Free Essay

Primary Source

In: Historical Events

Submitted By 11tfields
Words 904
Pages 4
Tyler Fields
Western Civ.
Primary Source Assignment #2 I am Gui le Gros, a Norman abbot, who was born into a very wealthy aristocratic family. My cousin, Henry the Fearful, is the head of our noble family and is in great prominence with the King of France. To commemorate the completion of the king’s new cathedral, my cousin wishes to chronicle the history of our glorious province of Normandy from its beginning in 911 to the current year. My cousin put me in charge of this task, so it is up to me to portray the history of Normandy and its people for the king. During this time European people began to advance economically, politically, and socially. Advancements in agriculture allowed the people to produce enough food to support the growing population. A feudal system began to take place that would shape Europe for history. Through these changing times, Normandy was a central focus for multiple nations. . (Brohpy, Cole, Robertson, and et al 350-353)
Normandy is a province in North Western France, and the history of it begins with the conquest of England. After the Danish king Canute died, Edward the confessor took power over England. However, Edward did not have any children leading to a dispute over who would be his heir. The Anglo-Saxons decided to pick one of their own to be the heir. Harold Godwinson became the new king but he was quickly challenged but others who also believed they had claims to the throne. Harold Hardradi of Norway was the first challenge. He landed in Northern England with an army ready to take the throne. He, however, was defeated by Godwinson at the battle of Stamford Bridge. This victory was to be short-lived because he would soon have to face another contender for the throne. Duke William of Normandy was the cousin of Edward the Confessor and claimed he was promised the throne after Edward’s death. He wanted to take what he believed was rightfully his so he prepared a full scale invasion of England. He sailed across the English Channel and assaulted England. The Anglo Saxon king, Godwinson, was killed at the Battle of Hastings which allowed William to take the throne. William established a feudal system in England and divided the land between his followers. He made all the people swear loyalty to him and recognize him as their lord. The Norman conquest of Anglo Saxon England also had implications on France because the new king of England, William of Normandy, now owns land in France. Normandy now had more power than the French Kings. Henry I became the ruler after William. He was just as an effective leader as William was. Henry established a financial and law department. Money was very important in maintaining power during this time. The Financial department, or the exchequer, help make sure the kingdom could uphold its financial standing. The law department and courts allowed the king to have control over its vassals. Henry II, Henry I’s successor, continued to use and improved on the same policies that Henry I established. He also increased English power in France through his marriage with Eleanor of Aquitaine. This English power would have grown if not for Henry’s successor’s flaws. After his death his eldest son, Richard, became king but he quickly died due to an infected battle wound. His younger John became king which marked a turning point in English rule. Unlike his predecessors, he was not a successful leader and was very unpopular with the people of England. They rebelled against John and attacked London forcing the king to retreat. John was forced to sign the Manga Carta which was a charter that limited the power of the king. The charter established that the king was not above the law and it prevented him from imposing on noblemen’s traditional rights. It also forbade the king for imposing any taxes without the consult of governed bodies made up of noblemen called Parliaments. Parliament eventually began to rule England. (Brohpy, Cole, Robertson, and et al 371-377) It was under King Johns rule that the French, under King Phillip II, reclaimed Normandy along with a few other English holdings. Through these conquests Phillip acquired great wealth. He then developed a new way of sustaining control over France by assigning bailiffs to collect taxes and represent his interest instead of relying on the feudal hierarchy to govern the lands. Phillip was followed by Louis IX who continued to help France prosper. He was a religious man who cared for the poor and went to church daily. He also was a fond advocate of justice and kept order among his people. He became the first king to legislate for all of France. He also established the Parlement of Paris as the highest authority in France. Louis died on a crusade and was recognized as a saint by the church. (Brohpy, Cole, Robertson, and et al 378-385)

Bibliography * Brohpy, James, Joshua Cole, John Robertson, et al. Perspectives from the Past. 4th. 1. New York, London: Norton & Company, 2009. 371-377. Print. * Brohpy, James, Joshua Cole, John Robertson, et al. Perspectives from the Past. 4th. 1. New York, London: Norton & Company, 2009. 378-385. Print. * Brohpy, James, Joshua Cole, John Robertson, et al. Perspectives from the Past. 4th. 1. New York, London: Norton & Company, 2009. 350-353. Print.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Primary Sources

