Premium Essay

Pressure Sores

In: Social Issues

Submitted By wayneyboy10
Words 536
Pages 3
Pressure Sores
I have chosen to discuss Pressure Sores (also known as Pressure Ulcers) as my topic for this Communication Project as I feel it will help me to understand the importance of position changes, diet and using appropriate equipment. I downloaded a document from the internet website National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence

A pressure sore is the name given to damage occurring on the skin as a result of pressure, friction or when layers of skin are slid over one another when moving up a bed, sliding or when transferring. The first sign of a pressure sore developing on the skin is usually discolouration which could worsen or lead to an open wound if not managed correctly. The main areas which are prone to pressure sores are the bony parts of the body, ie elbows, shoulders, bottom, hips, heels, ankles, back and back of the head.

The people most at risk of pressure sores (although anyone can get one) are those who have difficulty changing positions by themselves, are incontinent, cannot feel pain, have had pressure sores before, elderly or very young, have a poor diet or elderly who are ill or who have had an injury.

The best way to prevent pressure sores is to keep moving, this reduces the pressure placed on areas prone to pressure sores. Changing position as often as possible will relieve the pressure. Pressure sores can develop very quickly, sometimes within an hour if you are unable to move/change position.

Pressures sores are very serious as they can damage the deeper layers of tissue under the skin as well as the skin itself. A severe pressure sore can destroy the muscle or bone and in worst cases can be life threatening as they can become infected and cause blood poisoning or bone infections.

The people who are most susceptible to pressure sores should be...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Undertake Agreed Pressure Care

...Paula Kain Undertake agreed pressure Area care (HSC2024) Unit 4222-229 Outcome 1 1) The skin is the largest organ of the body, covering and protecting the entire surface of the body. The total surface area of skin is around 3000 square inches or roughly around 19,355 square cm depending on age, height, and body size. The skin, along with its derivatives, nails, hair, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands forms the integumentary system. Besides providing protection to the body the skin has a host of other functions to be performed like regulating body temperature, immune protection, sensations of touch, heat, cold, and pain through the sensory nerve endings, communicating with external openings of numerous other body systems like digestive system, urogenital system, and respiratory system via mucous membranes. The skin is primarily composed of three layers. The skin, which appears to be so thin, is still itself divided into epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous layer or hypodermis. Each layer has its own function and own importance in maintaining the integrity of skin and thereby the whole body structure. Pressure sores or decubitus ulcers are the result of a constant deficiency of blood to the tissues over a bony area such as a heel which may have been in contact with a bed or a splint over an extended period of time. The surface of the skin can ulcerate which may become infected. Eventually subcutaneous and deeper tissues are damaged. Besides the heel, other areas commonly......

Words: 2964 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay


...Introduction to the Thermodynamics of Materials Third Edition David R. Gaskell Preliminaries ‡ Settings Off@General::spellD ‡ Physical Constants Needed for Problems ü Heat Capacities The generic heat capcity c 105 bT Å Cp = a + ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ + ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ; T2 103 The heat capacities of various elements and compounds are CpAgs = Cp ê. 8a Ø 21.30, b Ø 8.54, c Ø 1.51 8.3144 , Rla -> 0.082057 < ; The number of moles can be calculated from the starting state: P 1 V1 nmols = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ê. nums ; Å Rla T1 subs = Append@nums, n -> nmolsD 8V1 Ø 10, T1 Ø 298, P1 Ø 10, P2 Ø 1, R Ø 8.3144, Rla Ø 0.082057, n Ø 4.08948< Finally, this constant will convert liter-atm energy units to Joule energy units. All results are given in Joules: laToJ = 101.325 ; ü 1. Reversible, Isothermal Process In an isothermal process for an ideal gas, DU = 0 ; DH = 0 ; thus heat and work are equal and given by: P2 q = w = n R T1 LogA ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ E J ê. subs P1 -23330.9 J 16 Notes on Gaskell Text ü 2. Reversible Adiabatic Expansion In an adiabatic expansion q = 0; and P V g is a constant. Thus the final state has 1êg g P2 V2 i P1 V1 y Å ; T2 = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ê. g -> 5 ê 3 Å V2 = j ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ z j z n Rla k P2 { P1 V 1 P2 I ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ M P ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ2 ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ Å n Rla 5ê3 3ê5 For an ideal gas cv = 3R/2; thus 3 DU = ÅÅÅÅ n R HT2 - T1 L ê. subs 2 -9147.99 or we can use 3 DU = ÅÅÅÅ HP2 V2 - P1 V1 L laToJ ê. Append@subs, g -> 5 ê 3D 2 -9148.02 For some numeric results,......

