado Memorial State College
Talisay City, Negros Occidental

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Arts in Education
Major in Educational Management

By
Regina M. Delotina
May 2010
CARLOS HILADO MEMORIAL STATE COLLEGE
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Talisay City
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Chapter 1
Introduction

“Education is the ability to listen to almost anything without losing your temper or your self – confidence. – Robert Frost”
Education is a process by which man transmits his experiences, new findings, and values accumulated over the years, in his struggle for survival and development through generations. Education enables individuals and society to make an all-round participation in the developmental process, by acquiring knowledge, ability, skills, and attitudes.
According to the Regional Memorandum No.88, s.1993 – A longer time spent in teaching Filipino from first year and up. It also provides that students should be encouraged to undertake Filipino experiments and teaching should require maximum students activity with emphasis on reflection level lessons. Filipino subject is one of the difficult subjects in the learning process. This subject requires not only day to day lectures but actual manipulation of materials, experimentation, observation, and other scientific process. Some teachers do not have expertise in teaching the subject and they have lack of resources in making the discussion more real and interesting. Sometimes, one setting for a topic is not enough and requires more time for preparation of materials in experimentation and discussion, so it exhaust teacher’s energy that could affect teaching performance.

CARLOS HILADO MEMORIAL STATE COLLEGE
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Talisay City
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Computers are important technical tool in today’s generation. It can assist the student learning as well as the teaching process. It could make the teaching instruction more lively and interesting. It is evident that information and communication technologies (ICT) have transformed our lives and reshaped the nature of everyday activities and contemporary times are often called the “information age” or the “knowledge society”. In today’s day and age, education plays a big role in which we are and what we can achieve in our lifetime. Planning and implementing courses – no matter whether done for face – to – face education or within e – learning environments – deal a lot with pedagogical issues. Learning is influenced by a couple of factors such as attention, motivation, emotions, etc. as well as by learner characteristics like prior knowledge, cognitive and learning styles, intellectual capabilities, constitutional states and the forth. (Claudia Blezu, The Impact of E-Learning in Education Source) Prepared lesson plan in Science is not enough to attain high level of performance of the students. Visualization and actual manipulation of materials could provide better understanding. Thus computers are used as one aid for teaching science better. Having a computer aided instruction could maximize the teaching process. This kind of instruction can change the structure of the classroom; the teacher is no longer the focal point of classroom activity rather, serves as facilitator of learning. It is less burden both teachers and students. But, based on some reports the educational level of the pupils is deteriorating. They acquired low performance despite of living in a generation of modern technology.

CARLOS HILADO MEMORIAL STATE COLLEGE
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Talisay City
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Hence this study was conducted to determine the effects of computer – aided instruction in Science in academic performance of pupils as well as their learning habits. This is very beneficial on the part of pupils, especially to the respondents, as well as to the teachers, administrators, parents, and other sectors of education because they may know the remedies on how to have better performance in school especially in academic. Is the computer – aided instruction effective in delivering information in Science subject to the students? Does it enhance the study habits of the pupils? Does it create an interesting classroom environment? Does it arouse students’ interest in learning? Does in affects the academic performance of the students? Are there effects in the academic performance and study habits of pupils? Thus, this investigation provides objective data that will lead to better understanding of this phenomenon.

CARLOS HILADO MEMORIAL STATE COLLEGE
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Talisay City
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Statement of the Problem

The main concern of this study is to determine the effects of PowerPoint presentation in teaching Filipino to the academic performance of third year students in Manapla National High School. Specifically, it will provide information to the following objectives / questions:

1. Does the PowerPoint presentation in filipino affect the academic performance of the students in relation to age and gender? 2. What will be the effect of PowerPoint presentation in filipino to the academic performance of pupils? 3. Are there differences on the academic performance in filipino of the students when one group exposed to powerpoint presentation and the other group is not? 4. Does the PowerPoint presentation in filipino motivate the students to learn the subject? 5. Does the PowerPoint presentation in filipino effective in delivering information about the topic? 6. Based on the findings of the study, does it very useful tool for the teachers in delivering the information about the subject?