...Explain how a writer should find and use primary and secondary sources. A writer can find sources both primary and secondary from researching and seeking them out. Because primary sources are contemporary accounts of an event, written by someone who experienced or witnessed the event original documents such as letters memoirs, journals, speeches, manuscripts, and interviews would be good to use. Because secondary sources interpret primary sources using published works such as journal articles or books would be good. The internet could basically also be used as either a primary or secondary source. In either event these sources should add credibility and objectiveness to a paper. Explain two issues that may arise if there are differences between the primary and secondary sources. Well one issue that could arise if there are differences is that is that using such a set of sources could cause a paper to lack clarity and depth. The point being put across can lose emphasis which in return can make a paper inconsistent and not easy to read. It also does not help the credibility of the paper. Explain reasons for consulting different kinds of sources on the same subject. Well it is important when writing to be thorough, objective, and to supply as much information as possible. Using different kinds of sources helps to support a paper in this way because of the variety of information being used. This can make the particular paper or writing appeal to a broader......

Words: 388 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Primary Sources

...Primary Sources Assignment Newton, John. “Amazing Grace.” Hymns of the 49th Parallel. 5th ed. New York: Baptist Hymnals Publishers, 1974. In the world of music, there are many songs that bring one joy, excitement, or delight. In other cases, there are songs that lead one to sadness, depression, or loneliness. However, there are also significantly few songs that reach down to the very depths of your heart and touch you in a way that is truly moving. This sort of emotion was felt when I heard the hymnal “Amazing Grace” by John Newton, and is still felt today. As a young child, I never really understood the complexity of the Holy Bible, the stories within it, or the ‘grace’ that is so freely offered. I often admittedly fell asleep in church or simply passed the time away by drawing funny pictorials of biblical characters I was supposed to learn about in Sunday school. Considering I was just like the other typical rebellious eight year old boys, this was quite acceptable in my opinion. Nevertheless, it wasn’t until one special Sunday evening service that I finally ‘came of age.’ The standard ‘boring’ service went on as it usually did and as the preacher summed up his message, my mother, the piano player, made her way up to the front of the sanctuary. As she began to play, the choir began to sing. I began to listen, and my heart began to melt. What was this song they were singing? Surely I had heard it. Only this time it was different. The melodious words,......

Words: 1290 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Primary and Secondary Sources

...Primary source is a document of a period-of-time being studied. It includes diary, books, music, photographs, paintings, etc. They are created by witnesses who had experienced events during the period. I have looked into several sources, and music from the great depression interests me the most. The lyrics, melody, and tempo expressed the musicians’ subtext profoundly. By looking at the lyrics from the great depression, I have identified the most frequent topic, which was money. Even though the lyrics came with cheerful tones of melody, but the words deeply strikes my heart. Money can’t buy happiness but you can’t survive without money; people during that time were so desperate for a better life, thus they think about fortune all the time. Desperate lyrics along with ‘happy go lucky’ melody made up the music culture of 1930s American history. Primary sources are very interesting to investigate because they contain real historical evidences that bring people back to the old times. One of the strength of using primary source to understand American history is that unlike secondary source, primary source prevents deformation from the original source. It is a first person point of view from that time and place. The music delivers a strong emotion towards the great depression. Music is already an influential art; music from that period could express the feeling much greater than other primary sources. The purpose of communication is very clear in music, it combine words that......

Words: 512 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Primary Air Pollution Sources in China

...Course : Environmental Science The primary air pollutants in China Associate Professor : XU Bin Student: Dragan Cigoja Student number: 1593686 Mentor: Lecturer WU Bing The primary air pollutants in China API Air Pollution Index China State Environment protection Agency started with daily pollution monitoring from 2008 and it was covered 86 most important cities. Its purpouse is to check daily air quality by measuring the level of six atmospheric pollutants (table 1). Air pollutant Particle pollution Formula Source Health implication PM2.5 Particular matters of 2,5 micrometers or smaller. motor vehicles, power plants, residential wood burning, forest fires, agricultural burning Bring toxic chemicals and heavy metals into the body and with them risk of cancer as well as heart and lung diseases Particular matters larger than 2,5 micrometers and smaller tha 10 micrometers in diametar. Near roads and dusty industries irritation of the eyes, nose and throat coughing, chest tightness and shortness of breath,reduced lung function, irregular heartbeat, asthma attacks,heart attacks, premature death in people with heart or lung diseas. Short term exposures result with an multiplicity of harmful effects including bronchoconstriction and increased asthma symptoms. These effects are partialy important during the exercising or playing. long-term exposure to NO2 levels currently observed in Europe may decrease lung function and increase the risk of respiratory symptoms such......

