Free Essay

# Precipitation and Evolution of Bird Beaks

In: Science

Submitted By robenever
Words 1026
Pages 5
Change in Precipitation
Ramon Pena
BIO101
February 14, 2011
Dr. Richard Steiner

Change in Precipitation
Introduction
This experiment will take course during a 300-year-time -period simulation. This experiment will consist of two islands, Darwin Island, Wallace Island and take only into account the bird population of these two islands. The parameter will stay the same, except for one variable; precipitation. I will record how the precipitation changes the beak size of the bird population and what other effects it has on them. My hypothesis is that if the amount of precipitation is changed in one of the island then there will be more food. If there is more food in one of the islands then I can assume that more birds have access to more food, thus requiring a bird’s beak to stay the same while the birds from the other island have an increase in beak size due to the fact that they have to scavenge more for their food.
Materials
For this experiment, I will use a windows-based desktop computer with a 24-inch monitor for better viewing of graphs and simulations. I will also use notebook for recording cross time period information. Within the computer, I will be using a Java-based tool simulation, named Evolution Lab that will run the experiment and demonstrate the results. This will be the most important material for this experiment.
Procedures
First, this experiment takes place on a computer simulation called Evolution Lab. The Evolution lab can be accessed through the University of Phoenix web portal for students and faculty members. Upon access to the simulation and starting up there is a button that can change the inputs of certain parameters, in this experiment, I will only change the amount of precipitation that falls on one of the islands. Upon changing the amount I can already see that there is a change in food.
The seed from the island that we are changing precipitation is Darwin Island. The amount of change is by two. Wallace Island will get 20.0 cm is precipitation and Darwin Island will get 40.0 cm in precipitation. The data will also be examined for multiple time periods; 100 years, 200 years and 300 years.
Data
The food change is as followed; the hard seed count from Wallace Island to Darwin Island decreased, from 64 percent down to 36 percent. The medium size seeds increased from 32 percent up to 48 percent. And the soft seed count increased as well from 4 percent to 16 percent.
The Changes here demonstrate how the hard seed count declined and went from a 1:1 ratio to 16:9 [ There are no sources in the current document. ] [ There are no sources in the current document. ] in hard seed count. The medium-size seed population saw in increase in a 3:2 ratio compared to Wallace Island. In the small-size seed population the ratio was 4:1; it quadrupled the amount of seeds in this category.
Visiting the date for the first 100 years shows an increase in beak size for both bird populations in both islands; however Wallace saw a bigger increase. Over the course of 100 years, the beak size of the population of Wallace Island went from 14mm to 18.34mm.
The population of Darwin Island only grew 16.8mm. Over the course of 200 years, the beak size of the Wallace Island birds has now grown to 22.2mm while the Darwin Island birds now have a beak size of 20.11mm. Over the course of 300 years, the beak size of the Darwin Island population has increased but not by much, now they have a beak size of 20.5mm average while those of Wallace island has increased to 24.11mm.
The graphs show that there are more birds with the average size beak than any other bird with a different beak size. The average being those numbers stated above.
Results
The results show that an increase in precipitation by twice as much in one island affect the animals, and the vegetation altogether. The seed population gained more soft seeds in the island and lost heavy seeds in the Darwin Island, the island that had more precipitation. Wallace Island, kept more of the heavy seeds and less of the soft seeds.
Darwin Island birds had an increase of beak size from 12mm to 20.5mm during a 300 year period. Wallace Island birds had a bigger increase in their beak size, from 12mm to 24.11 during the same time period.
The population of the Darwin Island birds dramatically increased in the first 200 years, while the bird population of Wallace Island only steadily increases for 300 years until reaching the same average of that of Darwin Island.
The data shows that the island with more heavy seed had a larger beak size increase during the 300 year time period. My hypothesis was off but what I do conclude is this; since it rains more in Darwin Island, there is more fresh and new food growing all the time. Birds in this island do not have to search for long and even less battle with the seed in other to eat it. In Wallace Island, There is a lack of rain, thus the vegetation grows a bit tougher. Since it is tougher, the birds have to fight more to get their food, requiring a bigger beak. The population in this island is more controlled, since those that do get their food, get to live, while on Darwin Island, every bird seem to procreate despite the lack of a longer beak.
Conclusion
With the help of a desktop computer and a big screen monitor, I was able to conclude that changing the precipitation between two identical islands can have a change in population, size of and growth rate of animals and vegetation. In this experiment we took only data from the bird population and some factors of vegetation to conclude that those birds that have less rain in their habitat do have a larger beak to ensure survival.

