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Premarital Sex

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What are pressure groups
A pressure group can be described as an organised group that does not put up candidates for election, but seeks to influence government policy or legislation. They can also be described as ‘interest groups’, ‘lobby groups’ or ‘protest groups’. Some people avoid using the term ‘pressure group’ as it can inadvertently be interpreted as meaning the groups use actual pressure to achieve their aims, which does not necessarily happen. In Britain, the number of political parties is very small, whereas the number of pressure groups runs into thousands; as the membership of political parties has fallen, that of pressure groups has increased.
The term pressure group is a very wide definition that does not clearly distinguish between the groups that fall under the term. For example, a pressure group can be a huge organisation like the CBI (Confederation of British Industry), which represents 150,000 businesses, and it can also be a single-issue locally based organisation like CLARA (Central Area Leamington Resident’s Association), which represents less than 300 households campaigning to preserve and improve the town of Leamington Spa. The definition also does not distinguish between the more extreme pressure groups such as the Animal Liberation Front, whose campaigns include the illegal activities such as planting bombs, and the pressure groups such as the Institute for Public Policy Research (IPPR), which have links to the Labour government and regular contact with cabinet ministers.
The aim of all pressure groups is to influence the people who actually have the power to make decisions. Pressure groups do not look for the power of political office for themselves, but do seek to influence the decisions made by those who do hold this political power. Often pressure groups find themselves competing with rival pressure groups with the aim of gaining an advantage over them, but sometimes groups work together to achieve a common aim.
Pressure groups provide a means of popular participation in national politics between elections. They are sometimes able to gather sufficient support to force government to amend or even scrap legislation. For example, in March 1998 around 300,000 people went to London to protest about the Labour government’s rural policies - the ‘Countryside March’ - the government reacted by announcing plans for a Ministry of Rural Affairs and by publishing a white paper investigating all aspects of rural life.
Pressure groups also provide a means of participation in local politics between elections. For example, in 1994 the A452 Coordination Group campaigned to block plans by Warwickshire County Council to make the A452 a dual carriageway. After the group’s intense lobbying, the council dropped the plans. Pressure groups also act as a sense of specialist knowledge, and often have access to information that is highly valued by decision makers. For example, MENCAP and MIND – groups campaigning on behalf of people with mental disabilities – are often invited to give government briefings. In return, these groups have an input into the making of decisions, and they can also receive financial contributions direct from the government.
A pressure groups can use a variety of different methods to influence law. Firstly, it can merely inform legislators of its member’s preferences. Second it may well give money or time to help with an election campaign. Third, its members may threaten, as a group, to vote as a bloc. By doing this they promise to help a cooperative legislator, and threaten to harm a non-cooperative legislator. Fourth, a pressure group may speed up legislation by writing bills and helping legislators make progressive agreements. Finally, a pressure group my attempt to influence members of the executive, who have some law making input and who can partly decide the strength and effectiveness of law enforcement.

Organised crime group
Organised crime can be defined as serious crime planned, coordinated and conducted by people working together on a continuing basis. Their motivation is often, but not always, financial gain. Organised criminals working together for a particular criminal activity or activities are called an organised crime group.
Organised crime group structures vary. Successful organised crime groups often consist of a durable core of key individuals. Around them is a cluster of subordinates, specialists, and other more transient members, plus an extended network of associates.

Many groups are often loose networks of criminals that come together for a specific criminal activity, acting in different roles depending on their skills and expertise. Collaboration is reinforced by shared experiences (such as prison), or recommendation from trusted individuals. Others are bonded by family or ethnic ties – some ‘crime families’ are precisely that.
The Organised Crime Command in the NCA leads the fight against organised crime. Find out more about the work of the Organised Crime Command.

