Premium Essay

Prenatal Care

In: Other Topics

Submitted By ronsae
Words 582
Pages 3

P S Y C H O L O G Y / 205

P R O F. K R I S T I N – S C O T T- G R O V E S

R O N S A E L. M A S O N

During pregnancy it is very important to pay close attention to what you intake. Especially thing’s like teratogens “ harmful agent’s such as viruses and drug’s” in which the placenta will not be able to stop from harming the baby. Drinking during pregnancy is associated with a variety of problems in the offspring. “Alcohol enters the fetal bloodstream in approximately the same concentrations present in the mother’s blood.” I’ve read that the child could one day become addicted to alcohol because of the mother introducing it to the child as a fetus. I’ve also learned that “1 in 800 infants are affected by Fetal Alcohol Syndrome” , (FAS) . “FAS can cause birth defects and mental retardation. It can cause “ (Placeholder1)head and lifelong brain abnormalities ”.
Another harmful substance that would be considered a teratogen is nicotine. Smoking during pregnancy I s hazardous! It has been linked to some 115,000 miscarriages and 5,600 infant deaths a year as well as to atopic pregnancy. I’ve learned the babies born by mothers who smoke cigarettes aren’t as healthy, they don’t receive as much nutrients, less blood oxygen, and could be born under weight. Also I believe that smoking moms are more likely to suffer from apnea (breathing lapses) and are twice as likely to die of SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome). Also there was a study that showed children of smokers tended to be more prone to respiratory disease.

Last, I read about the Competent newborn. I’ve learned about “newborn abilities and how researchers explore infant mental abilities.” Newborns are born with a natural instinct (survival instinct). Which allows them to react intelligently in situations and intern beneficially towards their health (more specifically...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Prenatal Care

...From conception to birth, care and support of a pregnant woman is paramount. This paper will discuss the routine care that a pregnant woman would expect to receive and study the common disorders that are seen in many pregnant women, at some point or throughout their pregnancy. The first antenatal visit is the most comprehensive. For some women, this is in the first few weeks of pregnancy and for others; it may be as late as 12-14 weeks. It is often the first contact that the pregnant woman has with her health providers and can be quite daunting and scary. As the visits continue, it is normal that they are shorter but no less thorough. Most women will have visits that roughly follow a basic plan, with variations that are customized to the patient, any conditions or complications that arise. The most important thing that needs to occur between a midwife and her client is the establishment of rapport. Having a good rapport with the midwife, allows the woman to open up about what is concerning her, whether it’s physical or emotional, but also allows the midwife to discuss things that may be quite confronting or awkward. For example, not every woman will have planned her pregnancy, and so therefore, there can be fear and apprehension about whether she wants to keep the pregnancy or not. Being able to relax means the woman may reveal more about herself than she realizes, such as her general appearance (Dressed appropriately? Does her hair look dull or dry?) or even for signs...

Words: 2502 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Prenatal Care in the Community a woman could hear. In order to give birth a healthy baby, women needs to take care of themselves during pregnancy; they need prenatal care. The health care that women gets during their pregnancy is what we call prenatal care. Health issues are usually spotted early during the pregnancy by the health care providers allowing them to treat these issues early. It has been shown that women who do not take care of them during the early stage of pregnancy can cause their babies to have low birth weights and even their deaths (Office on Women’s Health, 2012). In Broward, there are several community outreaches and state's clinics in place to provide prenatal care to pregnant women. These outreaches and clinics provides services that are sometimes free. The services that they provide are described as follows: Tobacco smoking cessation Tobacco smoking can cause some serious harm to an unborn child. Smoking can The news of being pregnant is one of the best news a woman could hear. In order to give birth a healthy baby, women needs to take care of themselves during pregnancy; they need prenatal care. The health care that women gets during their pregnancy is what we call prenatal care. Health issues are usually spotted early during the pregnancy by the health care providers allowing them to treat these issues early. It has been shown that women who do not take care of them during the early stage of pregnancy can cause their babies to have......

Words: 595 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Prenatal Care in the Community

...Prenatal Care in the Community Prenatal Care in the Community  Getting early and regular prenatal care improves the chances of a healthy pregnancy. Preconception and prenatal care can help prevent complications and inform women about important steps they can take to protect their infant and ensure a healthy pregnancy. Which is important to many mothers. It’s is also important to be informed because habits that may not harm an adult may still harm a baby’s development. A child’s health begins long before it is born. Common barriers to a healthy pregnancy and birth include lack of access to appropriate health care before and during the pregnancy. In addition, environmental factors can shape a woman’s overall health status before, during, and after the pregnancy. There are many free or low-cost services for pregnant women and their babies. Hospitals, Churches, State or local Health Departments Etc. Having prenatal care is important but it is not always what happens in certain situations for example people with addiction issues. Even though those certain people may know better they still risks of their actions. The use of substances by the mother can have devastating consequences to the fetus. Smoking is linked to low birth weight, which can result in a weakened immune system, poor respiration, and neurological impairment. Excessive maternal drinking while pregnant can cause fetal alcohol spectrum disorders with life-long consequences for......