References
EvolutionLab, 2001. California State University and Benjamin Cummings.

### Similar Documents

Free Essay

#### Bio 101 Evolution Lab

...Evolution Lab BIO/101 Pooja Thakur 7-23-12 Evolution Resulting From Natural Selection INTRODUCTION The Evolution Lab simulates environmental situations to determine effects on evolution over periods of time. This lab experiments with the evolution of finches on two different islands over 100, 200, and 300 years. By manipulating parameters that influence natural selection, the effects that natural selection have on the evolution process can be studied. HYPOTHESES • The size of the island will influence the population. • The amount of precipitation will influence beak size. • Variances in beak size will influence beak size. MATERIALS The materials needed for this experiment consist of a computer and access to the Evolution Lab on the University of Phoenix student website. In the Evolution Lab there are two islands, Darwin Island and Wallace Island. There are seven variables that can be changed to run many different experiments on both islands. The variables are beak size, variance of beak size, heritability, clutch size, island size, population, and precipitation. METHODS In all of the experiments Darwin Island was used as the control group and Wallace Island was the experimental group. So, in each test, the variables for Wallace Island were altered and the variables for Darwin Island were left alone. The first experiment was to determine whether or not the size of the island affected the population. To do this, the only variable......

Words: 892 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

#### Evolution Lab

...The Evolution of Finches on Darwin and Wallace Islands Angela Vaughn BIO/110 December 9, 2013 Heather Browning The Evolution of Finches on Darwin and Wallace Islands In the 1800s, Charles Darwin, a brilliant scientist and naturalist, observed that an organism’s traits allowed it to adapt to an environment. These organisms would produce offspring that possessed abilities to survive in their environment. Those that did not possess these traits were less fit and were unable to survive the environment. This was the beginning of the study of evolution and natural selection. “Evolution is the study of how modern organisms have descended from the earliest life-forms and of the genetic, structural, and functional modifications of a population that occur from generation to generation. The ability of a population of organisms to respond to change in their environment and survive and reproduce by developing the characteristics or modifications necessary for survival is known as adaptation.” (University of Phoenix, 2013) House Finches live in dry desert, grasslands, stream sides and open coniferous forests at elevations below 6,000 feet. They eat seeds, buds and fruits. (House Finch, n.d.) The purpose of the experiment is to test my hypothesis, “Precipitation does not cause natural selection to act upon beak size.” Materials To complete the experiment, I will need access to a computer and the Evolution Lab simulation at the University of Phoenix website. The......

Words: 1335 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

#### Evolution of Finches

...Evolution of Finches on Darwin and Wallace Islands INTRODUCTION The Evolution Lab simulates environmental situations to determine effects on evolution over periods of time. This lab experiments with the evolution of finches on two different islands over 100, 200, and 300 years. By manipulating parameters that influence natural selection, the effects that natural selection have on the evolution process can be studied. HYPOTHESES • The size of the island will influence the population. • The amount of precipitation will influence beak size. • The larger the clutch the higher the population over time MATERIALS The materials needed for this experiment consist of a computer and access to the Evolution Lab on the University of Phoenix student website. In the Evolution Lab there are two islands, Darwin Island and Wallace Island. There are seven variables that can be changed to run many different experiments on both islands. The variables are beak size, variance of beak size, heritability, clutch size, island size, population, and precipitation. MATERIALS AND METHODS The Evolution Lab provides many variables. The user can change the following: beak size, variance of beak size in the population, heritability of the mid parent beak size, clutch size, island size, population of the finches to start the experiment, and precipitation on the island as it affects the hardness of seeds.. All of the numerous combinations of variables, set for two different islands......

