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Prg/211 - Process Management

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By Pittsg817
Words 567
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Process management is the ensemble of activities of planning and monitoring the performance of a process. Process management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, techniques and systems to define, visualize, measure, control, report and improve processes with the goal to meet customer requirements profitably (Wikipedia, 2012). This is not specific to OS X, instead it is also the standard for Unix. In place of a gigantic OS and user interface setting, Unix and the Mach kernel on which OS X is based both operate as collections of a large number of cooperating programs. These programs generate the illusion and useful understanding of a unified interface, but deliver significantly more flexibility in the user's capability to change things that suit his or her certain needs.

Processes Vs. Threads

A process, in the simplest terms, is an executing program. One or more threads run in the context of the process. A thread is the basic unit to which the operating system allocates processor time. A thread can execute any part of the process code, including parts currently being executed by another thread. In Linux, processes and threads are almost the same. The major difference is that threads share the same virtual memory address space. According to Apple, Mac OS X processes and threads are implemented on top of Mach tasks and threads, respectively. A thread is a point of control flow in a task. A task exists to provide resources for the threads it contains. This split is made to provide for parallelism and resource sharing (2012).

Process Scheduling

Process scheduling is a method that is used when there are partial assets and many processes are contesting for them; Multiprogramming attempts to guarantee that there is some process controlling at all times. According to Paul Krzyanowski, A scheduler is a preemptive scheduler if it has the ability to get invoked by an interrupt and move a process out of a running state and let another process run. The last two events above may cause this to happen. If a scheduler cannot take the CPU away from a process then it is a cooperative, or non-preemptive scheduler. Old operating systems such as Windows 3.1 or Mac OS before OS X are examples of such schedulers. Even older batch processing systems had run-to-completion schedulers where a process ran to termination before any other process would be allowed to run (2012).

Process Synchronization

Process synchronization or organization gets to make sure that synchronized developments or threads don’t hinder with each other when retrieving or altering combined resources. Certain qualities of the hardware can make programming task simpler and it will also develop organization efficacy in solving critical segment problem. For achieving this in uniprocessor environment we need to disable the interrupts when a shared variable is being modified. Whereas in multiprocessor environment disabling the interrupts is a time consuming process and system efficiency also decreases.

References:

Apple. (2012, February 16). Mac Developer Library. Retrieved from https://developer.apple.com/library/mac/#documentation/Darwin/Conceptual/KernelProgramming/Mach/Mach.html
Krzyzanowski, P. (2012, February 13). Process Scheduling. Retrieved from http://www.cs.rutgers.edu/~pxk/416/notes/07-scheduling.html
Ray, J., & Ray, W. C. (2001, November). Process Management. Retrieved from http://www.informit.com/library/content.aspx?b=Mac_OS_X_Unleashed&seqNum=131
Wikipedia. (2012, September 02). Process Manaagement. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Process_management

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