CARLOS HILADO MEMORIAL STATE COLLEGE
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Talisay City
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Statement of the Hypotheses

In view of the specific problems, the following hypotheses are advanced:

1. The effects of PowerPoint presentation in filipino in academic performance of the pupils in relation to age is moderate.

2. The effects of PowerPoint presentation in filipino in academic performance of the pupils in relation to gender is moderate.
.
3. The test results of the students using the PowerPoint presentation in filipino is high.

4. The interest of the students to study using the PowerPoint presentation in filipino is high.

5. The difference on the academic performance in Filipino of the students when one group exposed to PowerPoint presentation in filipino and the other group is not is great.

6. The effectiveness in delivering information about the topic using the PowerPoint presentation in filipino is great.

CARLOS HILADO MEMORIAL STATE COLLEGE
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Talisay City
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7. Based on the findings of the study, the PowerPoint presentation in filipino as a tool for delivering the information about the subject is very useful.

CARLOS HILADO MEMORIAL STATE COLLEGE
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Talisay City
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Theoretical/Conceptual Framework

This is related to the study of Richard O'Lander - Use of intelligent computer aided instruction in the classroom (1990). According to him there is no question that computers are important technical tools in today's society. In education, computers can assist the student in learning. Intelligent Computer Aided Instruction ( ICAI) are systems which utilize the techniques of expert systems and artificial intelligence to help a person learn interactively. The basic view of these systems is that they serve as the student's private tutor, responding to the student's individual needs. Such systems have changed the structure of the classroom; the teacher is no longer the focal point of classroom activity. Rather, he serves as a guide for the student as he learns the material. Current trends also tend to support using such systems as an instructional aid in teaching mathematics. This has meant reorganizing the structure of the classroom. Each student and instructor has access to a terminal, and the time periods are restructured to allow for the use of this technology. Most of the systems developed were designed to teach mathematics or technical subjects. Current research indicates that such systems are successful in that the student learns the logic behind a particular concept. It is hoped that these logical thinking skills that are developed can be transferred to other subject areas. It should be noted that most of the studies were conducted with highly motivated students; many systems were designed for this type of student. In concept, this type of individualized instruction is well suited for the unmotivated and slow learner. To use this system for these types of students, ICAI systems will require modifications of the interface of the tutoring system and will require

CARLOS HILADO MEMORIAL STATE COLLEGE
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Talisay City
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

improved graphics interfaces to hold their interest. These systems will require close monitoring by the teacher.

In the classroom, academic performance of the students is the important aspects to consider in order to achieve high performance rating. In this study, the students will be grouped into two; one group (controlled group) is for experimentation. They will expose in the PowerPoint presentation in filipino while the other group is not. After the experimentation, I will determine the academic performance of the two groups. To provide clear presentation of the direction of the study, the schematic diagram illustrating the theoretical framework of the study is hereby reflected.

CARLOS HILADO MEMORIAL STATE COLLEGE
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Talisay City
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INDEPENDENT INTERVENING DEPENDENT VARIABLES VARIABLES VARIABLES

Teaching Filipino with
PowerPoint
presentaion

Academic Performance

Pupils * Age * Gender

Teaching Filipino without
PowerPoint presentaion

Figure 1
Schematic Diagram Illustrating the Theoretical Framework of the Study
CARLOS HILADO MEMORIAL STATE COLLEGE
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Talisay City
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Definition of Terms

In order to provide an adequate channel of communication between the researcher and the readers, the following terms, arranged alphabetically, are defined conceptually and operationally:

Academic Performance. Academic performance refers to how students deal with their studies and how they cope with or accomplish different tasks given to them by their teachers. (http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_meant_by_academic_performance) As used in this study, the term refers to the quantitative capacity of the pupil towards his subjects.
Learning. A process of acquiring modifications in existing knowledge, skills, habits, or tendencies through experience, practice, or exercise.( Britannica.com)
Habits: a habitual way of behaving: consuetude, custom, habitude, manner, practice, praxis,usage, usance, use, way, wont(thesaurus) As used in this study, the term refers to the practices used by the pupil on his studies.
Powerpoint Presentation.. Use of computers in imparting training, knowledge, monitoring trainee progress, providing feedback, and assessing final results. (http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/computer-based-training-CBT.html)

CARLOS HILADO MEMORIAL STATE COLLEGE
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Talisay City
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As used in this study, the term refers to the PowerPoint instructional material in teaching the lesson. Students. Students under the direct supervision of a teacher or professor.(http://www.thefreedictionary.com/pupil) As used in the study, they are the Third Year – students of Manapla National High School School for S.Y. 2010 – 2011.Young students are those ages belong to 15 years old below while old pupils are those ages belong to 16 years old up.

Scope and Limitations of the Study

The study is limited to the effects of PowerPoint presentation in filipino to the academic performance of the students. It involves variables such as age, gender, academic performance, and PowerPoint presentation in Filipino. The instrument used in data gathering was a questionnaire which the researcher admits has the limitation of bias. Hence, the questionnaire was supplemented by observation, journals, articles, books and unpublished these as bases for the formulating of the questionnaire. The study focuses attention to the two groups of respondents from the Third Year population of Manapla National High School. The one group is the control group that will experience the PowerPoint presentation in filipino while the other group is the traditional way of teaching. The number of respondents

CARLOS HILADO MEMORIAL STATE COLLEGE
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Talisay City
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is obtained using a statistical instrument and is confined to the period 2010 - 2011. Findings of the study would therefore, be true only for the subjects concerned and for the given period of time, although these could be used as basis for similar studies that would be conducted at the different students of the country.

Assumptions of the Study The following are the assumptions of the study:

1. Young studnts are very interested to their lessons because of the. PowerPoint presentation. 2. Male pupils become more interested to their lessons because of the PowerPoint presentation. 3. The students got high results in their quizzes and examination in Filipino because of PowerPoint presentation. 4. The students had strong interest to study using the PowerPoint presentation in Filipino. 5. There is a great difference on the academic performance in Filipino of the students when one group exposed to PowerPoint presentation and the other group is not. 6. There is a great effectiveness in delivering information about the topic using the computer – aided instruction. 7. Based on the findings of the study, the PowerPoint presentation in filipino is a very useful tool in delivering information about the subject.

CARLOS HILADO MEMORIAL STATE COLLEGE
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Talisay City
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Significance of the Study The study was significant to the respondents, teachers, and parents, and administrators of Manapla National High School as well as to other education organization.

With the help of the study, it identifies the factors affecting the academic performance of third year high school students in the District of Manapla. To the students, they will be aware why they have such academic performance. They may able to value the importance of education by knowing the factors affecting to their performance. For the teachers, they may evaluate their teaching performance based on the result or performance of the students. They may answer the question, why a pupil got low or high academic performance? The teachers will be encouraged to have additional trainings about computer. For the parents, they may able to find out the things that they should do to boost the morale of their children towards better academic performance. The study is also significant to the school and other government thrust because it provides information on how to deal students having low academic performance. With this study, the school could also evaluate their performance in line to their mission, vision, and goals. They could identify and provided better instructional materials for effective learning. With the result, the government could plan programs in order to produce competitive, well-rounded students in the community. The government could give more focus on the new trend of teaching which is the use of modern facilities such as computer.

CARLOS HILADO MEMORIAL STATE COLLEGE
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Talisay City
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter 2

Review of Related Literature

This chapter presents a review of conceptual literature which is supported by studies relevant to this investigation. The review of literature focuses on the effects of computer – aided instruction in delivering the lessons, in academic performance, and to the learning habits of the pupils.

