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Private and Public Police Working Together to Reduce Crime in Trinidad and Tobago

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THE VIEWS OF THE TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO POLICE SERVICE (TTPS) VERSUS THE TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO PRIVATE SECURITY AGENCIES (PSA) WORKING TOGETHER TOWARDS CRIME PREVENTION, IN THE MARABELLA POLICE DIVISION.

A Research Project
Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of
Bachelor of Arts in Criminal Justice

of

College of Science, Technology & Applied Arts of Trinidad & Tobago

Troy Donawa
2015

Department of Criminal Justice & Legal Studies
School of Liberal Arts and Human Services.

Abstract The employment of private security officers has increased considerably internationally and especially throughout developing countries of the world. Trinidad and Tobago are no exceptions. While the private security sector has increased, concerns are raised on how the public police see these new agents of private policing and their role and ability towards crime prevention. This research will examine the views of officers of the Trinidad and Tobago Police Service (TTPS) and Private Security Agencies (PSA) working together towards crime prevention. The study will examine the legislation, responsibilities, attitudes towards each other and whether cooperation exist between both sectors. The research conducted in the Marabella Police Division and there were ninety-one (91) participants. The discussion examined the literature review, Routine Activity Theory and the findings of the participants. The findings suggest that there is a need for improved legislation. For both sectors role and responsibilities identified. Negative attitudes and cooperation amongst both sectors should be addressed, and there should be joint approaches to crime prevention. Keywords: * Legislation * Responsibilities * Attitudes * Cooperation * TTPS * PSA * Trinidad, and Tobago
Acknowledgements

The author, acknowledge his family for the support given towards conducting this research. I will also like to thank the participants in this study, who of their free will responded to the questions. To members of the executive of the Estate Police Association, who supported this research and assisted with valuable information. To Inspector David Knutt of the Marabella Police Division who assisted with the distribution of questionnaires to members of the TTPS under his command. To Ms. C. Davis of Petrotrin, that assisted with putting the tables and graphs of the findings within the required page limit. Last but not least my lecturer Mr. Kevin Peters for his guidance and support throughout the completion of this research.

Table of Contents Introduction 5 Literature Review 8 Theoretical Framework 15 Methodology 21 Findings 26 Discussion 33 Conclusion, Recommendations & Limitations 43 Bibliography 44 Appendices 45

Introduction
Crime prevention is a concern by the Ministry of National Security in Trinidad and Tobago and the population at large (See Appendix A). Crime and fear of crime are evident in our daily lives. The Trinidad and Tobago Police Service (TTPS) cannot address this problem alone and have sought the assistance from the population through Community Policing initiatives. The introduction of telephone contacts numbers for information and rewards leading to the apprehension of perpetrators. The Ministry of National Security has engaged the services of the country military for joint patrols and has even considered giving the military additional police authority of arrest. Can the Ministry of National Security also utilize the seventy thousand plus (70,000+) members of the Private Security Agencies (PSA), as the additional eyes and ears of the TTPS towards crime prevention?
Statement of the problem
In Trinidad and Tobago, there is a growing concern for the population on crime prevention. Some members of the population have indicated that the removal of the past government was their failure to address this rise in crime. Like the past government, this present government has also made changes to their Minister of National Security and Commissioner of Police. They have also implemented various strategies for combating the rise of criminal activities. The population today holds the view that the fear of crime is evident in their daily lives. Their basic rights to enjoy the fruits of their labor through recreation, socialization, privacy and others are being threatened by a growing population of perpetrators. The Marabella Police Division (See Appendix B) the location of this study is no exception to the prevalence of crime.

This rise in criminal activity also affects this country’s international image for income growth, and employment through business partnerships. It also affects investments in joint ventures, international trade, and tourism. According to the statistics from (Branch, 2013 &2014), the murder rate for Trinidad and Tobago for 2014 was 403, for 2013 was 405 and presently for 2015 stands at 133. According to the statistics from (Branch, 2013 &2014), in the Marabella Police Division revealed that serious crimes for 2014 were 252 and minor crimes were 293. For 2013 minor crimes were 142 and serious crimes were 233. The murder rates for Marabella Police Division for 2013 were two (02) and 2014 were three (03). (See Appendix C)
Purpose of study The author is a member of the Private Security Agencies and currently holds the position of Estate Sergeant with the Petroleum Company of Trinidad and Tobago Limited. It is the view of the author that the PSA can contribute significantly to crime prevention in the Marabella Police Division. The contribution by the PSA can be possible providing the legislation is updated, and both the TTPS and PSA identify their role and responsibilities. The perception that attitudes between both sectors exist are addressed, and there is cooperation amongst both parties. The researcher will conduct a survey of both organizations. Emphasis will be on the Private Security Agencies, in order to determine if they can perform traditional police tasks efficiently and effectively and can truly contribute to crime prevention. The author expects that the outcome of this research will gain the attention of the management of the TTPS and PSA. The Estate Police Association, which is the representative body for the PSA, the Police Social and Welfare Association the representative body of the TTPS and other interest groups associated with both sectors will be informed.

Objectives
This research is unique because its objectives seek to determine the views of members of the PSA and TTPS working together in the Marabella Police Division towards crime prevention. The following objectives were identified:
1. To investigate whether the views expressed by both organizations as it relates to legislation are valid towards crime prevention.
2. To examine and gather data on the TTPS and PSA relationship and responsibilities.
3. To investigate whether there are negative attitudes between the TTPS and PSA.
4. To provide opportunities for both sectors to work together for crime prevention initiatives.
5. To investigate whether communication and cooperation exist between both sectors and if not, encourage communication and interaction between the TTPS and PSA. Research Questions
1. What are the views of TTPS and PSA towards their Legislation, with respect to crime prevention?
2. What are the views of TTPS and PSA towards their responsibilities for crime prevention?
3. To what extent personal attitudes of the TTPS and PSA have on effective crime prevention operations?
4. What are the views of the TTPS and PSA’S towards cooperation for crime prevention initiatives?
Literature Review
This literature review will examine research conducted on private and public security in relation to the legislation governing both organizations. It will determine its effectiveness in crime prevention. The literature review will look at the responsibility and relationship of both sectors in crime prevention initiatives. It will also examine the attitudes of the private and public police to determine if the perception of one over the other hinders a working relationship for crime prevention. It will seek to identify whether there is cooperation amongst both organizations towards crime prevention.
1. What are the views of TTPS and PSA towards their Legislation, with respect to crime prevention?
Legislation governing the TTPS and the PSA plays an important role in assisting both organizations for effective crime prevention. According to (Anyanwu, 2012) the PSA’S in Trinidad and Tobago has grown considerably because of the inability of the TTPS to meet the increased security demands by the population. The Supplemental Police Act Chapter 15:02 which is the legislation that governs the PSA came into effect in 1906.The TTPS law Act No.07 of 2006 has replaced the Police Service Act Chapter 15:01. The TTPS legislation under part V111 of the Act looks at the role and responsibilities of the TTPS. The Supplemental Police Act Chapter 15:02 under section 14 looks at the role and responsibilities of the PSA.