Words: 429 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Impact of Prenatal Care on Birth Weight

...minute but important application of this advancement; Prenatal Care for better growth and development of children. It tackles the question of whether the impact of prenatal care is significant on an infant’s health or not. The data used is a cross-sectional data of 1832 observations, with 29 variables. Controlling for different relevant variables like demographics, age, education etc. we try to find a causal relation between the impact of prenatal care and birth weight. And in the end we conclude our results that a positive relationship is indeed present and significant, leaving room for data limitations and possible solutions for future research. IMPACT OF PRENATAL CARE ON BIRTH WEIGHT Shehryar Amin Waqas Sheikh Hafiz Moazam Ali Nasir Javed Econometrics 2 Introduction Birth weight is a key factor for a child’s health and wellness. Not only it is important to prevent infant mortality rate but also a healthier birth weight helps reduce the increased risks of illnesses faced by babies born with low birth weight. Also in a statistical brief for the state center for health statistics of North Carolina1, it was found that compared with children born with normal birth weight, low birth weight children were more at a risk for poorer health and also low educational outcomes through childhood and adolescence. They are more likely to have special health care needs and require additional educational services and extra medical care. So birth weight is an important measure......

Words: 3155 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Prenatal Development

...Prenatal Development Name: Institution Affiliation: Introduction Prenatal development alludes to an arrangement of development stages that starts from the fertilization of an egg by a sperm cell to the onset of conception procedure. It starts with the development of the zygote to the development of the baby. It includes three noteworthy stages to be specific, germinal stage, the fetal stage and embryonic stage. The developmental stages occur part of the way in the fallopian tube and the uterus. It typically takes a period of nine months in person yet changes starting with one types of creature then onto the next. The pre-implantation period, in the middle of fertilization together with implantation of the conceptus in the uterine divider, takes a normal of 7 days. The embryonic period is the real period of organogenesis, enduring around two months from conception. Amid the fetal period, enduring until around 38 weeks after conception, development, practical development, and further separation of tissues happen. Body There are a few standards of prenatal development which fundamentally controls the entire procedure. These standards are as per the following. Development happens in the head to toe course otherwise called cephalocaudal. That is the head creates first before the toes consequently the head and parts of the furthest point are constantly more created than the lower appendage at any specific time amid development. The......

Words: 1691 - Pages: 7

Free Essay


...Ariel and Deborah Levy were overcome with excitement as Deborah gave birth to their first child, but this quickly turned to shock when hospital staff told them their daughter looked as though she had Down syndrome. A doctor asked Deborah if she’d had a prenatal test – a chorionic villus sampling (CVS) – and Levy said yes, because she was 34, she and her husband were concerned about the possibility of genetic disorders. A first-trimester screening showed Deborah’s chances were estimated to be higher than average for giving birth to a child with Down syndrome, at about 1 in 130. So when Deborah was 13 weeks pregnant, she underwent CVS. The Levy’s were informed the results showed they’d have a normal, healthy child, and they “had nothing to worry about.” Within days of their daughter’s birth, however, a blood test confirmed that the little girl, Kalanit, had Down syndrome. Deborah said the news was “devastating.” The Levy’s filed a lawsuit against Legacy Health, claiming Deborah Levy would have aborted her pregnancy had she known her daughter had the chromosomal abnormality. The lawsuit blamed Legacy’s Center for Maternal-Fetal Medicine in North Portland and a Legacy lab for mistakenly taking a sample of maternal rather than fetal tissue for the test. The suit faults Dr. Thomas Jenkins and lab workers for not recognizing that the tissue was from the mother. The suit also faults Legacy for reassuring Deborah that her baby didn’t have an extra 21st chromosome, even......

Words: 688 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Research Paper

...Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is a group of complications that occur when a newborn is exposed to addictive drugs while in the mother’s womb. NAS is an increasing problem in the United States that many people are unaware of with a rise of 4.4% in 2013. It is important to understand that NAS not only affects the infant, but it affects the mother as well. Both the infant and mother can develop a wide range of symptoms ranging from mild to severe. Some of these symptoms include neurological, gastrointestinal, and autonomic disorders. Early identification of symptoms is vital to ensure that both the infant and mother receives the best care possible. Another important thing to recognize about NAS is the American...