Legend: Synonyms Related Words Antonyms Adj. | 1. | unorganised - not having or belonging to a structured whole; "unorganized territories lack a formal government"unorganizedunstructured - lacking definite structure or organization; "an unstructured situation with no one in authority"; "a neighborhood gang with a relatively unstructured system"; "children in an unstructured environment often feel insecure"; "unstructured inkblots" | | 2. | unorganised - not affiliated in a trade union; "the workers in the plant were unorganized"nonunionised, nonunionized, unorganizednonunion - not belonging to or not allowing affiliation with a trade union; "nonunion carpenters"; "a nonunion contractor"Description Riots are physical expressions of discontent by large, mostly unorganised groups of people, expressed in vandalism, assault and/or pillaging. Although the riot may be unorganised, the reason for these people being there may well have a collectively shared motivation. Based on their nascency, three types of riots can be distinguished: Organised protests Firefighters douse a shop and flats destroyed by arson during the initial rioting in 2011 in Tottenham, LondonSometimes peaceful, organised protests can quickly turn into unorganised and destructive riots. Examples of such events are the 2011 events in Tottenham, London[1] and the riots in Rome in October 2011[2]. In these cases the protest, especially when arousing stormy emotions, can turn into a riot when external circumstances provoke strong and emotional responses. Events Riot police managing fans after a 2008 EUFA cup football match in ManchesterEvents which arouse strong emotions, especially when aggravated by a strong sense of competition or the use of alcohol, can disinhibit natural restraint and lead to group processes that can lead to excessive violence. The sport of football has a long history of riots associated with it[3]. These kinds of riots are often associated with a group of agitators, known as hooligans, who instigate such violent actions. Social unrest A man runs over a fence in front of a van set ablaze by a group of rioters in the 2007 riots in Paris.Felt social wrongs can build a common frustration that can release itself in sometimes very violent and wide-spread riots. The 2005 Paris civil unrest, which resulted in a three-month declaration of the state of emergency[4]. Contributing circumstances Known circumstances to influence the likelihood or effect of destruction by riots, are presented in the table below: Contributing Circumstance | Influence | Description | Use of alcohol | Decreases inhibitions. | The initial response of alcohol may be calming, but once an aggressive trigger is present, people who have been drinking are quicker to respond in violent ways[5]. | Excitement and competition | Increases likelihood of emotional response. | Aggressive behaviours are more likely to occur after aggressive games[5]. | Previous acts of riot/Tradition of riots (f.e. annual) | Increases probability of riots | A tradition of rioting can set the stage for new riots breaking out. | Long reaction times or inadequate action of intervention force | Decreases likelihood of apprehension. | Intervening in an 'explosive' emotional situation is very tricky; the wrong response can easily trigger an adverse effect and worsen the situation. Providing support for intervention forces allowing them to react before an explosive situation arises is therefore very important. | High levels of unemployment | Increases likelihood social unrest. | High levels of unemployment decrease social stability which can act as an agent for riots to develop. | Presence of high levels of crime | Increases probability of riots. | Street riots commonly occur in places where crime is a serious and chronic problem[5]. | Presence of crowds | Decreases likelihood of apprehension. | It has been argued that large crowds cause individuals to act aggressively and without restraint because they confer anonymity[6]. Furthermore, The impact of the crowd includes “deindividuation,” in which there is a mob mentality and people no longer act as individuals but rather as a group. People do things in this state that they would not otherwise do[5]. | Presence of protest demonstrations | Increases likelihood of riots forming. | In areas where protest demonstrations are regularly held, the likelihood of one such demonstration turning into a riot is always present. |
Impacts Social impactDestruction by riots can have social impact such as increase in citizens' perception of insecurity, fear of crime, and avoiding of the places of the riots. This can result in urban space becoming increasingly more attractive for rioters, with a chain of increasing destruction. Economic impact Riots lead to considerable costs in both a direct (primary) and a indirect (secondary) way[7]. Direct costs of destruction by riots come in the form of: * Preventive costs in anticipation of riots (e.g. security measures, insurance); * Material and immaterial costs as a consequence of rioting (e.g. physical damage, repairs, medical costs, mental harm)[8]; and * Responsive costs to riots (e.g. the costs of detection and prevention, prosecution, support trial, etc.). In addition, the secondary economic impact of crime has to be considered: * Riots make investors nervous: "Although the Thai stock market has recovered strongly this year, investors saw a 10% drop while the rioting was going on (in 2010)[9]. "Moreover, while Thailand no doubt benefited from its reputation as a peaceful and relatively orderly country, countries with chronic troubles risk getting labelled as "basket cases" and virtually eliminated from serious consideration as investment destinations"[9]. * Rioting also has a distinct impact on tourism. "China reported that disturbances in Xinjiang in 2009 led almost 85,000 travellers to cancel trips to the area, while Thailand has seen a big drop in tourism since its political troubles turned violent"[10] in the spring of 2010. In theory, security measures can prevent destruction by riots, but not without costs. Target hardening or access control, for example, is costly and there is always the risk of crime displacement[11]. Crime is closely related to poverty, social exclusion, wage and income inequality, cultural and family background, level of education and other economic and social factors[12]. With the help of economic tools such as social cost-benefit analysis it is possible to overview the costs and future benefits of security measures in order to decide which types of measures are best suited for a specific urban planning situation. Mobility impactSince riots take place at Open and civic spaces, the mobility function of those areas might be seriously hampered. Accessibility might be reduced when, for example, roads are blocked. Also safety of vulnerable road users might be reduced, especially when important bicycle lanes or pedestrian paths are crossing the riot location. With traffic management measures one can attempt to concentrate the riot at a location with little impact on mobility and to reduce the negative consequences for mobility, for example by rerouting traffic around the riot location. Access control can ensure only flows of the intended people enter or exit the area and can enforce and intended separation of crowds. Also by directing traffic flows (including flows of people), the crowd and traffic flows can be controlled. Safety impactRiots can do massive physical and/or bodily damage, as shown by the examples above. A rioting crowd has very little attention for the consequences of their actions. This is why one of the first measures taken if a riot is already broken out, is to isolate it to limit the damage. INTEREST GROUPS Nigeria Table of Contents Organized interest groups played a crucial role in national politics, especially under military regimes when other forms of direct political participation were prohibited. Professional AssociationsThese