Words: 3448 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Common Sense Primary Source Critique

...Primary Source Critique: Jacobs, Harriet Ann (“Linda Brent”), Common Sense Due: November 10, 2013 Common Sense, by Thomas Paine, is a pamphlet that was written in 1775-76. Paine’s purpose for this writing was to be an encouragement to the general people of the thirteen colonies to seek declaration of their independence from Great Britain. Paine’s desire to connect with the common people is evident in his plain and easy to understand writing style; he wrote in an educated, but straight-forward manner. Dubbed a “political quack” by Loyalist, James Chalmers of Maryland in the Plain Truth (New), and accused of producing a “crapulous mass” by none other than John Adams, we see just two examples of the many attacks on Paine, who prevailed to claim such titles as, The Father of the American Revolution (“Thomas Paine's Achievements”). According to, some scholars say that by the end of 1776 at least half of American colonists had read or been aware of the arguments that Paine presented in Common Sense (“Primary Source of the Month”). Because Paine’s belief in the importance of “the Doctrine Itself, not the Man,” he wished for the publication to remain anonymous for as long as possible to keep a focus on the ideas presented instead of him (Paine, n.pag.). Being so widely popular and rumored, Paine’s name appeared on the second edition. In the Introduction, Paine does exactly that, he introduces a basic overview of his grounds for the right to question “a long and......

Words: 890 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Discuss the Primary, Secondary and Source of Information

...Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary source of information Sources of information are often considered primary, secondary, or tertiary depending on their originality and proximity of when it was created. Consider if it is an original work, or whether it evaluates or comments on the works of others. Also consider the proximity, or how close the information is to a first-hand account or if it is after the fact. Sources of information are often considered primary, secondary, or tertiary depending on their originality and proximity of when it was created. Consider if it is an original work, or whether it evaluates or comments on the works of others. Also consider the proximity, or how close the information is to a first-hand account or if it is after the fact. PRIMARY SOURCES DEFINED Primary sources are first-hand accounts or individual representations and creative works. It can also be said to be information that has been stated but not interpreted. They are created by those who have directly witnessed what they are describing, and bring us as close to the original event or thought as possible without being filtered, influenced or analyzed through interpretation. They tend to be original documents that don't usually describe or analyze work by others. Primary information is in its raw state Primary sources may be published or unpublished works. Primary source means it is original article or book created by individual or sometimes a group of people. It may be surprising...

Words: 380 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Chapter 17 Primary Source 1

...Industrial Supremacy Primary Source #1 ← Refer back to the section of the chapter under the heading "Capitalism and its Critics." The great industrialist Andrew Carnegie built his fortune on steel, but he also built a lasting reputation as a philanthropist because he spent millions of dollars on the establishment of libraries. Carnegie's Gospel of Wealth was a call for other rich people to share their wealth with the worthy poor. Consider the following questions: How does Carnegie's view exemplify Social Darwinism? What is the essence of Carnegie's argument against socialism? On what social values and assumptions about human nature was the gospel of wealth based? The price which society pays for the law of competition, like the price it pays for cheap comforts and luxuries, is also great; but the advantages of this law are also greater still, for it is to this law that we owe our wonderful material development, which brings improved conditions in its train. But, whether the law be benign or not, we must say of it, as we say of the change in the conditions of men to which we have referred: It is here; we cannot evade it; no substitutes for it have been found; and while the law may be sometimes hard for the individual, it is best for the race, because it insures the survival of the fittest in every department. We accept and welcome, therefore, as conditions to which we must accommodate ourselves, great inequality of environment, the concentration of business,......

Words: 575 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Primary Source Analysis on "The Feminine Mystique"

...Potter 1 Rebecca Potter Gray Section 4975 12 May 2015 Primary Source Analysis on The Feminine Mystique The Feminine Mystique is the title of a book written by Betty Friedan who has also founded The National Organization for Women (NOW) to help US women gain equal rights. She describes the "Feminine Mystique" as the heightened awareness of the expectations of women and how each woman has to fit a certain role as a little girl, an uneducated and unemployed teenager, and finally as a wife and mother who is happy to clean the house and cook things all day. After World War II, a lot of women's organizations began to appear with the goal of bringing the issues of equal rights into the limelight. The Feminine Mystique also seems to come from her determination to locate the deeper causes of the frustration that she and women like her feel. There are countless stereotypes mentioned in the book. The stereotypes even come down to the color of a woman's hair. Many women wish that they could be blonde because that was the ideal hair color. In The Feminine Mystique, Friedan writes that "across America, three out of every ten women dyed their hair blonde " (182). This serves as an example of how there is/was such a push for women to fit a certain mold which is portrayed as the role of women. Blacks were naturally excluded from the notion of ideal women and they suffered additional discrimination which was even greater than that which the white women suffered from. In......