An Abstract the citation: Use of intelligent computer aided instruction in the classroom of Richard O'Lander (1990)

There is no question that computers are important technical tools in today's society. In education, computers can assist the student in learning. ICAI are systems which utilize the techniques of expert systems and artificial intelligence to help a person learn interactively. The basic view of these systems is that they serve as the student's private tutor, responding to the student's individual needs. Such systems have changed the structure of the classroom; the teacher is no longer the focal point of classroom activity. Rather, he serves as a guide for the student as he learns the material. Current trends also tend to support using such systems as an instructional aid in teaching mathematics. This has meant reorganizing the structure of the classroom. Each student and instructor has access to a terminal, and the time periods are

CARLOS HILADO MEMORIAL STATE COLLEGE
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Talisay City
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

restructured to allow for the use of this technology. Most of the systems developed were designed to teach mathematics or technical subjects. Current research indicates that such systems are successful in that the student learns the logic behind a particular concept. It is hoped that these logical thinking skills that are developed can be transferred to other subject areas. It should be noted that most of the studies were conducted with highly motivated students; many systems were designed for this type of student. In concept, this type of individualized instruction is well suited for the unmotivated and slow learner. To use this system for these types of students, ICAI systems will require modifications of the interface of the tutoring system and will require improved graphics interfaces to hold their interest. These systems will require close monitoring by the teacher.

An abstract from the citationThe impact of e-learning in education Source by Claudia Blezu (2008)
It is evident that information and communication technologies (ICT) have transformed our lives and reshaped the nature of everyday activities and contemporary times are often called the 'information age' or the 'knowledge society'. In today's day and age, education plays a big role in which we are and what we can achieve in our lifetime. Planning and implementing courses - no matter whether done for face-to-face education or within e-learning environments - deal a lot with pedagogical issues. Learning is influenced by a couple of factors such as attention, motivation, emotions, etc. as well as by learner characteristics like prior knowledge, cognitive and learning styles, intellectual capabilities, constitutional states and the forth. E-learning is the unifying term to describe the fields of online learning, web-based training and technology-
CARLOS HILADO MEMORIAL STATE COLLEGE
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Talisay City
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

delivered instruction. Nothing is changing as fast as all the terms related to E-learning. In E-learning environments learners interact with learning materials, their instructors and other learners from various locations and often at various times using network technologies.

An abstract from the citationDeveloping Culture of Inquiry in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning by LasseLipponen and Kai Hakkarainen (1997)

The purpose of the study is to report results from an early stage of a longitudinal research on CSILE's (Computer-supported Intentional Learning Environments) cognitive effects in a Finnish elementary school. The study was aimed at analyzing how elementary school students' process of inquiry mediated by the CSILE environment developed from first (third grade) to second (fourth grade) year of CSILE use. The study was carried out by analyzing qualitatively 26 students' written productions in CSILE's database as well as by conducting some structured interviews. The study indicated that the students made a considerable progress in terms of explanation-seeking research questions, explanatory level of knowledge produced by them as well as quality of discourse interaction. However, at this point of time there were no indications of in-depth knowledge advancement that characterize the most successful Canadian CSILE classes. It is argued that facilitation of higher-level practices of inquiry in the context of the CSCL require a lot of pedagogical and epistemological support for both the teachers and students. It seems also to be
CARLOS HILADO MEMORIAL STATE COLLEGE
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Talisay City
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important to engage a whole school community to the process of pedagogical development rather than deal with individual teachers and classrooms.( http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1599773.1599794&coll=GUIDE&dl=GUIDE&CFID=87581254&CFTOKEN=25286067)

A meta - analysis from the citation Effects of computer-assisted instruction on students’ achievement in Taiwan:
By Yuen-kuang Cliff