Words: 8379 - Pages: 34

Premium Essay


...What makes the ball curve: Soccer players can make the ball curve by applying a Force, kicking, to the ball that is not in the center of the ball itself. When the ball is struck on the side by a player the ball spins while it is moving forward. In the case of the picture below, the soccer ball was struck on the right side of the ball and is spinning counter-clockwise. What causes the ball to actually curve in the air is a difference in the pressures on either side of the soccer ball. On the left side of this soccer ball, the air is moving faster, than the right side, relative to the center of the ball. This causes a lower pressure to develop on the left side of the ball, while on the right side there is a higher pressure because the air flow is moving slower relative to the center of the ball. This difference in air pressure causes the ball to curve to the left during its flight path. This curve is known as the Magnus Effect after the physicist Gustav Magnus. The shape of the soccer ball is…round! But in mathematical terms, the soccer ball is usually in the shape of an Archimedean Solid. This solid has 32 faces, 12 are pentagons and 20 are hexagons. On the Apollo 17 mission astronauts played soccer with a 200 pound moon rock. Just imagine playing any sport with something that heavy…ouch! There are many different soccer balls in use today. Each company claims that theirs is the best one out there but in all reality soccer players only like to play with soccer balls...

Words: 718 - Pages: 3

Free Essay


...Pipe Bends and Thrust Block Forces ------------------------------------------------- Pipe bends and thrust blocks forces on anchors due to fluid velocity and internal pressure - online resulting force calculator Sponsored Links Online Pipe Bend Resulting Force Calculator The calculator below can used to calculate resulting force in piping bends: ------------------------------------------------- Top of FormMetricρ - density of fluid (kg/m3)d - int. diam. pipe or bend (m)v - velocity of fluid (m/s)β - turning angle of bend (o)p - gauge pressure (kPa)Bottom of Form | ------------------------------------------------- Top of FormImperial SG - specific gravity of fluid d - int. diam. pipe or bend (inches)v - velocity of fluid (ft/s)β - turning angle of bend (o)p - gauge pressure (psi)Bottom of Form | The resulting force on a thrust block or anchor depends on the fluid mass flow and flow velocity and the pressure in the bend. Resulting force due to Mass flow and Flow Velocity The resulting force in x-direction due to mass flow and flow velocity can be expressed as: Rx = m v (1 - cosβ)         (1)     = ρ A v2 (1 - cosβ)         (1b)     = ρ π (d / 2)2 v2 (1 - cosβ)         (1c) where Rx = resulting force in x-direction (N) m = mass flow (kg/s) v = flow velocity (m/s) β = turning bend angle (degrees) ρ = fluid density (kg/m3) d = internal pipe or bend diameter (m) π = 3.14... The resulting force in y-direction due to mass flow and flow velocity can be......

Words: 632 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Avogadros Law

...deviation= 0% a Average number of moles in 100 mL for all three gases 0.0062moles b % deviation for each gas All 3 the same: 0% c Do your results confirm Avogadro's Law? Yes 4. Based on the calculated number of moles in one 1 atm of gas, how many molecules are in 1 atm of gas? (There are 6.022 x 1023 molecules/mole) Since all 3 gases have the same number of moles I will calculate 1 formula for all 3. 0.0062mol (6.022 x 1023 molecules/mol)= 0.0373364 →3.73 x 1022 molecules for each gas are in 1atm. 5. Even though the number of molecules in 1 atm of gas at constant pressure and temperature is identical, the number of atoms in the gas at STP can vary depending on the gas. How many atoms are there in one mole of methane (CH4) 1 mole of Methane CH4 = (6.022 x 1023 atoms/mole) = 6.022x1023 atoms of Methane in one mole 6. In this experiment, the pressure (P) was 1 atm, the temperature (T) was 295 K, the volume (V) was 0.150 L, and the number of moles (n)was 6.2 x 10-3 moles. The ideal gas law states that P*V =...

