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Probability & Statistics for Engineers & Scientists

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Probability & Statistics for Engineers & Scientists
NINTH EDITION

Ronald E. Walpole
Roanoke College

Raymond H. Myers
Virginia Tech

Sharon L. Myers
Radford University

Keying Ye
University of Texas at San Antonio

Prentice Hall

Editor in Chief: Deirdre Lynch Acquisitions Editor: Christopher Cummings Executive Content Editor: Christine O’Brien Associate Editor: Christina Lepre Senior Managing Editor: Karen Wernholm Senior Production Project Manager: Tracy Patruno Design Manager: Andrea Nix Cover Designer: Heather Scott Digital Assets Manager: Marianne Groth Associate Media Producer: Vicki Dreyfus Marketing Manager: Alex Gay Marketing Assistant: Kathleen DeChavez Senior Author Support/Technology Specialist: Joe Vetere Rights and Permissions Advisor: Michael Joyce Senior Manufacturing Buyer: Carol Melville Production Coordination: Lifland et al. Bookmakers Composition: Keying Ye Cover photo: Marjory Dressler/Dressler Photo-Graphics Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and Pearson was aware of a trademark claim, the designations have been printed in initial caps or all caps.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Probability & statistics for engineers & scientists/Ronald E. Walpole . . . [et al.] — 9th ed. p. cm. ISBN 978-0-321-62911-1 1. Engineering—Statistical methods. 2. Probabilities. I. Walpole, Ronald E. TA340.P738 2011 519.02’462–dc22 2010004857 Copyright c 2012, 2007, 2002 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the...

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