A meta-analysis was performed to synthesize existing research comparing the effects of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) versus traditional instruction (TI) on students’ achievement in Taiwan. Fifty-two studies were located from four sources, and their quantitative data was transformed into effect size (ES). The overall grand mean of the study-weighted ES for all 52 studies was 0.55. The results suggest that CAI is more effective than TI in Taiwan. In addition, two of the seventeen variables selected for this study (i.e., statistical power, and comparison group) had a statistically significant impact on the mean ES.
The results from this study suggest that the effects of CAI in instruction are positive over TI. The results also shed light on the debate of learning from media between Clark and Kozma.
This is an excerpt from the paper Computer Aided Instruction by (eg. Bernard, 1986; Clements, 1986; Norton &Resta, 1986) http://www.lotsofessays.com/viewpaper/1683801.html

CARLOS HILADO MEMORIAL STATE COLLEGE
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Talisay City
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Existing literature on PowerPoint presentation (e.g. Bernard, 1986; Clements, 1986; Norton &Resta, 1986) indicates that this instructional mode, when supplemented by teacher instruction, may operate to elevate or improve both the math skills and the thinking skills of elementary school children.
The difficulty with most of the foregoing research is that virtually none of it has been based on samples of Hispanic children. Thus while the findings may be valid for Anglo-American or other non-Hispanic groups, it cannot be known as to whether the research findings generalize to Hispanic children. The problem undertaken in this research was to examine whether existing findings on CAI generalize to Hispanic children by examining the effects of Computer Aided Instruction (CAI) on fifth grade, Hispanic children's math skills, critical thinking skills, and their attitudes toward computers.
Specifically, the purpose of this study was to examine differences in attitudes toward computers, math skills, and critical thinking skills for two groups of Hispanic children: (1) a group of fifth grade children who, during the school year, received Computer Aided Instruction; and (2) a group of fifth grade children who, during the school year, did not receive Computer Aided Instruction.
. . .
-class backgrounds (most of whom were Anglo) had significantly more opportunities to gain computer training and skills than did students from lower or lower-middle class backgrounds. Computer Attitudes and Student Characteristics Bernard (1986) suggested that CAI efficacy might depend upon certain characteristics and traits of students. Clearly, the foregoing findings suggests that attitudes toward computers are also dependent upon certain characteristics and traits of students, namely upon ethnic

CARLOS HILADO MEMORIAL STATE COLLEGE
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Talisay City
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

background and/or whether there is a computer at home. A study by Collis (1985) suggests that attitudes toward computers may also be dependent upon students' attitudes towards other factors, for example gender. In her study, Collis found that in general, females view their gender as less competent than males in terms of working with computers. Oddly, Collis also found that while females believe that most females are not as competent as their male peers, they simultaneously believe that they personally are as competent. Jones (1983) conducted a study of 9th grade students in order to see whether there were true gender differences in students' competency with computers.

This is an excerpt from the paper Effectiveness of Computer Aided Learning http://www.lotsofessays.com/viewpaper/1693516.html

This research examines the issue of the effectiveness of the use of computer in the instructional process. Effectiveness within the context of this research refers to learning outcomes.
The Application of Technology to Instruction
Definitions of instructional technology typically vary according to the way in which the factor is conceptualized by those individuals constructing the definitions (Saettler, 1994, p. 2). There are two widely accepted conceptualizations of instructional technology the physical science concept and the behavioural science concept.