associations were the most established interest groups in the country and included the Nigerian Bar Association (NBA), the Nigerian Medical Association (NMA), the Nigerian Society of Engineers, the Nigerian Economic Society, and the Nigerian Political Science Association. Many of these associations were mainly concerned with matters relating to the professional interests of their members. In pursuing professional concerns, however, they articulated and demanded important political actions. Between 1983 and 1985, for example, the NMA called a strike of medical doctors to demand an improvement in health care delivery. Its leaders were detained and the union banned until 1986. The NBA has been at the forefront of the movement for the observance of the rule of law and human rights in Nigeria. Most other associations held annual conferences at which positions were taken on national issues. The most distinguishing characteristics of professional associations were their elitist and urban base, and the nonviolent pursuit of their interests.Trade UnionsThe central trade union in the country was the Nigerian Labour Congress (NLC), which was formed in 1975 as the umbrella trade union and recognized by Decree Number 44 of 1976 as the sole representative of all trade unions in the country. The NLC had a national executive and secretariat, as well as state councils in all states. It had more than 100 affiliated unions. Although most labor matters were channeled through the NLC, the affiliate unions had engaged individually in union activities, such as strikes and lockouts. In the 1980s, the NLC was torn apart by leadership struggles, ideological differences, and ethnoregional conflicts. The NLC nearly broke up in 1988 after disagreements over elections of its leadership, resulting in the federal government's appointing an administrator for several months. The NLC organized a nationwide workers' strike in 1986 to demand the retention of government subsidies on petroleum products and continued to articulate workers' demands on matters such as minimum wages and improved welfare conditions. Several other trade unions were also active. A few, such as the Academic Staff Union of Universities, were proscribed for alleged antigovernment activities.The MediaThe press was a specialized interest group in Nigeria. As the fourth estate or the "societal watchdog," it was the most vocal and effective interest group in the country, especially because other interest groups channeled their demands and support through the press. The media could act as a watchdog because of the large number of newspapers and radio and television stations, and because of the wide degree of press freedom. In the 19__s, Nigeria had more than thirty national and provincial newspapers, more than twenty general magazines and journals, and more than twenty television and radio stations. Although the radio and television stations were owned by the federal and state governments, most of the newspapers and magazines were privately owned and were, in general, seen as instruments of partisan political interests. Thus, the latter could afford to be critical of the government. At some points, newspapers and magazines have been proscribed, as happened to Newbreed in 1977, the Tribune in 1984, and Newswatch in 1988. Individual journalists have been harassed and intimidated by government security agents. In 1971 Minere Amakiri, a Nigerian Observer correspondent, was detained and his hair shaved. Since then, numerous editors and reporters have been detained. The organized interest groups representing the press included the Nigeria Union of Journalists, the Newspaper Proprietors Association, and the Nigerian Guild of Editors. These associations mainly pursued the professional interests of their members but also played active roles on broader social issues.Student AssociationsSince 1962, when students prevented the government from signing the Anglo-Nigerian Defense Pact, they have played an active role in influencing government actions. From the 1970s on, they have engaged in violent protests and riots that have sometimes resulted in fatalities. The grounds for these riots have ranged from narrow concerns, such as unacceptable dining facilities and boarding conditions, to broader national issues, such as the removal of government subsidies on petroleum products, the SAP, and repressive government. Since 1977 no year has passed without one university or other institution of higher learning being closed because of violent student protests. The most dramatic were the 1978 "Ali must go" riots, in which all universities in the country protested a rise in the costs of university education; and the 1989 anti-SAP riots, which claimed many lives. Student activities were coordinated nationally by the National Association of Nigerian Students (NANS), which has operated underground since its proscription in 1986. Every institution of higher learning had a student union. Until 1986, when the Justice Mohammad panel recommended voluntary membership as a way to check student protests, membership in student unions was compulsory. There were several other student associations, such as voluntary groups and religious associations, which also articulated students' interests.Women's OrganizationsNigeria had several women's organizations, most of them professional and social clubs. The umbrella organization, recognized as the voice of women on national issues, was the National Council of Women's Societies (NCWS). Many of the women's groups were affiliated with the NCWS, which tended to be elitist in organization, membership, and orientation. Another major women's association was Women in Nigeria, composed primarily of university women and inclined toward Western feminist views. Conservative Nigerian Muslim women in the late 1970s began to indicate discontent with the liberal trends of these two organizations and in the mid-1980s created the Federation of Muslim Women's Associations of Nigeria, which had about 400 member bodies throughout the country. In the 1980s, women from lower social strata in the towns, represented mainly by the market women's associations, became militant and organized mass protests and demonstrations in several states. Their major grievances ranged from narrow concerns such as allocation of market stalls to broader issues such as increased school fees.Other Interest GroupsOther notable interest groups included social clubs and fraternities, old boys' and alumni associations, and various voluntary associations. On the whole, the activities of interest groups and the roles they played in national politics depended on how narrow or broad the group's interests were, the resources available to it, its ties with those in authority, its affiliation with other groups, and the ideological character of its membership. The major interest groups were elitist, but other groups were also active at times.Pressure groupWhat are the Advantages and disadvantages of pressure groups?How do Pressure Groups enhance the political system? 1. Pressure groups are a vital link between the government and the governed. They keep governments more responsive to the wishes of the community, especially in between elections. 2. Pressure groups are able to express the views of minority groups in the community who might not otherwise receive a hearing. 3. Pressure groups are able to use their expertise to provide the government with important information. This has often been the argument in relation to motoring organisations such as the RACV. It is also applicable to emerging issues, such as the Wik debate. 4. Pressure groups offer an alternative source of advice to the government, separate from that coming from the Public Service. 5. Pressure groups generally promote opportunities for political participation for citizens, without the need to join a political party. Moreover, they allow for the democratic rights of freedom of speech, assembly and association to be upheld.