Words: 2038 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Genetic Disorders

...Tay-Sachs Disease Foreword: Before beginning to read this review of the case study, please note that current events of today pertain more to preconception screening for genetic anomalies and genetic studies. Today due to preconception genetic screening many parents opt to terminate a fetus with fatal or painful anomalies; therefore a large portion of the research for parents who are expecting a child with Tay Sachs Disease was noted to be during an approximate 30 year span from the mid-1950’s to the early-mid 1980’s, thus older citings will be noted. “Tay-Sachs parents say that their child dies three times—when the disease is diagnosed, when the child enters the hospital, and the final time.” (Atwater, 1964) “How do you parent without a net, without a future, knowing that you will lose your child, bit by torturous bit?” (Rapp, 2011) Will it be a boy or a girl? What color will the eyes, the hair be? Whose smile will the baby have? These are just a few of the many questions that begin when parents find out they have conceived a child, and most of the time the questions only grow as the pregnancy progresses too; what will they want to be when they grow up? Who will they look like? Will they be strong, graceful, independent, or determined? Should we look at preschools and colleges now? It may not seem to occur very often that parents will say to themselves; we never thought about how we might parent a child without a future. Now instead of questions that may focus on......

Words: 5756 - Pages: 24

Premium Essay

Children of Alcoholics can also lead to behavior problems and cognition. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is caused by mothers drinking heavy during pregnancy. The current recommendation of the US Surgeon General is not to drink alcohol at all during pregnancy (Fetal Alcohol Syndrome). According to the book Fetal Alcohol Syndrome one in every 750 infants are born with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome each year in the United States. An additional 40,000 babies are born with Fetal Alcohol Effects. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome occurs when alcohol crosses the placental barrier and it stunts fetal growth or weight, creates distinctive facial stigmata, damage neurons and brain structures, and causes other physical, mental, or behavioral problems. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is caused by prenatal exposure to high level of alcohol. Many people think of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome as a drunken baby or a baby addicted to alcohol but Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is not either. According to the book Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome or FAS is a developmental disability that never goes away and there is no cure. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is also determined by interviewing the mother or other family members. Once alcohol use is determined the level of exposure is then assessed based on the risk. High risk is when alcohol use is confirmed during pregnancy and known to be at high blood alcohol levels. The high blood alcohol levels...

Words: 1541 - Pages: 7

Free Essay


...Sebastian – 7.3 Crawford – 8.2 Washington – 7.0 Benton – 6.5 I did look at the rate ratio for a rural county in Arkansas and the rate for mortality was higher. I feel that this is due to the fact that there are not a lot of healthcare professionals in the county and most live at least an hour a way from the nearest hospital. Lee – 20.1 I also feel that women without health insurance have a higher rate of infant mortality due to the fact that most do not have good prenatal care. While the first 4 counties on my list have a rate ratio of 18.0 without insurance, Lee county residents are at 26.6 without insurance. When comparing ethnicities, African American women had the highest rate of infant mortality with a rate ratio of 13.31 and Hispanic women from Central or South America had the lowest rate of 4.57. The United States as a whole has a rate of 2.37 with Wisconisin as having one of the highest rates. In the US unmarried mothers of all ethnicity had one of the highest rates due to the fact that prenatal care is very expensive. World statistics show at a rate ratio of 49.4 for infant mortality. Afghanistan rates at 119.41 making it one of the highest countries for infant mortality. I feel that...

Words: 410 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Checkpoint Eligibility, Payment, and Billing Procedures

...person’s status of employment becomes a deciding factor as well as the providers’ status as an in network or out –of- network provider as being listed on the plan master list of providers. The appropriate steps that would need to be taken if the patient insurance does not cover the plan and procedure to be done, then the healthcare provider need to inform the patient of the situation about their insurance eligibility of coverage. Therefore Ms. Smith should become aware that her delivery and prenatal care is not covered threw her insurance. So that way she could settle the financial account at that time. The two examples that I provided below relates to the eligibility factor of Ms. Sandra Smith charges with corresponding billing transactions. Example 1 Service to be performed Prenatal Care, estimated charge $ 1,800 date of planned service March 8, 2011 reason for exclusion insurance does not cover. I, Sandra Smith is a patient of DR. Woods, understands that my insurance excludes prenatal care, which makes me liable for the service rendered....