Words: 1686 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

#### Evolution Lab

...Evolution Lab Sherrie Hamby BIO/101 January 18, 2012 James Marlowe Evolution Lab Evolution is a necessary stage and part of life. It’s what has shaped and define all living organisms on this planet. Evolution has helped all population and organisms respond to change in their habitat. The way they have survived is by passing on certain traits that have worked on keeping them alive it is known as adaptation. I wanted to see what would happen if you changed the eating habits of finches. What effect this will have on the evolution of life on this island? Materials All of the materials that you will need for this experiment are: a computer, pencil, paper for notes, and access to the Evolution Lab on the student website for the University of Phoenix. Introduction First, I went to the student web site and used the Evolution Lab website for the University of Phoenix. What I wanted to do is run two different scenarios to determine how much effect food sources have on finches. The test has seven different variables that you can change and those are beak size, variance, heritability, clutch size, island size, population, and precipitation. The test is simulated on two different islands one is named Darwin’s Island and the other is named Wallace’s Island. Experiments The first experiment that I ran I chose to set my parameters for Darwin’s and Wallace’s island the same. The parameters are: initial beak size 12.0 mm, heritability 0.7, variance 1.0, clutch size 10.0 eggs...

Words: 1003 - Pages: 5

#### The Finches’ Adaptation and Evolution Bio101

...Title The finches’ adaptation and evolution In this experiment takes place as the investigation of finches being adapted and how they evolve during the years. Introduction and Purpose In the process of evolution permits you to experience the adaptation and evolution of the population of finches over 100, 200 and 300 years. These experiments can be located on the island Darwin and Wallace Island. Using different parameters that influence the adaptation and natural selection, in this experiment can study the process of evolution of finches. The hypothesis in this experiment. •The size of its beak and precipitation could have a large effect on the population. •For the size of the island population will be affected. •The greater the crisis, higher will be the population over time. Materials The materials used to complete this experiment were a computer, papers and internet access to the Evolution Lab available on the student website. Methods of Procedures Evolution in this experiment provides different variables. In the same could change the following: the variable in beak size in the population, the size of the peak, the legacy of the measured peak, clutch size, difference in size of the island, the population of finches to start the experiment, the precipitation of the island, as it affects the work of The seeds. All different combinations of variables can be set at different islands for two hours......

Words: 791 - Pages: 4

#### Evolution Lab

...Evolution Lab BIO101 December 4, 2012 In this lab report it will evaluate a modern-day understanding of evolution using a link to analyze some data. The evolution website link will use numerical data to develop parameters that may influence a natural selection for researching and formulating a hypothesis. The data describes the results on Wallace Island and Darwin Island, testing one of the population mean, creating original parameters, and reproduction evolution. The formulating process uses both verbal and numerical hypothesis using the five-step hypothesis test on information pertaining to the selection per island. Finally, the outcome of the test will explain the how each result from this hypothesis testing is answer for Darwin Island and Wallace Island. The diversity and capacity of influence on the beak size and inhabitants number available data obligated to center on a matter discuss daily. A scientific theory necessitates that each theory be analysis under various conditions and meticulously. Any theory that continues to exist testing and may have led to a rejection is a well-built theory. Sometimes scientific evolution consists of classifying the circumstances under which a theory fails or holds like the size of beaks will influence inhabitant’s statistics. The beak size affects the diversity of the living organisms in a population with multiple numbers. After looking at the statistics over time the two islands speculates what may happen to beak......