(Anyanwu, 2012) Indicated that the absence of legislation fails to address the PSA not registered with the Ministry of National Security. The proposed Private Security Agencies Bill of 2001 seeks to ensure that all owners of PSA must be registered. The researcher also stated that the proposed Supplemental Police (Amendment) Bill 2001 makes provision for updating the Supplemental Police Act. This Act came into effect in 1906. The researcher expects that this new legislation will improve outdated laws to meet current international standards. He stated that the proposed Private Security Industry Bill 2014 makes reference to having and authority overseeing officers of PSA that operate without ethical considerations and abuse of power. Officers of the TTPS, who abuse their authority and display unethical standards referred to the Police Complaints Authority.
The author made reference to matters involving PSA, which includes loss of firearms, excessive use of force, theft and murder and stated that PSA cannot be a replacement for the TTPS. He stated that Caribbean Common Market nationals especially from Jamaica and Guyana, who under the Caribbean Single Market Economy (CSME) program are allowed to acquire work permits for particular trades in this country. While this is so, in most instances they are employed in the Private Security Agencies. In the light of this scenario, concerns were raised on whether these officers received background checks and training.
This research also examined the Association of Security Companies of Trinidad and Tobago (ASCOTT) which represents approximately forty (40) Private Security Companies registered with the Ministry of National Security. The researcher made reference to three hundred (300) Private Security Companies operating in Trinidad and Tobago that has not registered.

(Loader, 2011) Review of Adam White book showed how the security industry moved over the last sixty years. It took a quantitative approach by examining the history of the industry from 1945 to 2010 in England and saw the various challenges it faced to have regulations governing the organization. It was until the 1990s’ when the Association of Chiefs of Police, British Retail Consortium, Liberty and the Labor Party were all in favor of regulation governing the industry. The question raised by this researcher is why it took so long to bring law to the security industry?
(Daniel O, 2008) Examine state control of contract private security. It looked at five areas namely, governing at a distance, character, identity, training and information. The results of the study revealed that there should not be limits to setting the parameters through which governments at a distance can operate regarding state laws. The research also indicated that state legislation, like all governance, is incomplete, and there should be one definite state regulation of the private security industry.
(Zedner, 2006) Examined various attempts to manage the market for crime control and seemed to disclose their underlying rationale. This research examined the workings of the regulatory state in the field of private security. The author looked at several regulations and reports namely; Security Industry Reports 2003/2004, the Private Security Industry Act 2001. The researcher also examined an overview of the private security industry in twenty-five (25) member states of the European Union. The author formed the opinion that ethics of security was less concerned with justice, fairness, equality, proportionality or any other core values of the Criminal Justice System but only concerned with selling security as a business.

(O'Connor, 2003) Identified significant omission concerning the nature of the private security workforce, how governed and the role of the state as both producer and consumer of security services. (Irish, 1999) Examined the regulatory board of the private security industry and indicated that inadequate legislation was a result of board members interest in owning private security agencies. She concluded by stating that private policing is for profit.
2. What are the views of TTPS and PSA towards their responsibilities for crime prevention?
For there to be effective crime prevention, management responsibilities of the TTPS and PSA, both sectors must identify each other role and functions in their respective organizations. The research by (Minnar, 2004) identified the changing forms of private and public policing in South Africa before 1994. He focused on the issues of outsourcing, privatization, and partnership policing in South Africa in order to outline where such provision of policing and crime prevention by the private sector started. He felt that the management of both areas must understand their responsibilities under this paradigm shift.
According to (Swanton, 2003) the public police operate non-commercially while the private police operate commercially. Private security mainly secures physical and electronic assets from criminal elements while the public law enforcement agents address a wider range of functions, such as security for public space, criminal law, and road safety. Private security looks after private interests while the public police are accountable to all the ministries of state and affairs associated with the department. Public police protection is threat oriented when dealing with offenders while the private security is mostly asset oriented. Police officers have coercive powers while private security only have that power when appointed constables. (Trevaskes, 2006) Looked at the private security sector in China and stated that as of 2006 there were 930,000 security guards that worked for companies and managed by China’s Public Security Bureau. In 2006, security guards accounted for the apprehension of 162,000 perpetrators suspected of crimes and misdemeanors. Security guards were also instrumental in providing information to the public police in 220,000 instances.
3. To what extent personal attitudes of the TTPS and PSA have on effective crime prevention operations?
The perception of the TTPS and the PSA towards one another is another area of grave concern. It is important that skewed relationships if exist, should be addressed in this research if both sectors can have a better working relationship for effective crime prevention. According to (Sedgwick, 2009) the growth of the private security has surpassed public Law Enforcement Agents. The public police seem to concentrate only on serious violent offenses, drugs, and trans-national organized crime. The author stated that in New Zealand within the last 30 years there was only one attempt made to reach a memorandum of understanding between the private and public police and this attempt failed. According to this author, there seem to be no strategic relationships between the private and public police for crime prevention.
In the research by (Lusser, 2012) Examined the state police resistance to the expansion of private police in Canada. Tension by the public police rose when a white paper published by the Minister of Public Safety indicating that the private security industry will partner with the public law enforcement. This partnership was an attempt to bring credibility to the private security. This policy was not supported by the Municipal Police and as such they made a case to limit the roles and responsibilities of the Private Securities Agencies in the province of Quebec.
According to (Nalla, 2003) the public police are more concerned with arrests and less concern with crime prevention. The public police receive valuable information from private security but are not willing to give information to their counterparts. The public police view the private police as unprofessional, client- oriented and less likely to prosecute. The results of the questionnaire administered in this research revealed that the private security rated the public law enforcement with regards to their relationship as good to excellent. The public police, however, rated the private security from good to poor. Private security professionals are of the view that the public police have a negative view of them and the public police the opposite. The survey also revealed that the public police do not see private security as equal partners in crime prevention while private security is of the view that they have made a significant contribution. Public police envision the future of private security as a junior partner not equal to their role and functions.
(Reynolds, 1994) Research stated that the government through the arm of the police has failed to reduce crime and ask is it possible that the private sector can be more successful in reducing crime? He looked at the criminal justice system in the United States expenditure from 1965 to 1993 and saw an increasing investment and employment of public officers and yet crime increased. This research examined case studies on the functions of the private police in railroads, private investigations, bounty hunters, crime stoppers, law enforcement officers, probation and parole systems and the prison system. The research showed where it was less costly and more efficient when these services were administered by private law enforcement.