CARLOS HILADO MEMORIAL STATE COLLEGE
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Talisay City
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

When instructional technology is considered within the context of physical science, it is typically viewed as the application of physical science and engineering technology to the process of education (Saettler, 1994, p. 4). This concept emphasizes device effects and procedures, as opposed to instructional content and learner differences. The development of the physical science concept of instructional technology was not greatly influenced by the interrelationships between educational needs and psychological theory, on the one hand, and the design of instructional messages and media, on the other hand (Finn, 1960, p. 4).
The most significant theoretical premise embodied in the physical science concept of instructional technology is that which casts materials and machines in nonverbal roles and traditional media (lectures, books) in verbal roles (Brown, Lewis, &Harcleroad, 1995, p. 22).
. . . motor or perceptual processes. It is learned through the training of the mind, as opposed to the training of the eyes or hands. CAI software programs facilitate this learning process. Similarly, CAI software may be designed to reflect the cognitive processes employed in the acquiring of skills related to mathematics, science, and engineering. Another illustration from a basic education level is that comprehension in reading comes from within the mind, rather than from the text being read (Anderson-Inman, 1994, p. 280). Thus, prior knowledge and experiences are an essential part of the process of comprehension. CAI software programs may be designed to take advantage of the knowledge and experience levels of specific student users. The ability of CAI software to relate the learning experience to the learner's prior experiences and knowledge is of inestimable value in the teaching of mathematics. Several specific advantages are

CARLOS HILADO MEMORIAL STATE COLLEGE
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Talisay City
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

provided by CAI software programs in the teaching of mathematics. The most significant of the advantages available through the use of CAI are as follows: 1. CAI software programs permit the placing of emphasis on a comprehensive understanding of a topic, as opposed to specific aspects of a topic.

CARLOS HILADO MEMORIAL STATE COLLEGE
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Talisay City
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Summary of Review of Related Literature

Chapter 2 presents conceptual and research literature which are designed to provide valuable insights among readers about the effects of PowerPoint presentation in filipino to the students. It clearly shows that there are great differences on the performance of the students. Modern way of teaching using the technology motivates the students to learn because of its visual presentation and the clarity of the instrument. The only role of the teacher is to assist the students learning process without any difficulty in presentation of the topics. E – Learning is the unifying term to describe the fields of online learning, web – based training and technology – delivered instruction. Nothing is changing as fast as all the terms related to E- learning. In E – learning environments learners interact with learning materials, their instructors and other learners from various locations and often at various times using network technologies. The study indicated that the students made a considerable progress in terms of explanation-seeking research questions, explanatory level of knowledge produced by them as well as quality of discourse interaction. However, at this point of time there were no indications of in-depth knowledge advancement. There are also some results that the study suggest the effects of Computer – Aided instruction are positive over the Traditional Instruction. A study by Collis (1985) suggests that attitudes toward computers may also be dependent upon students' attitudes towards other factors, for example gender. In her study, Collis found that in general,

CARLOS HILADO MEMORIAL STATE COLLEGE
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Talisay City
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

females view their gender as less competent than males in terms of working with computers. Oddly, Collis also found that while females believe that most females are not as competent as their male peers, they simultaneously believe that they personally are as competent. Jones (1983) conducted a study of 9th grade students in order to see whether there were true gender differences in students' competency with computers.

CARLOS HILADO MEMORIAL STATE COLLEGE
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Talisay City
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter 3

Research Methodology

------------------------------------------------- This chapter discusses the method of research used, the subject – respondent of the study, the data gathering instrument, the validity and reliability of the data – gathering instrument, and the statistical treatment

Method of Research Used
The main concern of this study is to determine the effects of PowerPoint presentation in filipino to the academic performance of students in Manapla National High School. Accordingly, this investigation used the experimental type of research using the two group method. According to John Davis, Ph.D., experimental research designs are founded on the assumption that the world works according to causal laws. These laws are essentially linear, though complicated and interactive. The goal of experimental research is to establish these cause-and-effect laws by isolating causal variables.

CARLOS HILADO MEMORIAL STATE COLLEGE
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Talisay City
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Subject-Respondents of the Study

The subject-respondents of this investigation were the 95 Third Year students of Manapla National High School during the school year 2010 – 2011. Of this total population, a sample of 88 was determined to serve as actual respondents. The sample size was computed using Slovins’ formula as reflected below:

___N____ 1 + Ne2

Where: n – sample size
N – total population e – margin of error of .05

The computation of the sample size

CARLOS HILADO MEMORIAL STATE COLLEGE
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Talisay City
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Table 1 shows the distribution of subject-respondents according to variable groupings. As to gender, it can be noted, that majority of the respondents were females (52%). As to gender, 65% of the students are enrolled on their exact elementary age or 14 years old and below.