How do Pressure Groups distort the political system? 1. Pressure groups may represent a powerful minority force in society and exert political influence to the detriment of the majority of society. This is an argument often levelled at trade unions and business groups. 2. Some pressure groups exert influence because of their financial position, membership or organisation. This influence may be out of proportion to their position in society. 3. The use of direct action by pressure groups (eg. strikes by unions, demonstrations, blockades, pickets) can cause hardship to the community in general. 4. Some pressure groups are not democratic in themselves. Some have powerful, but unrepresentative leaders who may not be representative of anyone but themselves. Some leaders do not reflect the opinions of their organisation's membersADVANTAGES The organization plan is easy for everyone to understand. The authority relationships are clear, since authority comes directly down the line. The lines of responsibility are also clear, since each employee is responsible to only one boss. Decisions can be quickly made at each level. 4.5.2 DISADVANTAGES Managers at each level are loaded with detail work since they must approve all work of subordinators. Supervisors need many skills and broad knowledge because of the wide variety of work they must oversee. Specialization and in-dept knowledge are, therefore, absent. If a manager resigns he may be difficult to replace, because of his broad range of company specific knowledge. Little coordination exists among departments: each department or area is concerned chiefly with its own work.Benefit #1: you will be able to be more focused on what you want to achieve.

Benefit #2: you will be able to be more productive.