Words: 467 - Pages: 2

Free Essay


...The Vacuum Way Back Machine: A Look at How It Was in the Early Days In the 1960s, when I first became interested in vacuum technology, the only books available to me were two volumes in the Portland (Maine) Public Library. The first was John Strong’s Procedures in Experimental Physics [1], published in 1938. The second was John Yarwood’s High Vacuum Technique [2], published in 1945. I guess that vacuum was not exactly a hot topic in Portland. Strong’s book covered many topics besides vacuum practice. Other chapters discussed optics, Geiger-Mueller tubes and counters, electrometers, optics, materials for physics, glassblowing and mechanical design. The book became a classic in its treatment of laboratory practice and has more recently been emulated by Building Scientific Apparatus [3] by Moore, Davis and Coplan where many of Strong’s topics are presented in updated form. Today we are blessed with UHV compatible materials, advanced fabrication methods, standardized fittings and a plethora of pumps and gauges, almost all of which are available for purchase via the internet. We forget about the days when obtaining a decent vacuum involved a certain resolve and ability to make do with adapted components and various concoctions of sticky goops. In this article we’ll take a look at some of the examples in Strong’s handbook and compare them to what we have now. Strong’s RepresentativeVacuum Systems Strong divided vacuum systems into two......

Words: 1837 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Assignment 6

...constant. Alternatively, a body will need oxygen in the lungs to survive, so as the water pressure increase with depth, the air pressure in our lungs must be increased to match. This means the mass of the gasses will be increased. 2. The relative densities of water, ice and alcohol are 1.0, 0.9, and 0.8, respectively. Does the ice cubes float higher or lower in a mixed alcoholic drinks? What can you say about a cocktail in which the ice cubes lie submerged at the bottom of the glass? A. The ice cubes will sink if there is enough alcohol in the beverage. In 80+ proof (40+%), ice cubes should sink. Ice cubes float in water, and sink in alcohol. Anything with less density than the liquid it's in will float. 3. How does the density of air in a deep mine compare with the air density at Earth’s surface? A. As altitude decreases, pressure increases. The mine air WILL be denser than surface air. 4. Why do you suppose that airplane windows are smaller than bus windows? A. Because there is a lot more pressure at a higher altitude and a smaller window is stronger. 5. When steadily flowing gas from a larger-diameter pipe to smaller-diameter pipe, what happens to its speed its pressure and the spacing between its streamlines? A. The speed stays the same because the gas is steadily flowing. B. The pressure increases because pv=nrt, and the volume of the container decreases so the pressure must increase. C. The spacing between the streamlines decreases because the same......

Words: 524 - Pages: 3

Free Essay


...temperatures even those beyond 100 °C and are highly recommendable for compounds which have higher boiling points. As it was seen in the results for the melting point determination, the sublimate started to melt at 116 °C and stopped melting at 120 °C while the pure benzoic acid started to melt at 120 °C and ended at 121 °C. The temperatures measured indicated that the pure benzoic acid has a higher vapour pressure than the sublimate. INTRODUCTION Sublimation is the direct vaporization of a solid by heating without passing through the liquid state. [1] The process of sublimation in this experiment is used to purify the impure benzoic acid. The impurities in the benzoic acid have amino compounds that are present in a larger extent and must be removed because of phenyl and benzyl compounds that seriously affect the product.[3] This process occurs if the vapour pressure of the substances greater than the atmospheric pressure at the melting point.[2] The process of purification involved in sublimation is applicable for impurities which are non-volatile or with lower vapor pressure than the pure compound or substance. The objectives of this experiment are: (1) to purify the impure benzoic acid through sublimation, (2) to calculate the percentage recovery of the...