4. What are the views of the TTPS and PSA towards cooperation for crime prevention initiatives?
Some members of the Criminal Justice System are of the view that the TTPS and the PSA have different roles and functions. The levels of authority, bestowed on one over the other by the state, together with each other competencies are some of the reasons why cooperation amongst both sectors seems to be lacking. (Dirk, 1994) Focus on the trends of ordinary surveillance functions between the police and private security firms. In 1992, a National Platform of Crime Control was set up and included the management from private and public police to work on task forces tackling armed robbery and car theft. The author indicated that this joint approach to crime prevention was successful and was a step in the right direction towards cooperation amongst both organizations. (Hyde, 1999) Made reference to Australia limits or margins of police operations within the private and public sectors. He examined an Australian survey on Community Satisfaction and Safety (1998) where the goal was to address the fear of crime and crime prevention. Hyde indicated that crime control is no longer a police function, and police must understand and appreciate where and why boundaries exist to maximize their service to the community.
The author examined areas for private and public police forming partnerships. He stated that private security proactive approach to target hardening and technology would assist the public law enforcement through information and support services to solving the crime. The researcher also examined the need for regulations and training of private officers in order to understand fully their role and functions to maximize areas of crime reduction to complement the public law enforcement.
(Paskell, 2007) Looked at England and Wales low-income neighborhoods and stated that the Community Support Officers role was one of a high profile, frontline police worker linking between the police and the public, but without powers as the police. The research showed that the officers were able to offer valuable support to the police in the areas they served, despite their limited powers. Their main contributions were addressing the environmental disorder and juvenile anti-social behavior. In evaluating this study, the Community Security Officers can be likened to the community police but with citizen’s arrest and this is representative of private security officers in Trinidad and Tobago.
(Golsby, 1998) Identified that private security role is profit motive while the public police are towards public security. The author is of the view that for better cooperation, both organizations must identify with their common goal of crime prevention. He recognized that partnership with the public police would give the private security more credibility. He also stated that if the private security received better training and accreditation they would be more recognized by the community and police officers. He further stated that more qualifying standards will help the private security maintain their contracts, and they should be more accountable for their actions.
In the research conducted by (Anyanwu, 2012) Indicated that the PSA outstanding legislation must take effect. In the study by (Minnar, 2004) and (Swanton, 2003) looked at the responsibilities of both sectors. In the research by (Trevaskes, 2006) saw the effectiveness of the private security. The research by (Sedgwick, 2009), (Nalla, 2003) and (Lusser, 2012) examined the negative attitudes of the public law enforcement towards the private police. The research by (Dirk, 1994), (Hyde, 1999), (Paskell, 2007) and (Golsby, 1998) saw the importance of cooperation between both sectors towards crime prevention.
Theoretical Framework Crime prevention is an international issue, and there are various theories used by researchers to identify reasons for crime. Some reasons can be either social or psychological. For the purpose of this research, the author will examine the Routine Activity Theory. According to (M.S., June 2006) the Routine Activity Theory was developed in 1979 by Lawrence Cohen and Marcus Felson. During this period, most other theories focused on criminals, their motivation, and the environment. However, Routine Activity Theory focused on the criminal act through crime specific analysis. The theory explains how changes in ones’ daily patterns or activities through social interaction such as employment or recreation affect the difference in crime rates. This approach sought to replace older theories of the 1970’s which focused on the reduction of access to offenders, the distance from where one lives to their workplace and the presence of criminals in that environment. The concept of the Routine Activity Theory lies on three concepts that were necessary for predatory crimes to take place. These concepts are motivated offenders, suitable targets and the absence of suitable guardians. If any of these components are missing, a predatory crime will be prevented. In analyzing the components and focusing on this theory, one must examine how the motivated offender selects their targets as people conduct their routine activities in their daily lives. This motivation for offenders determines how the criminal sees the value of the target in question. For example how accessible is a motor vehicle or laptop or purse containing money in the vehicle. The motivated offender looks at the suitability of the target instead of a hard target as in the case of a fenced building that is burglar-proof with closed circuit television, guard dogs or the presence of security personnel. The absence of proper guardians makes it much easier for the perpetrator or motivated offender to commit an offense. The TTPS in the Marabella Police Division cannot be in all of the places all of the times. Suitable targets such as banks, shopping malls, and business areas have all employed members of the PSA. The employment of PSA act as a deterrent to motivated offenders because of the presence of capable guardians. The researcher here also indicated that capable guardians can also take the form of burglar alarms, video cameras or groups of people walking home together or going to the shopping mall instead of one person. The Routine Activity Theory takes a proactive approach to crime prevention. The researcher made reference to a study on a college campus and identified that college students with risky lifestyles such as drinking alcohol and partying, most often lack suitable guardians during their routine activities. These students are the ones subjected to becoming suitable targets for motivated offenders. He stated that this theory help to educate the college students of the campus on the likelihood of motivated offenders and understanding of their environment. The students took a proactive approach not to become suitable targets for motivated offenders by revisiting their risky lifestyle and how they proceed each day with their routine activities. The researcher here stated that a fourth component modified this theory, the term motivated offender was now called likely offender. This fourth component seeks to explain why criminals become motivated. Felon’s’ theory which seems to place emphasis on predatory crime, has been expanded to include fights, illegal markets, and white collar crimes. This theory according to the researcher takes a proactive approach to crime prevention.

The research conducted by (Sloan, 2001) Identified that changes in routine activities of everyday life can give an explanation of the rise in crime. The concept behind the theory as discussed earlier, identified the motivated offender, suitable targets and absence of capable guardians as the essential components for a crime to take place. The researchers went on to say that the absence of any one of the three components can either see crime rates increased or fall. If all conditions exist in a specific community, then it is expected that the crime rates will decrease. They stated that the presence of motivated offenders resulted in violent crimes. The presence of motivated offenders and property crimes relates to suitable targets and the absence of capable guardians. The researchers also stated that unemployment is as an indicator of criminal motivation. If unemployment was high in a suburban population, then it was likely that the unemployed will turn to illegal opportunities available to get rewards. Social class and age were also indicators of motivated offenders towards criminality. The researchers indicated that the lower strata in society were the ones more desperate to achieve material gains and as such are motivated to offend. According to some members of the Criminal Justice System, most of the Marabella Train Line community population is considered at the lower end of the strata. This area identified had increased activities of criminality. Like unemployment, age was also a critical factor for the characteristics of motivated offenders, and this represented young people between the ages of fifteen to twenty- four (15-24). The researchers supported this view expressed by (Sloan, 2001). The researchers indicated that suburbs with large housing developments provided greater opportunities for violent crimes and property crimes because there are more suitable targets for motivated offenders. Unattended homes due to the population routine activities and the absence of capable guardians, the owners of these homes are more likely to experience property crimes. The authors here stated that suburbs with a large police staff per capita of one hundred thousand (100,000) populations will have less crime. The Marabella Police Division has a staff of approximately fifty (50) officers of the TTPS. To account for shift rotations, sick leave, officers attending courts, vacation leave and those assigned to specialist units. There could be approximately twenty (20) officers on duty to service a population of twenty-seven thousand (27,000. According to International Association of Cheifs of Police report from (Cheifs, 2013), the present ratio of police to the population identified by criminal justice practitioners is 1.8 officers to population of 1000. From these statistics, the amount of TTPS required for Marabella is 1.8x27000 =49. It is impossible for the TTPS to address crime prevention with twenty (20) officers at a given time. It is a fact that there is a lack of the required amount of capable guardians. From this evidence, this author is of the view that there is a need for officers of the PSA to complement the TTPS in this initiative in the Marabella Police Division. In the research conducted by (Edward R. Kleemans, 2012) the authors here looked at the contributions of Ronald Clarke and Marcus Felon towards criminology. They stated that if crime needs motivated offenders, suitable targets and the absence of capable guardians. Crime can be prevented by keeping motivated offenders from suitable targets and increasing the presence of capable guardians. The amount of officers of TTPS in the Marabella community cannot manage crime alone. The author here suggests that this increase of capable guardians required to achieve this goal can come from members of the PSA.