Words: 716 - Pages: 3

#### Evolution Lab

...For the purposes of this paper will review modern-day understanding of evolution. How can numerical data be used to develop parameters that influence natural selection for research on formulate a hypothesis. Using this information describe the results of "Darwin Island" and "Wallace Island." Test of one population mean and create new parameters and model evolutionary. To do this formulating both a numerical and verbal hypothesis regarding the five-step hypothesis test on data pertaining to the selection. Finally, the results of the test and explain how the findings from this hypothesis testing may be used to answer the results of "Darwin Island" and "Wallace Island”. The variety and scope of influence of Precipitation on Beak size and population number accessible information compelled to focus on a subject that is discussed almost daily. “Scientific theory requires that theories be tested rigorously and under various conditions. A theory that survives tests that could have led to its rejection is a strong theory. Sometimes scientific progress consists of identifying the conditions under which a theory holds or fails like beak size will affect population numbers. The effects of beak size will affect the diversity of living organism population numbers. Then looking at the plots of population numbers over time speculated the two islands what happened to beak size on Darwin Island compared to Wallace Island over time. The population of the finches on Darwin Island was......

Words: 777 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

#### Bio 2f03

...when the Europeans came with the cattle o The trees only produce a new plant after processes: the fallen fruit has to be eaten by a larger animal (mule, or horse or cow) à it has to pass through the body and ends up in a pile of fertilizer only then it can regenerate and produce a tree o Why did it evolve to be depended to this process? § There must be animals there in the past, in the past it was a camel (llama, alpaca). When the Indians came from asia (50000 years ago) these animals went extinct and the tree lost its major dispersal system What is the most obvious foundation of life on land? o Is landà soil Climate defines biomes, the ‘shapes’ of vegetation o Defines the major types of land on earth o Temperature and precipitation to be specific Soils in turn greatly affect the aspects (roots, water, nutrient) à rentention, root attachment, etc. Soil typically form layers (horizontal) retaining a range of physical and chemical layers: o Classification of soil: O= organic, A, B, C Soil horizons: description o O: organic, litter on top, fine litter deeper (gets broken down, hence fine), pollen, dead organisms o A: mineral soil, some organic matter. Clay, iron, aluminum, silicates, and soluble organics leach out gradually o B: depositional. Materials leached from A settle in B. Deposits may form banding patterns. o C: weathered parent material: rock fragment o Particulate to dissolved material gradient, organic to purely mineral Soils: warm and......

Words: 18026 - Pages: 73

#### Inc1 Modules 3-9

...Module 3 Waves and the Electromagnetic Spectrum  Topic: Waves    1. What is a wave?  A wave is vibration that travels and all waves are created by something vibrating. Waves transport energy  but do not transport mass.     2. Describe the following terms associated with waves:   a. amplitude­ height of wave  b. wavelength­ length of a wave  c. frequency­ number of waves per second (Hz)  d. period­ how long a wave lasts when it arrives at a fixed point (measured in seconds)      3. What are radio waves?  An electromagnetic wave of a frequency used for long­ distant communication.     4. Explain the difference between a transverse wave and a longitudinal wave, and give examples of  each.  In a longitudinal wave, the vibration travels in the same direction that wave travels. Examples of longitudinal  waves include: Sound, p­-waves (earthquakes)     In a transverse wave, the vibration direction is perpendicular to direction that wave travels. Examples  include: Light/electromagnetic, (radio, microwave, x­ray, etc.), water waves, s­waves (earthquakes).     The major difference between longitudinal and transverse waves is their direction. Longitudinal waves move  left to right while transverse waves move up and down.       5.......

Words: 11922 - Pages: 48

#### Bio 103

...MULTIPLECHOICE SECTION INSTRUCTIONS: Read all instructions carefully. Please answer all questions. Each question is worth 0.5 points. The Multiple Choice section is worth 40 points. **Do not enter your answers here.** Type in the letter you select as the best answer on the Answer Sheet provided by your instructor. 1. Which of these would be a valid hypothesis? A) Human history is determined by a series of supernatural events. B) Humans should help in the conservation of other animal species. C) Humans are controlled by forces beyond our understanding. D) Humans and bacteria share a common genetic code. 2. In the scientific method, a hypothesis . E) is a statement of fact F) can only be tested once G) is usually proven to be correct H) is a proposed explanation based on observations I) none of the above 3. What is the correct sequence of steps in the scientific method? I. State the problem II. Analyze and interpret the data III. Share the results with other scientists IV. Develop a hypothesis V. Design and perform an experiment to test the hypothesis A) I → II → III → IV → V B) III → I → V → II → IV C) V →IV → III → II → I D) I → IV → V → II → III E) V → II → I → III → IV 4. To test a hypothesis about a given variable, experimental and control groups are tested in parallel. Which of the following best explains the dual......