Words: 1128 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Primary Source over the Relations of Christian and Muslims

...Patterson 1 Dalton Patterson World Civilizations II 14 September 2012 Primary Source Paper Everyone is bias towards something. Through reading the primary sources given by one Christian account and two Muslim accounts one can tell that they are bias in some way towards their type of religion or people. Throughout the accounts one can spot out some points where there might be some bias opinions or untrustworthiness from the sources. The sources give good information about the crusades and how each side felt about the other during that time, which could have some affect on how the two sides feel about each other today. The Christian account show bias signs towards the king and towards the Christians. Throughout the account Richard of the Holy Trinity, who served as knight of King Richard, speaks very highly of him and makes him sound like a very thoughtful and brave man. Richard of the Holy Trinity shows this by saying, "thereupon the king, seeing how difficult the work was and how valiant were the enemies, knowing also how needful it was to kindle men's valour at critical moments, thought it more fitting to encourage the young [warriors] on by promises of reward than to urge them on by harsh words"(p.114). The Turks seemed to be fighting because they thought it was what they were suppose to do and that it was part of their beliefs and almost like they were brainwashed. The Christians had people who wanted to fight and take back the Holy City of Jerusalem. Even......

Words: 708 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Music History from Primary Sources an Introductory Essay

...Moldenhauer Archives at the Library of Congress | Table of Contents Music History from Primary Sources An Introductory Essay Alfred Mann A vellum leaf, 22 by 17 cm., from a prayer book. The letter forms of early Gothic script suggest the twelfth century, or a period even earlier. Neumes (marked in red) are placed above the first four lines of the Latin text. The entire page is richly illuminated in black, red, and blue, with a heavy gold layer decorating the initial A for the phrase beginning "Adoro te." The leaf was obtained for the Moldenhauer Archives from the music dealer and publishing firm Schneider, Tutzing. The Art of Musical Notation In its primary sources, music merges with the representational arts. Oral tradition has played a fundamental role in all ages, but in its formal sense, history--and the history of music--begins with the visual record. Musical notation, having emerged on a wide scale in all civilizations, produced in itself a highly individual record of artistic endeavor. The medieval monks who compiled the missals and other liturgical books for the service of worship rose from their function as scribes to artists in their own right; among the greatest documents of Baroque art are the holographs by Bach; and an entirely novel phase in artistic musical score design was initiated in the twentieth century. The primary sources of music reproduced in this volume rely on various aspects of the graphic arts, but foremost among them stands the......

Words: 19702 - Pages: 79

Free Essay

Primary Source Analysis: Declassified Message vs. Memory of Fire

...M. M. J. Professor Becker Hist 140-01 November 1, 2012 Primary Source Analysis: Declassified Message vs. Memory of Fire Eduardo Galeano's Memory of Fire starts with a brief description of United Fruit and how it “can seize whatever land it wants – enourmous unused tracts – and owns the railroad, the telephone, the telgraphs, the ports, and the ships...” (Chasteen 210). Sam Zemurray is appearently the head of United Fruits and “did not believe it was possible” for the Guatemalan government to try and revold from United Fruits which started with the unions right to strike (Chasteen 210). The president of Guatemala, Jacobo Arbenz takes back his country's land and distributes it to the many people families in Guatemala. This action enraged the U.S. And accused Arbenz of communist conspiracy. But Galeano writes that Arbenz's inspiration did not come from Lenin, if came from Abraham Lincoln's agrarian reform (Chasteen 211). When Galeano says that United Fruit owns “...the railroads, the telephone, the telegraphs...” (Chasteen 210), I feel that the Declassified Message by the CIA takes over those telegraphs and radios to broadcast either a misunderstanding, or blasphemy against Arbenz. The Declassified Message is riddled with “COMMIE”, “COMMUNISTS” and “ARBENZISM”. It seems as if the U.S. Basically framed this Guatemalan president that was trying to do good for his people, of Communism so that they could bombard him and prove to the people of Guatemala and other Latin......