Some criticism of this theory was identified by the researchers. They looked at organized crime and terrorism and felt that this theory is more applicable to street crimes and not organized crime and terrorism. They said offenders are less dependent on any given opportunity or suitable targets because the basis of their crime lies in cooperation amongst perpetrators. They also stated that the presence of capable guardians is not effective in this scenario because the police in most instances are unable to apprehend the perpetrators. The researchers said that the characteristics of the underworld had social bonds, reputation and a culture of silence which makes them feared and able to outwit the police. The researchers indicated that according to Felson and Clarke in response to this critique said that illegal tasks have certain requirements. Likely offenders at the level of organized crime and terrorism have social ties, shared space for their activities, the internet, and modern communication network. It is imperative that capable guardians must have the technology and ability to move beyond the theory of its simplicity and meet with the advancement of criminality. The Routine Activity Theory is a simple theory that examines three concepts and when one of the concepts is missing, crime can increase or decrease. It is a fact from the Marabella Police Division Crime Statistics 2013 and 2014 that crime is evident in this community and officers from the Marabella Police Division cannot address this problem alone. According to the tenets of the Routine Activity Theory, for crime prevention, there must be the presence of capable guardians. The TTPS cannot meet the manpower requirements for the Marabella Police Division, and therefore officers of the PSA can assist in this regard. The theory also states that there must be a motivated offender and from the crime reports of this division, it is evident that there are motivated offenders. Suitable targets identified, and efforts must be made to improve PSA legislation for they to be more effective as capable guardians.
Methodology
Sampling This research will determine the views of the TTPS and PSA in the Marabella Police Division for crime prevention. This location of the Marabella Police Division is in the county of Victoria in Trinidad and Tobago. The Marabella Police Division bounded in the East by Gasparillo, the West by Guaracara River, the North by Pointe-a-Pierre roundabout, and the South by Toruba By-pass . The estimated population size of this Division is approximate twenty-seven thousand (27,000) persons of different age groups. (San Fernando City Corporation 2014). This study examined the views of the TTPS and PSA in the Marabella Police Division towards a working relationship for crime prevention. It examined the legislation governing both sectors, the role and responsibilities of each, whether negative attitudes exist, and to also determine if cooperation exist. Having identified the main thesis and the four (04) research questions a questionnaire was developed to solicit information on the views of the participants relative to the topic.
The questionnaire comprised of twenty-four (24) questions (See Appendix D) and required one hundred participants (n-100). The questionnaire was first trialed amongst three (03) officers within my work environment in the PSA and two (02) officers of the TTPS from my community. There were some areas of ambiguity that were addressed. The population for the research came from a total of fifty (50) officers of the TTPS and two hundred and two officers (202) of the PSA working in the Marabella Police Division.

From the information gathered on the population, the PSA were made up of twelve (12) separate organizations. These organizations were Petroleum Company of Trinidad and Tobago Limited. The Royal Bank of Canada. G4S security services. Trinidad and Tobago Electricity Company Limited. National Maintenance Training and Security Company Limited. Allied Security Services Limited, Innovative Security Limited, Sure Security Limited, Amalgamated Security Limited, Security Escort Services Limited, and Caribbean Safety Products Limited. From this population together with the TTPS the sampling frame and the sample elements was ascertained. The author identified the need for stratified random sampling in this population.The results represented the views on the variation of the groups. It reduced selection bias and provided better reliability as a result of the composition of the population size. The author acknowledged the need for the entire TTPS and PSA in Trinidad and Tobago to participate, but due to cost effectiveness and time constraints, this research is confined to the Marabella Police Division. I t is also expected that the reliability of the results can be representative of the entire population of the views of the TTPS and PSA in Trinidad and Tobago.
Measures
The use of stratified random sampling recognized the need for the population (n-100) to be divided up into strata. The strata further divided into stratification factors. The strata were the population (n-100) of the TTPS and PSA working in the Marabella Police Division. The Likert five (05) point scales were used for this research. The scale named after its inventor Denis Likert can be considered as one of the scales that look at public opinion. The scale examined collective responses to a set of questions, and the responses scored within a range.

When the participants respond to a Likert questionnaire item, each respondent identified their agreement or disagreement. The question looked at the level of agreement or disagreement and represented on the scale. The format of the Likert scale used examined the agreement, quality, and frequency. The most used format will be agreement. An example of this Agreement is as follows: Strongly agree, agree, strongly disagree, disagree, and neutral.
Design
This study examined the views of the participants in the Marabella Police Division of Trinidad and Tobago. The information from the questionnaire examined the responses of the participants of the population (n-100) which comprises of the TTPS and PSA. This study is non-experimental, and there is no observation of cause and effect. A total of one hundred (n-100) participants selected from a population of two hundred and fifty-two (n-252) of the TTPS and PSA working in the Marabella Police Division. The TTPS accounted for fifty (50) officers while the PSA accounted for two hundred and two (202). This total of the population two hundred and fifty-two (n-252) was divided equally among the one hundred (n-100) participants between the TTPS and the PSA. The questionnaire used contained questions relating to demographics and relevant questions that sought responses to answer the research questions. The Five (05) Point Likert Scales represented the majority questions asked.

Procedures The stratified random sampling process was used to ensure that each member of the population working in the Marabella Police Division represented. As stated earlier this eliminated selection bias and reflected and equal representation of the participants of this community. The stratified random sampling process also impacted on the reliability of the results and ethical considerations for selection bias. The participants identified in the research accounted for two hundred and fifty- two (n-252) working in the Marabella Police Division. From this sum, Fifty (50) represents TTPS, and two hundred and two represents PSA. The total participants selected from the example were then fifty divided by two hundred and fifty -two, multiply by one hundred, which equaled twenty participants. (50/252x100).= (20). For example at the National Maintenance Training and Security Company Limited, there were twenty (20) members of the PSA. The required amount of participants coming from this organization was twenty divided by two hundred and fifty- two, multiply by one hundred, equal eight participants (20/252x100)= (08). The similar logistics applied to all the other organizations of PSA working in the Marabella Police Division. Ethical considerations In examining the thesis statement and research questions for this study this author take note of the ethical considerations. In the book (Pollock) Ethics are standards of right and wrong or accepted principles of equity and fairness in making judgments or taking actions. There are five (05) ethical considerations taken with respect to this study. These are confidentiality, validity, consent, responsibility, and objectivity.

Confidentiality will be the priority, most participants request anonymity for fear of various reasons. These reasons can be victimization or embarrassment and as such the researcher will assure participants of confidentiality towards their responses. In addressing this concern of confidentiality by the participants, they will not be required to put their names on the questionnaire and instead there was a numbering system. The author has assured each participant of the confidentiality towards their responses and as such none of their individual responses shared with anyone. Validity is another ethical consideration that has to be considered. It examined data gathering measures for the research. The questionnaire administered is the main tool used to obtain the information required for the thesis and research questions. Compiling the set of questions to support each research question was an important factor towards this research. This together with the trialed of the questionnaires as identified earlier helped to avoid any ambiguity. This measure helped shape the final product of the questionnaire and test its validity. Consent is another ethical consideration taken into effect before the administering of questionnaires. Consent was sought from the Inspector of Marabella Police Station on behalf of the TTPS. Consent was sought from the Estate Police Association on behalf of the PSA. Consent here identified the voluntary participation of respondents. Consent was representative of this research, whereby one hundred (n-100) questionnaires was administered, and ninety-one (n-91) participants responded. It was necessary for administering questionnaires and each participant had the right to choose or withdraw from the study at any given point in time.

It is the responsibility of the author of this research to ensure that the participants in this study were protected from any harm or risk. Harm identified here can be physical or psychological. The author expected that the views of the participants are protected at all costs, because ones’ opinion may not fear well with another person opinion. The nature of this research, where two law enforcement agencies are asked to respond to some sensitive questions may have some challenges in this area. The author took responsibility for the participant protection against victimization or more serious consequences by keeping responses private and confidential. It is important that the author in his attempt to solicit information from the participants, all attempts should be made to avoid biases. The author here already has a perception that the PSA can supplement the TTPS towards crime prevention. A meeting held with the Executive of the Estate Police Association and the Inspector in charge of the Marabella TTPS expressed this view and the research questions were identified. The author assured the representatives of both sectors that this study was for the purpose of getting the views of the participants for this research and the views will be reflected at the completion of the study. Delimitations The Marabella Police Division in Trinidad and Tobago was the area of this study. The author here wanted to look at a wider geographic area from the main Police Divisions in the East, West, North, and South. Time constraints and cost effectiveness were the motivating factors that accounted for this delimitation.

Findings
RQ1. What are the views of the TTPS and PSA towards their legislation, with respect to crime prevention?

Figure 1
23%
6%
9%
21%
38%
3%
23%
6%
9%
21%
38%
3%

Do you think the legislation of TTPS has advantages over the PSA?