Words: 1271 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Sliding Pressure

...ISSUES: SLIDING OR CONSTANT PRESSURE The future generation of SC and USC plants in the US must be able to achieve high efficiencies not only in continuous base-load operation but also at part-load operation. The conventional approach suggests that, in the US, the new generation of SC and USC plants will operate, for the most part, at base-load conditions and constant steam pressure. However, for a plant with a life span of 30–40 years, it is inevitable that in the future these units will operate in load-cycling operation using sliding pressure. Operation under constant pressure requires steady boiler and main steam line pressure over the entire load range. At part load, the steam turbine requires a lower pressure and flow to generate the amount of power needed. The operational system where the boiler provides only the required amount of steam and pressure to meet the demand without any throttling, is referred to as “sliding pressure.” Most steam generators and turbines in combined cycle applications operate in this mode. For SC and USC, the sliding pressure method used in the industry (see Reference 14) is known as “modified sliding pressure.” In this case, a certain amount of pressure throttling is allowed, to provide a fast response to load changes. One advantage of the “constant pressure” mode of operation is a more robust load reserve capability at part load. Following a load increase demand, the throttling or admissions valves open and the pressures in the turbine......

Words: 335 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Energy and Mass Balance

...article Process Selection and Optimisation Studies – North Rankin ‘A’ by K.R. Gammie, we are told that the operating temperature for a 1 year flowing condition, the temperature is 76°C and has a pressure of 24.2 MPa. At this flowing condition, we can see that we have a point far above the saturation dome; therefore the fluid is single phase. For a 10 year flowing condition, the temperature is given as 96°C and has a pressure of 13.2 MPa. At this flowing condition, we have a point that is just inside the saturation dome which means that the fluid is in 2 phases. Importance of the overlap. We can see from the above graph that the vapour stream is significantly flatter than the feed and vapour streams. This is because the vapour and feed stream have similar component compositions. There is quite a large overlap of the liquid and vapour streams between -150°C and 50°C which indicates that there is a large proportion of gas in both these streams. All three of the phase envelopes overlap at some point because they all consist of the same components. The flatness of the liquid stream can be attributed to the fact that the liquid has a lower vapour pressure at any given temperature, than the vapour and feed streams. The liquid stream also contains heavier hydrocarbons which exhibit a lower pressure than the vapour and gas streams which consist of lighter hydrocarbons. The bubble point curve of the liquid stream intersects with the dew point of the vapour stream curve at 55°C......

Words: 811 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Combined Gas Law a gas law which combines Charles's law, Boyle's law, and Gay-Lussac's law. This law states: “The ratio between the pressure-volume product divided by the temperature of a system remains constant.” This can be stated mathematically as:  Where: p is the pressure, V is the volume, T is the temperature measured in kelvins, and k is a constant (with units of energy divided by temperature). Reminder: 1atm= 760 torr = 101.3 kPa & Celsius to Kelvin= add 273 and Kelvin to Celsius= subtract 273 For comparing the same substance under two different sets of conditions, the law can be written as:  If the problem does not state which unit to give the result in, then make sure that temperature is converted into Kelvin and for the Pressure and Volume just make sure you stay constant and use the same unit on both sides of the equation. Combination of 3 Laws: Boyle's Law states that the pressure-volume product is constant:  In other words as external pressure on a gas increases the volume decreases, and vice versa. Charles's Law shows that the volume is proportional to absolute temperature:  In other words as temperature increases the volume increases, and vice versa. Gay-Lussac's Law says that the pressure is proportional to the absolute temperature:  In other words as temperature increases the pressure increases, and vice versa. Where P is the pressure, V the volume and T the absolute temperature and of an ideal gas. By combining (1) and either of (2) or (3) we......

Words: 611 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay


...SIMPLE SCIENCE EXPERIMENTS HANS JURGEN PRESS 1. Astronomy Image of the Sun Place a pair of binoculars in an open window in the direct path of the sun’s rays. Stand a mirror in front of one eyepiece so that it throws an image of the sun on to the opposite wall of the room. Adjust the mirror until the image is sharp, and darken the room. You would risk damaging your eyes if you looked directly at the sun through binoculars, but you can view the bright disc on the wall as large and clear as in the movies. Clouds and birds passing over can also be distinguished and. if the binoculars are good even sunspots. These are a few hot areas on the glowing sphere, some so big that many terrestrial globes could fit into them. Because of the earth’s rotation, the sun’s image moves quite quickly across the wall. Do not forget to re-align the binoculars from time to time onto the sun. The moon and stars cannot be observed in this way because the light coming from them is too weak. 2. Sun clock Place a flowerpot with a long stick fixed into the hole at the bottom in a spot, which is sunny, all day. The stick’s shadow moves along the rim of the pot as the sun moves. Each hour by the clock mark the position of the shadow on the pot. If the sun is shining, you can read off the time. Because of the rotation of the earth the sun apparently passes over us in a semi-circle. In the morning and evening its shadow strikes the pot superficially, while; it midday, around 12......