Words: 332 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Genetic Testing

...lives with immeasurable benefits. The rewards of this testing outweigh any reservations. Genetic testing are examinations of blood and other tissues of the body that doctors in the medical field prepare to test for possible defects of the body. These DNA based tests generally involves direct examination of the DNA molecule itself and are very sophisticated techniques of testing genetic disorders in the bodies of human beings. Prenatal genetic testing with the procedure of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, or PGD is a technique whereby testing is performed of an approximate three-day-old embryo to confirm that it does not carry a particular disease or diseases (Naik). The test predicts, with variable confidence, what the possible medical problems will be in the future. Then the doctor implants this embryo, which is free of that syndrome, in the mother's womb. It appears to be relatively easy to check the DNA and eliminate future diseases that are linked to a single malfunctioning gene such as cystic fibrosis or autism. In the 1990s, this type of prenatal genetic testing, PGD, was first introduced with vast numbers of parents utilizing this screening to avoid the potential hereditary passing of many deadly disorders to their children (Naik). In the very near future parents will be able to pick or select the...

Words: 2704 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay


...consent that all the client has the right to know, because the field of genetic counselling is new, a lot of people may have little knowledge and no experience of the condition and the way they are doing the test; but in some cases and in some countries, there are tests that have to be compulsory, the last one is that the testing is aimed at a whole population rather than individuals and their immediate families; this is one of the principal objectives, because when someone is doing a test about any disease, is necessary to have a consensus among a big group like a family, to get enough data to work and recollect all useful knowledge about the disease. We have four types of genetic screening programme: Newborn screening, Carrier screening, prenatal screening and Susceptibility screening. The first one in use as a way to treat disorders, and with this early diagnosis can generates and improves the outlook for an affected individual. These kinds of screening have presented a lot of benefits to treat diseases and give protection to those children that are suffering or are susceptible to the disease, therefore, some countries have been instituted but with little explanation for the parents, due to such screening has usually been routinized, making of these programme compulsory. But another view of point of this compulsory programme is...

Words: 823 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

The Uses and Possible Abuses of Pgd

...The Uses and Possible Abuses of PGD In this paper I will discuss what exactly pre-implantation genetic diagnosis is and multiple moral theories apply to it. The moral issues surrounding PGD are autonomy and Utilitarianism. After that I will discuss the possible problems that the use or PGD could cause in today’s society. Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis is a process in which embryos are tested to detect certain genetic characteristics during in vitro fertilization. There are three main disorders that can be detected through PGD. The first are sex-linked disorders. The mother’s abnormal X-chromosome is passed on to the son instead of the father’s regular chromosome. These disorders affect only sons, but girls can become carriers of an abnormal X-chromosome. Some examples of sex-linked disorders are hemophilia, neuromuscular dystrophies and Rett syndrome. The second set of disorders is single gene disorders. Disorders in this category contain cystic fibrosis, Tay-Sachs disease, and Huntington disease. The last group of disorders is chromosomal disorders. Chromosomal disorders are caused by chromosomal mutations. The process in which the embryos are tested is very complex and has multiple steps. The couple must already be in the process of IVF, or in vitro fertilization. The first step of PGD is ovarian stimulation. Ovarian stimulation is used to create multiple eggs. The second step is the harvesting of the eggs. Although the procedure is short, the woman is put......

Words: 832 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Alcohol and Birth Defects

...should not drink during pregnancy. Some people may believe that moderate drinking during pregnancy is okay, but there are others who believe that even having one drink can be potentially harmful to an unborn child. About 1 out of every 12 pregnant women drinks alcohol during pregnancy. 1 out of every 30 pregnant women report binge drinking during pregnancy. Prenatal alcohol exposure interferes with embryonic and fetal development. There is a wide range of physical and mental birth defects that can occur from an exposure to alcohol before birth, therefore women should not drink during pregnancy. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is a clinical diagnosis of prenatal alcohol exposure. FAS was “first officially recognized by Jones and Smith (1973)” (Blackburn &Whitehurst 2010). It's estimated that each year in the United States, 1 in every 750 infants is born with a pattern of physical, developmental, and functional problems referred to as fetal alcohol syndrome. This syndrome has received considerable attention in recent years. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome consists of evidence of prenatal alcohol exposure including central nervous system abnormalities (structural, neurological, and behavioral), growth retardation, and dysmorphic facial features. “Although intellectual disability is not a feature of the diagnostic criteria of FAS, it is well reported that children prenatally exposed to alcohol have a compromised level of intellectual function”(Blackburn &......

Words: 772 - Pages: 4