Table 1

Do you think that the TTPS legislation gives them more respect from the population over PSA?
Fig. 1 Findings
Ninety-one percent (91%) of the participants responded to the question on the TTPS legislation having an advantage over the PSA. From the pie chart, twenty-one percent (21%) strongly agree. Thirty-eight percent (38%) agree. Twenty- three percent (23%) expressed a neutral view, six percent (6%) disagree and three percent (3%) strongly disagree. | | Freq. | % | Valid % | Cumulative % | Valid | Strongly Agree | 33 | 33.0 | 36.3 | 36.3 | | Agree | 44 | 44.0 | 48.4 | 84.6 | | Neutral | 8 | 8.0 | 8.8 | 93.4 | | Disagree | 4 | 4.0 | 4.4 | 97.8 | | Strongly Disagree | 2 | 2.0 | 2.2 | 100.0 | | Total | 91 | 91.0 | 100.0 | | Missing | System | 9 | 9.0 | | | Total | 100 | 100.0 | | | Table 1 Findings: Ninety-one percent (91%) of the participants responded to the question with the respect given to the TTPS from the population over the PSA with regards to legislation. From the frequency table thirty-three (33%) strongly agree. Forty- four percent (44%) agree, eight percent (8%) were neutral, four percent (4%) disagree and two percent (2%) strongly disagree.

Figure 2

34%
40%
10%
6%
11%%
34%
40%
10%
6%
11%%

RQ2. What are the views of the TTPS and PSA toward their responsibilities for crime prevention?
RQ2. What are the views of the TTPS and PSA toward their responsibilities for crime prevention?

Table 2 | | Freq. | % | Valid % | Cumulative % | Valid | Strongly Agree | 4 | 4.0 | 4.4 | 4.4 | | Agree | 23 | 23.0 | 25.3 | 29.7 | | Neutral | 18 | 18.0 | 19.8 | 49.5 | | Disagree | 44 | 44.0 | 48.4 | 97.8 | | Strongly Disagree | 2 | 2.0 | 2.2 | 100.0 | | Total | 91 | 91.0 | 100.0 | | Missing | System | 9 | 9.0 | | | Total | 100 | 100.0 | | |
Do you believe that members of TTPS share responsibilities for tasks with PSA?
Fig. 2 Findings:
34%
40%

6%
1%
34%
40%

6%
1%
Ninety-one percent (91%) of the participants responded to the question of whether the TTPS legislation gives them more credibility over the PSA. From the Histogram, thirty-four percent (34%) strongly agree. Forty percent (40%) agree, ten percent (10%) were neutral, six percent (6%) disagree and one percent (1%) strongly disagrees.

Table 2 Findings:
Ninety-one percent (91%) of the participants responded to the question on whether members of the TTPS share responsibility for tasks with PSA’S. Four percent (4%) strongly agree, twenty-three percent (23%) agree, eighteen percent were neutral, forty-four percent (44%) disagree and two percent (2%) strongly disagree.

Table 3 | | Freq. | % | Valid % | Cumulative % | Valid | Strongly Agree | 33 | 33.0 | 36.3 | 36.3 | | Agree | 42 | 42.0 | 46.2 | 82.4 | | Neutral | 13 | 13.0 | 14.3 | 96.7 | | Disagree | 2 | 2.0 | 2.2 | 98.9 | | Strongly Disagree | 1 | 1.0 | 1.1 | 100.0 | | Total | 91 | 91.0 | 100.0 | | Missing | System | 9 | 9.0 | | | Total | 100 | 100.0 | | |
Shall TTPS and PSA have the joint approach to crime prevention?

Figure 3

41%
43%

9%
1%
6%
41%
43%

9%
1%
6%

Shall management of TTPS and PSA share information on crime prevention?

Table 3 Findings:
Ninety-one percent (91%) of the participants responded to the question of whether the TTPS and PSA’S should have the joint approach to crime prevention. Thirty-three percent (33%) strongly agree. Forty-two percent (42%) agree, thirteen percent (13%) were neutral, two percent (2%) disagree and one percent (1%) strongly disagree.

Fig. 3 Findings:
Ninety-one percent (91%) of the participants responded to the question of whether management of TTPS and PSA share information on crime prevention. Forty-three percent (43%) strongly agree, forty-one percent (41%) agree, six percent (6%) were neutral, and one percent (1%) disagree.

RQ3. To what extent personal attitudes of the TTPS and PSA have on effective crime prevention operations?
RQ3. To what extent personal attitudes of the TTPS and PSA have on effective crime prevention operations?

Table 4 | | Freq. | % | Valid % | Cumulative % | Valid | Strongly Agree | 11 | 11.0 | 12.1 | 12.1 | | Agree | 39 | 39.0 | 42.9 | 54.9 | | Neutral | 24 | 24.0 | 26.4 | 81.3 | | Disagree | 15 | 15.0 | 16.5 | 97.8 | | Strongly Disagree | 2 | 2.0 | 2.2 | 100.0 | | Total | 91 | 91.0 | 100.0 | | Missing | System | 9 | 9.0 | | | Total | 100 | 100.0 | | |
Do TTPS see PSA dependent on them for assistance at the station for processing a defendant as a burden on their caseload?

Table 5 | | Freq. | % | Valid % | Cumulative % | Valid | Strongly Agree | 28 | 28.0 | 30.8 | 30.8 | | Agree | 39 | 39.0 | 42.9 | 73.6 | | Neutral | 19 | 19.0 | 20.9 | 94.5 | | Disagree | 5 | 5.0 | 5.5 | 100.0 | | Total | 91 | 91.0 | 100.0 | | Missing | System | 9 | 9.0 | | | Total | 100 | 100.0 | | |
Do TTPS see the PSA ability, training and legislation as inferior to theirs?

Table 4 Findings: Ninety-one percent (91%) of the participants responded to the question of whether the TTPS sees PSA dependent on them for assistance at the station for processing a Defendant as a burden on their caseload. Eleven percent (11%) strongly agree. Thirty-nine percent (39%) agree, twenty-four percent (24%) were neutral, fifteen percent (15%) disagree and two percent (2%) strongly disagree.

Table 5 Findings
Ninety-one percent (91%) of the participants responded to the question of whether the TTPS see the PSA ability, training and legislation as inferior to theirs. Twenty-eight percent (28%) strongly agree, thirty-nine percent (39%) agree, nineteen percent (19%) were neutral, and five percent (5%) disagree.

Figure 5

40%
35%
10%
1%
5%
9%
40%
35%
10%
1%
5%
9%

Do advance specialist units in TTPS have advantages over PSA in crime prevention?

RQ4: What are the views of the TTPS and PSA towards cooperation for crime prevention initiatives?
RQ4: What are the views of the TTPS and PSA towards cooperation for crime prevention initiatives?

Figure 6

57%
11%
14%
9% %
4%
5%
57%
11%
14%
9% %
4%
5%

How can you rate the level of cooperation between TTPS and PSA?

Fig. 5 Findings:
Ninety-one percent (91%) of the participants responded to the question of whether advance specialist units in the TTPS have advantages over PSA in crime prevention. Thirty-five percent (35%) strongly agree. Forty percent (40%) agree, nine percent (9%) were neutral, five percent (5%) disagree and one percent (1%) strongly disagree.