Benefit #3: you will be able to manage your time more effectively.

Benefit #4: you will be able to do your work more economically.

Benefit #5: you will be able to reduce the clutter in your workspace and reduce your stress levels.

Benefit #6: you will be able to achieve more balance in your life.

Benefit #7: you will be able to set and achieve your goals in a more efficient manner.

Benefit #8: You will be able to present a more positive business image.

Benefit #9: you will be able to prioritize your tasks.

Benefit #10: you will be able to be more flexible and more creative.

Benefit #11: you will be able to achieve more energy and enthusiasm.

Benefit #12: you will be able to achieve freedom from chaos. | |

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...Pre-marital sex is sexual intercourse engaged in by persons who are not married to each other (Thomson, 1938). It is generally used in reference to individuals who are presumed not yet of marriageable age, or between adults who will presumably marry eventually, but who are engaging in sexual activity prior to marriage (Lucas, 2000; Ramesh, 2008 and Barbra et al,2001). In many cultures in Asia, pre-marital sex is banned to prevent unwanted pregnancy in women while in India pre-marital sex is culturally wrong, but recently it was legalized by the Supreme Court due to the influence of the western culture (Perkins et al, 1998). Pre-marital sex is sex before marriage and it is generally found among the adolescent. It involves fornication, rape, defilement and incest. The causes behind it have been established including curiosity among the adolescent, proof of manhood, lust, pornography and its adverse effects, insanity and sex promiscuity as well as moral decadence among the student youths (Choe et al, 2004). Worldwide, rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among the school students are soaring: one-third of the 340 million new STDs each year occur in people under 25 years of age (Fernández et al,2010). Each year, more than one in every 20 school youth contracts a curable STDs. More than half of all new HIV infections occur in people between the ages of 15 to 24 years. The sexual health needs for the student girls who are generally overlooked, Stigma and vulnerability......

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Research on Premarital Sex

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Perception on Premarital Sex

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Effects of Premarital Sex

...people today consider the practice of premarital sex to be normal, harmless behavior. (Finer, 2007) While saving sex until marriage may seem outdated, premarital sex can bring negative emotional and physical effects into a marriage relationship which creates a greater risk for divorce. Current statistics suggest that the divorce rate hovers around 50 percent. One 1996 study released by the United State Census Bureau states that “The number of divorced people more than quadrupled, from 4.3 million in 1970 to 18.3 million in 1996” (Saluter & Lugail, 1996, p. 1). While reasons for divorce are as diverse as the number of marriages that dissolve, this particular statistic suggests that there is a high cost to the liberated sexual attitude ushered in since the 1960s. People may have been promised a better understanding of themselves as sexual beings through the shift, but, instead they were blinded to the psychological risks involved. Understanding the emotional hazards of premarital sex begins by acknowledging two innate needs of every human: a loving connection with others which includes physical touch and affection (Cox, 2001); and a “desire to be known, to love and be loved” (Williams, 2002, p. 2). These desires equate to the need for true intimacy. In an ideal committed relationship two people share communication, consideration, affection and trust which creates a deep, meaningful link that forges genuine intimacy. Often, people use sex to fulfill these......

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