Words: 23291 - Pages: 94

Free Essay


...Sardar hussain Business nature Production plant for soda water production. Experience Both members have many years of experience in production and in HR department in country’s best cola manufacturing company. Aim To earn more profit in scares resources. Opportunities To capture the target market, this can be wedding, parties, marriage halls or marriage gardens and hotels, canteens. Weakness Electricity problem, lack of gas pressure, location problem of the production plant. Goals To produce the high quality of goods and capture the target market. Trait approaches: * The good location of the plant can be help in to hold the supplier. * Skilled labors can worked efficient and affectively. * The strength can be the finance and the experience of the CEO and director. * The skilled labors are available is good for us. Factors influencing entrepreneurship. There are some factors which are as follows. There some government restrictions and taxes. Lack of suppliers, load shedding and lack of gas pressure. The environment, social and cultural factors. Environmental factors could be that the waist materials from the production plant can be effects the environment and which very dangerous for masses. The social and cultural factors could be that the people where the plant is accepting or not the presence of different types of machinery and the soda bottles which we are producing is meeting the cultural criteria or not. Support......

Words: 283 - Pages: 2

Free Essay


...Study Guide for Exame 2 CHAPTER 3: Stoichiometry * Stoichiometry – study of quantitative aspects of formulas and relations * The mole – SI unit for the amount of a substance. * The amount of matter that contains the same number of atoms as 12.0g of carbon -> 6.022 x 10^23 (Avogadro’s number) * Avogadro’s number – 6.022 x 10^23 * How to determine how many atoms of each element is in a compound: * (moles or grams)(6.022x10^23)(Number of atoms/1molecule) * Molar mass - Molar mass is the weight of one mole (or 6.022 x 1023 molecules) of any chemical compounds. * Mass % of an element in a compound: * ((Number of atoms of element)(atomic weight))/(Formula weight) * Empirical formula – Gives the lowest whole number ratio of atoms of each element in a compound (Grams)/(atomic weight) --- divide by lowest number on all * Molecular formula – gives actual whole number ratio of atoms of each element in each compound. (Molecular formula weight)/(Empirical formula weight) x compound * Formulas from analysis: * Structured formula – a formula that shows the atoms of a compound, their relative positions, and the bonds between them. * Isomers – compounds with the same molecular formula, but different properties and different arrangements of atoms * Writing chemical equations (symbols) : * + adding 2 or more chemicals together * -> Yields (Products) * (arrow forward and backward)......

Words: 1207 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Master Diver Certification

...circuit and semi-closed rebreathers are now available. Test Pressure: the pressure to which the cylinder is subjected to during hydrostatic testing. For a 200 bar cylinder it is 300 bars, for a 232 bar cylinder it is 348 bars. If internal inspection reveals corrosion, it may have to be cleaned by tumbling. The tumbling process involves filling the cylinder approximately half full of an abrasive material such as carbide chips, or aluminum oxide chips, and rotating it for a number of hours. A dual valve for a single cylinder, known as a Y-valve, or an H-valve, allows a diver to mount 2 regulator systems on a single cylinder. The first stage reduces cylinder pressure to an intermediate pressure (or low pressure) of approximately 90-150 psi (6 to 10 bar). The second stage reduces the intermediate (low) pressure to ambient pressure. Because of their tendency to fail in a closed position, upstream valves are rare in modern scuba regulators. In a Balanced Valve regulator the operation of the regulator is independent of the cylinder or applied pressure. (Breathes the same at low tank pressure) The internal valves of scuba regulator first stages are available in 2 basic types, diaphragm and piston. The main valve of a Pilot Valve regulator is opened and closed with air pressure, rather than mechanical leverage. Some regulators may not be capable of delivering high flow rates at low cylinder pressures when two divers are breathing from it at the same time......

Words: 3497 - Pages: 14