Fig. 6 Findings:
Ninety-one percent (91%) of the participants responded to the question of how they rate the level of cooperation between the TTPS and the PSA. Fourteen percent (14%) said poor. Eleven percent (11%) said very poor, fifty-seven percent (57%) said good, five percent (5%) said very good, and four percent (4%) did not respond.
Table 6 | | Freq. | % | Valid % | Cumulative % | Valid | Guarding Financial Institutions | 16 | 16.0 | 17.6 | 17.6 | | Prisoner Escorts | 5 | 5.0 | 5.5 | 23.1 | | | | | | | | Attending Intruder Alarms | 17 | 17.0 | 18.7 | 41.8 | | Traffic Control events | 8 | 8.0 | 8.8 | 50.5 | | All of the above | 45 | 45.0 | 49.5 | 100.0 | | Total | 91 | 91.0 | 100.0 | | Missing | System | 9 | 9.0 | | | Total | 100 | 100.0 | | |
What functions should be handled cooperatively between the TTPS and PSA?

Figure 7

Table 6 Findings:
Ninety-one percent (91%) of the participants responded to the question of what functions should be handled cooperatively between the TTPS and PSA. Sixteen percent (16%) said guarding financial institutions. Five percent (5%) said prisoner escorts. Seventeen percent (17%) said attending intruder alarms, eight percent (8%) said traffic control events and forty-five percent (45%) said all the duties above.
Fig. 7 Findings:
37%
10%
1%
4%
39%%
37%
10%
1%
4%
39%%
Ninety-one percent (91%) of the participants responded to the question of how can the level of cooperation be improved between the TTPS and PSA. Thirty-seven percent (37%) said increased communication. Ten percent (10%) said joint training. One percent (1%) said increased accountability, four percent (4%) said improved recruitment standard and thirty-nine percent (39%) said all of the above.

Discussion From the four research questions, a questionnaire was developed, and the participants were asked relative questions to the study. This discussion examined how the findings related to the literature review in the areas of legislation, responsibilities, attitudes and cooperation.
1. What are the views of TTPS and PSA towards their Legislation, with respect to crime prevention? In the first research question, in seeking to determine how the TTPS and PSA view the laws governing each other, three questions were asked in the questionnaire. The first question examined whether the TTPS legislation had advantages over that of the PSA. From the findings the majority of respondents totaling fifty-nine percent (59%) either strongly agree or agree while twenty-three percent (23%) expressed a neutral view. The second question under legislation determined whether the TTPS legislation gave them more credibility over the PSA. From the findings, the majority respondents being seventy-four percent (74%) either strongly agree or agree. The third question determined whether the TTPS legislation gave them more respect from the population than that of the PSA. The majority respondents of seventy-seven percent (77%) either strongly agree or agree. In the literature review, the research conducted by (Anyanwu, 2012) supported the views of the participants from the findings. He indicated that PSA are largely unmonitored, and there is a need for respect of the law, transparency and accountability. The researcher indicated that the Ministry of National Security failed to enact thePrivate Security Agencies Bill (2001). The absence of the Supplemental Police Amendment Bill (2001) and the Private Securities Industry Bill (2014) has accounted for the PSA in Trinidad and Tobago to have inadequate legislation.
The researcher stated that PSA inadequate legislation resulted in unprofessionalism in their deportment and conduct. It allows security owners to infringe on the rights of security workers through low wages and taxation issues. The research by (Anyanwu, 2012) Indicated that the Ministry of National Security in Trinidad and Tobago failed to pass the proposed Private Security Industry Bill (2014). Failing to enact this law has led to officers of the PSA not being held accountable for their actions. The TTPS has the Police Complaints Authority for accountability. The absence of the proposed Private Security Industry Bill (2014) which if was in effect will have a similar authority set up to ensure accountability by all members of the PSA. From the three questions pertaining to the views of the TTPS and PSA regarding legislation, a total of forty- one response expressed a neutral view on the questions. Twenty- two responses indicated that they either disagree or strongly disagree. To state why the participants’ responses were neutral, disagree or strongly disagree could not be ascertained because the participants were not required to give an explanation. This absence or foresight by the author was probably one limitation to this study. The limitation identified here was as a result of the time afforded to the author to complete this study and cost associated with the research. In the Literature review by (Zedner, 2006) the researcher here examined twenty- five (25) member states of the European Union. The findings revealed that the ethics of private security is less concerned with justice, fairness, equality, proportionality or any core values of the Criminal Justice System but only concern with selling security as a business. A similar view was expressed by (Irish, 1999). She stated in her research that inadequate legislation for PSA allowed for persons responsible for making legislation, are themselves owners of security companies. She concluded that private policing was for profit. This determination from the literature review expressed by the researchers could not be supported by the findings. The participants were not required to respond on these issues and this is another limitation identified by the author. The autho recommend the need for further research to be conducted to solicit this type of information.
2. What are the views of the TTPS and PSA towards their responsibilities for crime prevention?
From the questionnaire, three questions were asked with respect to the second research question of the responsibilities for duties of both the TTPS and PSA with an aim towards crime prevention. The first question determined whether the TTPS share responsibility for tasks with the PSA. From the findings, the majority respondents of forty- six percent (46%) either disagree or strongly disagree while twenty- seven percent (27%) agree or strongly agree. There were eighteen percent (18%) that gave a neutral response.
The second question examined whether the TTPS and PSA should have a joint approach towards crime prevention. The findings revealed that seventy -seven percent (77%), the majority respondents either strongly agree or agree, and thirteen percent (13%) were neutral. The third question looked at whether management of both sectors should share information on crime prevention. The findings revealed that eighty- four percent (84%) either strongly agree or agree while six percent (6%) were neutral.
The findings revealed that the majority respondents stated that the TTPS and PSA did not share responsibilities for tasks. One must take account that the views of the TTPS and PSA towards a joint approach to crime prevention, and sharing of information had an overwhelming majority for strongly agree and agree.
The results of this survey, however, have revealed that sharing of responsibilities for tasks between the TTPS and PSA’S is currently absent, and the participants are willing in both organizations to improve this current situation. Sharing of responsibilities can be achieved by having joint approaches such as prisoner escorts, attending to intruder alarms and traffic control at public events. The majority of respondents identified that sharing of information was a main priority towards crime prevention.
From the literature review, (Minnar, 2004) looked at the changing forms of public and private police in South Africa and agreed towards outsourcing some of the public police roles and responsibilities. He also identified the need for privatization and partnership. The author here indicated that the management of both sectors must take responsibility towards partnership in crime prevention. There is a need for management responsibilities in the findings of the survey conducted between the TTPS and PSA in the Marabella Police Division.
The participants identified the need for the First Division officers in their respective organizations to share information towards crime prevention. The concept of the Trinidad and Tobago Private Security Network Commission inception was towards this goal, but to date this Commission has not addressed this concept throughout the TTPS and PSA population in Trinidad and Tobago.
The research by (Swanton, 2003) looked at the role and responsibilities of the private and public police. He stated that both sectors had different goals and interests such as the public police operate non-commercially while the private police operate commercially. The private security seeks after private interests while public security seeks after the interests of the state. The state security protection is threat oriented while the private security is asset oriented. The views expressed by the minority who strongly disagree or disagree with joint approaches or sharing of information seems similar to what is expressed by this author.
(Trevaskes, 2006) Looked at the role of the private and public security in China and stated that in 2006 private security accounted for the apprehension of 162,000 perpetrators. She also indicated that private security was responsible for providing information for the state police towards crime prevention in 220,000 instances. The majority of respondents from the survey supported the views of both sectors sharing information towards crime prevention.
3. To what extent personal attitudes of the TTPS and PSA have on effective crime prevention operations?
From the questionnaire, the respondents were asked three questions to determine the third research question on the attitudes between the TTPS and the PSA. The first question determined whether the TTPS was willing to assist the PSA in processing a defendant at their Station. It also examined whether this assistance will have an effect on their case load. The majority of respondents fifty percent (50%) either strongly agree or agree. Twenty -four percent (24%) were neutral, and the minority of seventeen (17%) either strongly disagree or disagree.
The second question asked the respondents whether the TTPS sees the PSA ability, training and legislation as inferior to theirs. The findings from the survey revealed that the majority of respondents sixty- seven percent (67%) either strongly agree or agree, and nineteen percent (19%) were neutral. The third question looked at whether advance specialist units in the TTPS had advantages over the PSA in crime prevention. The majority respondents seventy- five percent (75%) either strongly agree or agree.