Table 1

Subject-Respondents of the Study According to Variable Groupings
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------------------------------------
Variable Groupings f %

Overall 77 100.00
Gender
Male 37 48.05 or 48 Female 40 51.94 or 52
Age
15 below 50 64.93 or 65 16 above 27 35.06 or 35

CARLOS HILADO MEMORIAL STATE COLLEGE
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Talisay City
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Data-Gathering Instrument/s Used

This study made use of three standardized instruments on the effects of t PowerPoint presentation in Filipino to the academic performance of pupils in Manapla National High School.

The instrument is composed of 25 items. At the end of each item, number codes from one to five are indicated for the respondents to circle one that best represents their personal feeling, belief, or circumstance on the issue raised. The number codes and verbal interpretations are reflected as follows:

Number Codes Interpretation

5 Strongly Agree 4 Agree 3 Uncertain 2 Disagree 1 Strongly Disagree

CARLOS HILADO MEMORIAL STATE COLLEGE
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Talisay City
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The mean scores were interpreted using the following guide:

Mean Score Ranges Interpretation

4.20- 5.00 Very Positive 3.40- 4.19 Positive 2.60 - 3.39 Moderate 1.80 - 2.59 Negative 1.00 – 1.79 Very Negative

CARLOS HILADO MEMORIAL STATE COLLEGE
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Talisay City
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Validity of the Data-Gathering Instrument/s

The instrument is said to be valid if it measures what it intends to measure More formally, Cook and Campbell (1979) define it as the "best available approximation to the truth or falsity of a given inference, proposition or conclusion."

The instrument used in this study underwent face and content validation by validators who are expert in their specific fields relevant to the phenomena under study. These validators were composed of one research director, 2 research major teachers, and 2 English major teachers. The instrument was also presented to the professors of the Graduate School of CHMSC. Their comments and suggestions were considered in the finalization of the instrument.

Reliability of the Data-Gathering Instrument/s

The instrument is said to be reliable if the result of the first and second test is quite similar
According to Del Siegle, Ph.D., a test is reliable to the extent that whatever it measures, it measures it consistently. From a research point of view, the scale seems to be reliable because whatever it is measuring, it is measuring it consistently. Whether those consistent results are valid is another question. However, an instrument cannot be valid if it is not reliable.

CARLOS HILADO MEMORIAL STATE COLLEGE
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Talisay City
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In establishing the reliability of the instrument, the researcher made use of a test-retest technique to determine the reliability index of the questionnaire. In this process, 30 dry-run respondents were selected from the Third Year students of Manapla National High School. The dry-run respondents were selected because it will test the reliability of the instrument. To determine the reliability index of the two tests, the Pearson Product Moment Coefficient of Correlation was used. The formula for PPM is reflected as follows:

---------------------------------------------------------------- The application of PPM resulted to a coefficient index of 97 which indicates that the instrument is highly reliable.

Procedure When the validity and reliability of the three instruments were established, sufficient copies of the questionnaire were reproduced for administration to the respondents. Prior to the test administration, official request to administer the instrument was sought from the principal of the school. With the permission, the researcher personally administered the instrument to the respondents. The researcher explains to the respondents the confidentiality of their answers and presented to them the purpose of having the survey.

CARLOS HILADO MEMORIAL STATE COLLEGE
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Talisay City
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Statistical Treatment

To analyze the data, the mean was used as it is the most reliable measure of central tendency. All the problems were examined using mean. The formula for the mean to be used is reflected as follows:

Sample mean:

Where: ∑X is sum of all data values n is number of data items in sample

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