Words: 6163 - Pages: 25

...Answers to Conceptual Integrated Science End-of-Chapter Questions Chapter 1: About Science Answers to Chapter 1 Review Questions 1 The era of modern science in the 16th century was launched when Galileo Galilei revived the Copernican view of the heliocentric universe, using experiments to study nature’s behavior. 2 In Conceptual Integrated Science, we believe that focusing on math too early is a poor substitute forconcepts. 3 We mean that it must be capable of being proved wrong. 4 Nonscientific hypotheses may be perfectly reasonable; they are nonscientific only because they are not falsifiable—there is no test for possible wrongness. 5 Galileo showed the falseness of Aristotle’s claim with a single experiment—dropping heavy and lightobjects from the Leaning Tower of Pisa. 6 A scientific fact is something that competent observers can observe and agree to be true; a hypothesis is an explanation or answer that is capable of being proved wrong; a law is a hypothesis that has been tested over and over and not contradicted; a theory is a synthesis of facts and well-tested hypotheses. 7 In everyday speech, a theory is the same as a hypothesis—a statement that hasn’t been tested. 8 Theories grow stronger and more precise as they evolve to include new information. 9 The term supernatural literally means “above nature.” Science works within nature, not above it. 10 They rely on subjective personal experience and do not lead to testable hypotheses. They lie outside...

Words: 81827 - Pages: 328

Free Essay

#### Environmental Studies

...Environmental Studies For Undergraduate Courses Erach Bharucha Textbook for Environmental Studies For Undergraduate Courses of all Branches of Higher Education Erach Bharucha for University Grants Commission Natural Resources i Preliminary Pages.p65 1 4/9/2004, 5:06 PM Credits Principal author and editor – Erach Bharucha Unit 1 – Erach Bharucha Unit 2 – Erach Bharucha, Behafrid Patel Unit 3 – Erach Bharucha Unit 4 – Erach Bharucha Unit 5 – Shamita Kumar Unit 6 – Erach Bharucha, Shalini Nair, Behafrid Patel Unit 7 – Erach Bharucha, Shalini Nair, Behafrid Patel Unit 8 – Erach Bharucha, Shambhvi Joshi Case Studies – Prasanna Kolte Co-ordination and compilation – Behafrid Patel Textbook Design – Narendra Kulkarni (Mudra), Sushma Durve Manuscript review and editing – Chinmaya Dunster, Behafrid Patel Artists – Sushma Durve and Anagha Deshpande CD ROM – Jaya Rai and Prasanna Kolte © Copyright Text – Erach Bharucha/ UGC, 2004. Photographs – Erach Bharucha Drawings – Bharati Vidyapeeth Institute of Environment Education and Research All rights reserved. Distributed by University Grants Commission, New Delhi. 2004. ii Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses Preliminary Pages.p65 2 4/9/2004, 5:06 PM Vision The importance of Environmental Studies cannot be disputed. The need for sustainable development is a key to the future of mankind. The degradation of our environment is linked to continuing problems of pollution,......

Words: 125061 - Pages: 501

Free Essay

#### Essay

...BONPLANDIA Arachis (Leguminosae) A. Krapovickas and W.C. Gregory, 16 (Supl.): 1-205. 2007 BONPLANDIA 16 (SUPL.): 1-205. 2007 TAXONOMY OF THE GENUS ARACHIS (LEGUMINOSAE) by Antonio Krapovickas1 and Walton C. Gregory2 Translated by David E. Williams3 and Charles E. Simpson4 1 2 Director, Instituto de Botánica del Nordeste, Casilla de Correo 209, 3400 Corrientes, Argentina. Deceased. Formerly WNR Professor of Crop Science, Emeritus, North Carolina State University, USA. 3 International Affairs Specialist, USDA Foreign Agricultural Service, Washington, DC 20250, USA. 4 Professor Emeritus, Texas Agric. Exp. Stn., Texas A&M Univ., Stephenville, TX 76401, USA. 7 BONPLANDIA 16 (Supl.), 2007 Table of Contents Abstract ......................................................................................................................... Resumen ........................................................................................................................ Introduction .................................................................................................................... History of the Collections ................................................................................................. Summary of Germplasm Explorations ................................................................................ The Fruit of Arachis and its Capabilities ............................................................................ “Socias”......