The findings here revealed that the views of the TTPS and PSA identified that there were dangerous attitudes of one over the other in relation to the responses to the questions posed. From the literature review in the research conducted by (Sedgwick, 2009) identified that New Zealand, only attempt to reach a memorandum of understanding within the last thirty (30) years failed. Then again according to (Nalla, 2003) the authors here stated that the state police receive valuable information from the private police but are not willing to give information to the private police. From the questionnaire administered in this research, the private police rated their relationship with the public police as good to excellent whereas the public police rated their relationship with the private security from good to poor. In the research conducted by (Lussier, 2012) showed the Canadian public police resistance to the expansion of private police. The research by (Reynolds, 1994) refutes the majority respondents views of the TTPS having an attitude of being more superior to the PSA. These views were in relation to their ability, training, legislation and advanced specialist units. The researcher here indicated that functions such as private investigations, probation and parole and in the prison system was less costly and more efficient when conducted by the private security than the public police. (Reynolds, 1994) most likely supports the views of the minority.
4. What are the views of he TTPS and PSA towards cooperation for crime prevention initiatives?
From the questionnaire, the participants were asked three questions to determine their views on the fourth research question on the level of cooperation between the TTPS and the PSA. The first question asked both sectors on how they rate the level of cooperation. From the findings, the majority respondents of Sixty- two percent (62%) said good or very good while the minority totaling twenty- five percent (25%) said poor or very poor.
The second question asked what functions they handled cooperatively. The majority respondents of forty- five percent (45%) indicated that both sectors should jointly attend to guarding financial institutions, prisoner escorts, traffic control events and attending to intruder alarms. Sixteen percent (16%) said guarding financial institutions and seventeen percent said attending to intruder alarms.
The third question asked on how the level of cooperation can improve between both sectors. The majority respondents of thirty- nine percent (39%) said increased communication, joint training, increased accountability and improved recruitment standard. Thirty- seven percent (37%) felt that increased communication between both sectors can improve the level of cooperation.
From the literature review, the majority views of the respondents from the findings towards cooperation between the TTPS and PSA were also identified. The research by (Dirk, 1994) on the success of the Netherlands 1992 Task Force joint approach on robbery and car theft. In the study by (Hyde, 1999) saw private and public police partnership for crime prevention. The researcher here stated that crime control was not only a public police function but private security with target hardening measures and technology can assist the public police with information and support services towards crime prevention.
From the research by (Golsby, 1998) it was identified that for there to be better cooperation between both sectors each organization must determine that they support a common interest of crime prevention. The researcher went on to say that for the private security to get more recognition there should be better training and accreditation. He felt that for the private security working amongst the public police only helps to give them more credibility and this in turn will assist them with crime prevention initiatives.
The researcher indicated that some public police show concern with private security wearing similar uniforms to the state police and had poor perceptions of their ability to perform traditional police functions. The researcher felt that the public police should be mindful of the effects of uniformed officers to the population as they represent more agents of social control. The twenty- five percent (25%) respondents that said the level of cooperation between the TTPS and PSA was poor or very poor. Some of the recommendations by this researcher can aid in the PSA professional and social development towards crime prevention.
The theoretical aspect of this discussion identified that the Routine Activity Theory was applicable to this research. This study identified that the TTPS legislation was reviewed, and new legislation that meet international standards was enacted in 2006. The PSA on the other hand is still aligned to legislation that was enacted in 1906. For the PSA to be effective as capable guardians the legislations identified in the research earlier must come in effect. Responsibilities must be understood, attitudes addressed and cooperation exist. If this happens the suitability of targets for motivated offenders will be curtailed.
The PSA becomes more effective as an agent of social control by alerting officers of the TTPS in the Marabella Police Division of any irregularities relating to criminal conduct in their environment. The two hundred and two (202) additional eyes and ears in this division may take the form of the concept of community policing. This is what is required for the entire community to gain confidence in the Criminal Justice System and certainly the PSA can contribute to crime prevention. If one component is lacking then crime can increase or decrease, if the PSA are effective as capable guardians, then crime will decrease.
Conclusion
In conclusion, the Research Question from the findings and literature review identified that there is a valid concern by both sectors towards the PSA legislation for authority and
Accountability. (Anyanwu, 2012) Expressed these views by the research conducted in the PSA in Trinidad and Tobago. He stated that the PSA is largely unmonitored, and there is a need for legislation to ensure that there is respect for law, transparency and accountability in all operations. This research highlighted that there is inadequate legislation for the PSA, which lead to unprofessionalism, infringement of workers’ rights, low-income, and taxation.
The TTPS, however, have had changes in their legislation with the replacement of the Police Service Act Chapter 15:01 with Act No. 07 of 2006. This current legislation meets with international best practice and places the TTPS at an advantage towards crime prevention. The majority respondents in the findings supported the view that the PSA legislation was inadequate towards crime prevention. The respondents identified that the laws of the TTPS gave them more credibility and respect than that of the PSA.
. Research by (Zedner, 2006) and (Irish, 1999) are both of the views that the management of private policing concern is with selling security as a business. Management is not concerned about equity, fairness, justice, proportionality or any core values of the criminal justice system. There is a perception by some professionals in the criminal justice system towards this view, but the participants did not have to comment on these questions. It is likely that the views of the sixty- three percent (63%) participants who expressed neutral disagree or strongly disagree to the three questions. They may have supported the views of (Irish, 1999) and (Zedner, 2006). Future research is required to determine the views of the participants in accordance to that of the researchers mentioned above.
From the findings and literature review on the research question on responsibilities of the TTPS and PSA it identified that the majority of respondents from the findings of both sectors felt that they did not share responsibilities. The majority participants, however, identified that there is a need for joint approaches to crime prevention and sharing of information between both sectors on crime prevention initiatives. The research by (Minnar, 2004) identified the need for both sectors to recognize the need for outsourcing, privatization and partnership.
The findings of the survey indicated that senior management of both sectors must take responsibility for sharing of information and partnership. (Swanton, 2003) Looked at the role and responsibilities of both sectors. (Trevaskes, 2006) Identified the importance of the private police towards the public police. She stated in her research that the private police in China was responsible for 162,000 arrests and providing information to the state police in 220,000 instances.
From the research (Sedgwick, 2009), (Nalla, 2003), they all stated that there were negative attitudes between the private and public police. The findings, from the survey, showed where the majority respondents were also of this view. The research by (Reynolds, 1994) believes that tasks conducted by the private security are more efficient and less costly. From the findings, the minority views on the three (03) questions asked may have supported this researcher. Further research can be conducted to ascertain this view, but the respondents did not comment in this area for this research.