Words: 299 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

How Primary and Secondary Sources Shape History’s View of the Imperialist Age

...Two Sides to A Coin: How Primary and Secondary Sources Shape History’s View of the Imperialist Age Compare and Contrast Essay on two reading; Differentiate between primary and secondary sources, Discuss the subject of both essays, Provide dates and authors, Mention the time period in which they were written, and Summarize the writing. There are always two sides to a story, two opinions to be heard, and during the late 19th Century, there were definitely two sides to the issue of Imperialist Expansion. From Messages and Papers of the President, in 1898 President William McKinley addressed Congress with a call to war against Spain, in an effort to expand American influence in Cuba. Conversely, the 1899 Platform of the American Anti-Imperialist League was published to dissuade not only the public, but the Senate as well, from supporting American Imperialism. Primary sources are vital historical resources that provide a real look into a situation. When analyzed, primary sources can show an author’s motivation to action, or explain an awful circumstance. However, primary resources fail to see the big picture. Secondary sources can provide clues that enable the reader to piece the big picture together more easily. These secondary sources may not provide the exact account of an event, however they remove the emotional bias that can be found in primary sources, and can sometimes link historical events, as they are written after-the-fact. President McKinley’s address wanted to......

Words: 608 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Define the Distinctions Between Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Sources in a Secondary Search

...2 Define the distinctions between primary, secondary, and tertiary sources in a secondary search. The best way to distinct between the sources of secondary research is to define each. Primary sources are those that are direct and un-interpreted records of a subject that you are researching. A primary source can be just about anything such as books, artifacts, or even patents. Secondary sources are ones that build on primary sources. Analyzing, interpreting, and assessing primary information are examples of secondary. Tertiary sources are ones which present summaries of the current state of research topics. Some examples are dictionaries, web sites, or almanacs. The distinction between these can differ between subjects of research. If the subject for research was humanities then an example of a primary source would be letters by Martin Luther King. A secondary source could be a web site of his writings and finally the tertiary source could be an encyclopedia on the civil rights movement. 3 What problems of secondary data quality must researchers face? How can they deal with them? Using secondary data can sometimes cause problems. Although it can be quicker and sometimes cost effective there is always a chance of running in to these issues. The most cautious of these issues the researcher must be aware of is the reliability of the source. If the researcher were to sit in a meeting and take notes of a subject then they would be completely sure of the content of the......

Words: 762 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Primary Sources Phillis Wheatly

... “Phillis Wheatly’s Poem on Tyranny and Slavery in the Colonies 1773” Phillis was asked to write a poem for Legge in October 1772. It was named To the Right Honorable William, Earl of Dartmouth. It was used to show the colonists hope for their new secretary of state of colonies to be less cruel. The poem also talks about Phillis’ life and her struggles. The poem was in her book Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral. In the poem she talks about her difficult childhood. When she was a child, she was taken away from her parents and then was brought into slavery. It also describes her love of freedom. She discovered this love by being a slave. England’s relationship with the colonies is compared to the relation between a slave and his/her slave holder. This is important to US History because Phillis Wheatly became the first English-speaking person of African descent to publish a book. Phillis’ owner was John Wheatly, he bought her in 1761. When the discovered her intelligence, they taught her how to read and write. With the help of the Wheatly’s, she was introduced to many important people. Although the Wheatlys are slave owners, they were very kind to offer her an education. “The Creek Indians, Blacks, and Slavery” The Creek Indians participated in slavery, but they had a different perception of it. They believed it did not matter what ethnicity you were. During the deerskin trades, they experience black slaves being owned by white people. Soon after......

Words: 861 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Evaluate and Explain the Limitations of a Range of Sources of Information Both Primary and Secondary, for Small Scale Public Services Projects.

...limitations of a range of sources of information both primary and secondary, for small scale public services projects. The source's used in the collection of data for a research project or investigation are of vital importance. Characterised as primary and secondary, a good range will provide more information needed to aid decision making. However it is important to note that it can some time's be difficult to distinguish whether the information is primary or secondary. In this essay point's will be made regarding the advantage's and disadvantage's of a number of sources both primary and secondary. Their limitations will be addressed, and an explanation of how data collected during research can help in the decision making process and help organisation's meet their objective's. Ethics will be considered throughout. The actual, origanal or physical materials used in the study of an object, person or particular event in time are known as sources. They are paramount to investigation and are commonly known as primary and secondary sources. A primary source is a physical object or first hand testimony created during the time under-study, an example could be a diary, a piece of writing or photograph. These sources are unique and one of a kind, and could be a copy of the original if they existed during the time of creation. ''Primary research involves the study of a subject through first hand observation and investigation.'' Dawson, (2007,47). Primary sources are great for......

Words: 1491 - Pages: 6