Words: 100844 - Pages: 404

Free Essay

#### 500 Extraordinary Islands

...500 extraordinary islands G R E E N L A N D Beaufort Sea Baffin Bay vi Da i tra sS t a nm De it Stra rk Hudson Bay Gulf of Alaska Vancouver Portland C A N A D A Calgary Winnipeg Newfoundland Quebec Minneapolis UNITED STATES San Francisco Los Angeles San Diego Phoenix Dallas Ottawa Montreal ChicagoDetroitToronto Boston New York OF AMERICA Philadelphia Washington DC St. Louis Atlanta New Orleans Houston Monterrey NORTH AT L A N T I C OCEAN MEXICO Guadalajara Mexico City Gulf of Mexico Miami Havana CUBA GUATEMALA HONDURAS b e a n Sea EL SALVADOR NICARAGUA Managua BAHAMAS DOMINICAN REPUBLIC JAMAICA San Juan HAITI BELIZE C a r PUERTO RICO ib TRINIDAD & Caracas N TOBAGO A COSTA RICA IA M PANAMA VENEZUELA UYANRINA H GU C U G Medellín A PAC I F I C OCEAN Galapagos Islands COLOMBIA ECUADOR Bogotá Cali S FR EN Belém Recife Lima BR A Z I L PERU La Paz Brasélia Salvador Belo Horizonte Rio de Janeiro ~ Sao Paulo BOLIVIA PARAGUAY CHILE Cordoba Santiago Pôrto Alegre URUGUAY Montevideo Buenos Aires ARGENTINA FALKLAND/MALVINAS ISLANDS South Georgia extraordinary islands 1st Edition 500 By Julie Duchaine, Holly Hughes, Alexis Lipsitz Flippin, and Sylvie Murphy Contents Chapter 1 Beachcomber Islands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Aquatic Playgrounds 2 Island Hopping the Turks & Caicos: Barefoot Luxury 12 Life’s a Beach 14 Unvarnished & Unspoiled 21......

Words: 249855 - Pages: 1000

Free Essay

#### Gre Vocabulary 3000

...Made By Jason & Franklin. This Document Is Strictly Prohibited For Commercial Purposes Without Authorization. List 1 GRE Verbal 750 Quantitative 800, AW 5.5 2008 10 Princeton, MIT, M. Fin Unit 1 ABANDON A B D I C AT E ABASE ABERRANT ABASH ABET A B AT E A B E YA N C E A B B R E V I AT E ABHOR abandon [ 1 n. ] carefree, freedom from constraint added spices to the stew with complete abandon unconstraint, uninhibitedness, unrestraint 2 v. to give (oneself) over unrestrainedly abandon herself to a life of complete idleness abandon oneself to emotion indulge, surrender, give up 3 v. to withdraw from often in the face of danger or encroachment abandon the ship/homes salvage 4 v. to put an end to (something planned or previously agreed to) NASA the bad weather forced NASA to abandon the launch abort, drop, repeal, rescind, revoke, call off keep, continue, maintain, carry on abase [ 1 v. ] to lower in rank, office, prestige, or esteem was unwilling to abase himself by pleading guilty to a crime that he did not commit debauch, degrade, profane, vitiate, discredit, foul, smirch, take down elevate, ennoble, uplift, aggrandize, canonize, deify, exalt abash [ 1 vt. ] to destroy the self-possession or self-confidence of ,disconcert, embarrass Nothing could abash him. discomfit, disconcert, discountenance, faze, fluster, nonplus, mortify embolden abate [ 1 v. ] to reduce in degree or intensity / abate his rage/pain taper off intensify 2......

Words: 139628 - Pages: 559