The research conducted by (Dirk, 1994), saw the need for cooperation between the private and public police. In (Hyde, 1999) and (Golsby, 1998) a similar view was expressed. The majority of respondents from the survey all identified that the level of cooperation between the TTPS and PSA was good or very good. Twenty-five (25%) however felt that it was poor or very poor. Management of both sectors must recognize the need for improved cooperation. In examining the theoretical perspective to the research questions, literature review and findings from the survey conducted it is evident that the Routine Activities Theory can be applicable to crime prevention. Crime, as identified, is a concern by the Ministry of National Security and the population at large. There is a growing population of perpetrators or motivated offenders. The social ills of society that faced by some members of the Marabella population which probably belongs to the lower strata in society can be a reason for this motivation.
The business community, the population, the cottage industries, and the lone pedestrian can all become suitable targets if target hardening measures not implemented. The TTPS cannot meet all the security and safety needs of the community. The views expressed by the participants in this community indicated that the PSA can supplement the state police and act as capable guardians. The areas identified in the research questions suggest that the PSA can be considered capable guardians, if their legislation is updated. Their roles and responsibilities identified, the perception of negative attitudes addressed, and there is cooperation amongst both sectors.

Recommendations
The author having looked at the facts derived from this research is certain that the PSA together with the TTPS can make a positive contribution to crime prevention in the Marabella Police Division. It is evident from the research that both sectors must address issues raised in the literature review and findings. With this perspective in mind, the author recommends the following:
1. Proper communication levels established at senior level between the TTPS and PSA.
2. Established medium for cooperation between TTPS and PSA.
3. Joint training programs between the TTPS and PSA.
4. Improvement of legislation for PSA.
5. Selection and training standards established by all members of PSA.
6. Complaints Authority established for PSA.
7. The partnership established between the TTPS and PSA towards crime prevention.
8. Have legislation updated for PSA
9. The inclusion of PSA with TTPS in community meetings. Limitations
There were several limitations identified in this research; they are as follows:
1 .Only Second Division Officers participated in this research.
2 .One hundred (100) questionnaires distributed, only ninety-one (91) participated.
3. The author decided to meet the page limit in the findings section and identify all responses from the discussion. The formatting of this section had to be changed from the APA format identified for this study to accommodate this information.
4. Participants were not asked to comment on questions, especially those that gave a neutral view. The researcher could not be certain of the true thought of the participants. Further research is required to determine this.

Bibliography
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Appendices
Appendix A
Map of Trinidad and Tobago

Appendix B
Map of Marabella

Appendix C Marabella Police Division Crime Statistics 2013/2014 | Serious Crimes | 2013 | 2014 | Minor Crimes | 2013 | 2014 | Murder | 02 | 03 | Indecent Assault | 03 | 05 | Rape, Incest & others | 10 | 12 | Assault on Police and Peace Officers | 04 | 07 | Robberies | 79 | 74 | Larceny | 80 | 42 | Fraud Offences | 11 | 01 | Larceny Dwelling House | 06 | 07 | General Larceny | 40 | 48 | Malicious Wounding | 05 | 05 | Kidnapping | 07 | 00 | Possession Firearm & ammunition | 13 | 06 | Larceny Dwelling House | 04 | 07 | Possession of Narcotics | 170 | 67 | Wounding & Shootings | 09 | 12 | Possession of Apparatus | 02 | 03 | Larceny Motor Vehicles | 30 | 22 | Other Minor Crimes | 10 | 00 | Burglaries & Break-ins | 46 | 34 | | | | Other Serious Offences | 10 | 10 | | | | Narcotics Offences | 04 | 10 | | | | TOTAL | 252 | 233 | | 293 | 142 |

Appendix D
QUESTIONNAIRE: NO.
This research will examine the views of the Trinidad and Tobago Police Service (TTPS) and the Private Security Agencies (PSA’S) in the Marabella Police District towards crime prevention.
Demographics 1-5 1. Are you Male or Female? * Male * Female 2. Which category below includes your age? * 18-20 * 21-29 * 30-39 * 40-49 * 50-59 * 60+ 3. How long have you been working in Law Enforcement? * 0-5 years * 6-10 years * 11-15 years * 16-20 years * 21-30 years * 31-40 years * 40+ years

4. What is your position in your organization? * Recruit Constable * Constable * Corporal * Sergeant * Inspector * Assistant Superintendent * Superintendent
Other_____________

5. What is the highest level of school you have completed or the highest education reached? * Less than high school * High school * Tertiary Level * Associate Degree * Degree * Graduate Degree
Research Question 1
What are the views of the TTPS and PSA towards cooperation for crime prevention initiatives? 6. As a member of the TTPS or PSA how often do you have contact with each other? * Often * Very often * Not very often * Other____________ 7. How can you rate the level of cooperation between the TTPS and PSA? * Poor * Very poor * Good * Very good * Other_____________ 8. Which areas would you prefer see improved cooperation between the TTPS and PSA? * Crime prevention * Sharing personnel * Training * All of the above * Other_____________ 9. How can the level of cooperation be improved between the TTPS and PSA? * Increased communication * Joint Training * Increased accountability * Improved recruitment standard * All of the above

10. What functions should be handled cooperatively between the TTPS and PSA? * Guarding Financial Institutions * Prisoner Escorts * Attending intruder alarms * Traffic control events * All of the above
Research Question 2
What are the views of TTPS and PSA towards their Legislation, with respect to crime prevention? 11. Do you believe that the legislation governing the TTPS and PSA has advantages for one over the other in crime prevention? * Strongly agree * Agree * Neutral * Disagree * Strongly disagree 12. Do you believe that the population sees the TTPS as more credible with respect to the legislation than the PSA in crime prevention? * Strongly agree * Agree * Neutral * Disagree * Strongly disagree 13. Do you think that the legislation governing the TTPS gives them more respect from the population over the PSA? * Strongly agree * Agree * Neutral * Disagree * Strongly disagree

14. The proposed PSA Private Security Industry Bill of 2014 will hold officers of PSA accountable for their actions as with the Public Complaints Authority of the TTPS. Do you believe that both legislations are effective towards crime prevention? * Strongly agree * Agree * Neutral * Disagree * Strongly disagree

Research Question 3
To what extent personal attitudes of the TTPS and PSA have on effective crime prevention operations? 15. Do you consider the resources in the TTPS in comparison to the PSA as a disadvantage in crime prevention? * Strongly agree * Agree * Neutral * Disagree * Strongly disagree 16. Do the TTPS see the PSA that are dependent on them to process a Defendant at the station as a burden to their case workload in crime prevention? * Strongly agree * Agree * Neutral * Disagree * Strongly disagree 17. Do the TTPS see the PSA ability, training and legislation as inferior to theirs’ for crime prevention? * Strongly agree * Agree * Neutral * Disagree * Strongly disagree

Research Question 4
What are the views of TTPS and PSA towards their responsibilities for crime prevention? 18. Do you believe that members of the TTPS share responsibility for tasks with the PSA? * Strongly agree * Agree * Neutral * Disagree * Strongly disagree

19. Do you think that the TTPS should have access to the following? Please tick appropriate answers. * Firearms * Handcuffs * Batons * Dogs * MACE * Stun Guns * All of the above * First four only 20. Do you think that the PSA should have access to the following? Please tick appropriate answers. * Firearms * Handcuffs * Batons * Dogs * MACE * Stun Guns * All of the above * First four only 21. Do you consider the advanced specialist units in the TTPS in comparison to the PSA as having an advantage in crime prevention? * Strongly agree * Agree * Neutral * Disagree * Strongly disagree

22. The Supplemental Police Act CH: 15:02 gives the PSA authority for the powers of arrest. Do you believe the PSA’S should only process Defendants for minor offenses? * Strongly agree * Agree * Neutral * Disagree * Strongly disagree

23. Shall responsibility for crime prevention in your district have a joint approach between the TTPS and the PSA? * Strongly agree * Agree * Neutral * Disagree * Strongly disagree

24. Shall management of the TTPS and the PSA provide information to each other for effective crime prevention? * Strongly agree * Agree * Neutral * Disagree * Strongly disagree

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