Free Essay

Probation and Parole Interview/Case Study

In: Social Issues

Submitted By sogille
Words 1631
Pages 7
Case 1: Review the following case study. Discuss each point of motivational interviewing, why it was used, and whether or not it was successful. What was done well in this interview, and why? What would you have done differently, and why? Of the theories we have learned in this unit, which theory stands out in this interview? Where and how?

“A client-centered and empathetic counseling style is one fundamental and defining characteristic of motivational interviewing. We regard the therapeutic skill of reflective listening or accurate empathy ... to be the foundation on which skillfulness in motivational interviewing is built ... Through skillful reflective listening, the counselor seeks to understand the client’s feelings and perspectives without judging, criticizing, or blaming ... The crucial attitude is a respectful listening to the person with a desire to understand his or her perspective” (Miller & Rollnick, 2002, p. 37) In this case, the Motivational interviewing refers to an interpersonal counseling or communication style rather than a specific therapy or set of techniques (Rollnick & Miller, 1995). This style is evident in the process of MET (Motivational Enhancement Therapy). The focus of this particular interview was on helping the client to overcome reluctance or ambivalence on his own, while allowing him to make positive changes in his approach to anger management. The therapy did not assume that the client wanted to change, but lead the client to own their need for change. The motivational interviewing assumed that ambivalence is a normal part of the client’s nature. The therapist used empathy and other supportive responses to reinforce self-motivational statements throughout the interview. Using questioning and statements, the therapist attempted to enhance motivation for change by encouraging a consideration of the discrepancy between the client’s violent response to stress and his more adaptive goals. Autonomous, the client seek for a resolution to the issue with this directive and persuasive approach. Using strategies that direct the client toward specific goals rather than simply following the lead of the client, the therapist actively seek to bring discrepancies to the client’s attention. The therapist gave advice and feedback, when appropriate. “It is a method for addressing a specific problem when a person may need to make a behavior or lifestyle change and is reluctant or ambivalent about doing so” (Miller and Rollnick, 2009, p. 136), leading a response towards a positive change without confronting, by fragmenting the resultant, the therapist helped his client acquire an objective view of what is currently going on, and helping him to take charge of his situation, leading ultimately towards some responsibility.

The interview used the five basic motivational principles that form the foundation for MET. The therapist created a set of conditions that assisted in enhancing the client’s own motivation for and commitment to change. The case, followed the motivational principles throughout the therapeutic process (Miller, Zweben, DiClemente, & Rychtarik, 1995): express empathy- The therapist demonstrated caring for and understanding of the client process. Continued emphasis on the client’s freedom of choice and self-direction and the idea that only the client could make the decision for change throughout the whole interview. Using a nonjudgmental atmosphere the therapist encouraged the client to consider changes as possibilities. The therapist communicated respect for the client and a belief that the client is an equal partner in the therapy process. The therapist listened and reflected on the content of the response back to the client in an enhanced form. avoid argument and direct confrontation- the nonjudgemental environment allowed the client to perceive a problem with their taboo response to stress, which allowed the client to make his own statements about a need for change. roll with resistance- The Client started with blaming others for the problem (the Judge, his wife, etc...), but instead of meeting resistance head on, the therapists used reflection and empathy to try to understand what the client was thinking or feeling, and acknowledged his point of view. Reducing defensiveness he allowed the client to make self-motivational statements develop discrepancy- the motivation for change occurred when the client perceived the discrepancy between where he is currently and where he wants to be. The therapist focused on and enhance the client’s attention to these discrepancies, which he did by exploring the negative impact on personal, professional and societal relationship. By bringing to awareness the personal consequences of the behavior the therapist hoped to motivate a change verbally expressed. support self-efficacy- the client seem to have be optimistic about the possibility of changing his behavior. The therapist infused motivation by eliciting change strategies and problem-solving processes from the client.

The interview was client-centered, the therapist directive worked to increase the client’s motivation to self change. The responsibility and capacity for change was assumed to lie within the client. In this interview, the therapist focused on the client’s own perceptions of what lead to his predicament, goals, and values throughout the anger management therapy. not enough autonomy in the answer, too much leading, not offering an honest response from the client.

Miller, W. R., Zweben, A., DiClemente, C., & Rychtarik, R. (1995). Motivational enhancement therapy manual. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

Miller, W. R., & Rollnick, S. (2002). Motivational interviewing (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.

Miller, W. R, & Rollnick, S. (2009). “Ten Things that Motivational interviewing is not”. Behavioural and cognitive psychotherapy 37: 129-140.Case 2: Part II: Article
Click here to read the PDF file titled, “Despite Apparent Life Changes, Gang Member Gets 15 Years.”
Now, assume the person in this article is out on probation, and you must conduct a motivational interview using this information and the key points of motivational interviewing. Create your own transcript, with you as the interviewer, and either have a friend or family member role play the part of the interviewee or make the responses up yourself. Provide your complete transcripts. You may create whatever facts you feel are necessary. Which theories were prevalent in this BCJ 3150, Probation and Parole 3

begin to use MI by simply being present and listening to the client. Identify what is important to him, what he values, and the discrepancy between where he is currently and where he wants to be. The client obviously has the ability to self-change, as he did for the two years following the crime (prior to sentencing).

Interview

Agent: Jacob, you’re finally released. So now I’m gonna tell you the terms of your probation.

Jacob: I’m excited to be released and I’ll do whatever it takes.

A: First of let me introduce myself. I am Sgt Buckle and I will be managing your transition back into society. I see prior to your conviction, you had made a remarkable turn around and with a clean record in prison I foresee no issues.

J: Initially I was very angry for my sentence, but I realized no amount of good was going to bring that person back. So the only thing I could do was live a good life and that started by taking responsibility for my own actions.

A: I’m glad you were able to control your temper with the judge. It shows that you are really trying.

J: Thank you..I have a very supportive family that kept me together while I was locked up.

A: Sounds that way, so any thoughts on what you would like to do now that you are out.

J: School...maybe nothing..hell I just want to go on a date. It’s been awhile.

A: Speaking of social activities, the conditions of your parole mandate no contact with your ex-gang members, gang activity or convicted felons. Also no access to firearms. Break any of these and it’s back to yard.

J: No problem, I made those changes in my life years ago. It may be more difficult to not make contact with ex-felons since those guys have been my family for the past 15 years.

A: Let me give you some advice, don’t do it. You sound and look like a good kid, be good to yourself.

J: (Pause) I guess that’s true.

A: You hesitated, is there anything I should know?.

J: No...well, I guess the reality of it all is hitting me.

A: Once a week, you have an appointment with Dr.Rogers, therapist. She will be handing your transition as well. If for any appointment, you cannot make it please let me know ASAP.

J: I was just about to ask you about missing or can’t make appointment rules of engagement. Glad you resolved that for me.

A: Glad to be of service.

J: Yeah...well can you give me any rules on holding a job. Is there a mileage limit, curfew, etc. Anything you can provide will be useful.

A: My my eager to get back to things. Well you have my number and info, if you run into any questionable jobs, just give me a call. O: Okay.

A: But to answer your question, holding down a job is okay and encouraged. Do not engage in any illegal activities, that will send you directly to jail. Do not collect $200.

J: Funny. Well sir, I think I got it.

A: One more thing, I will be to check on you at least once a week. The times will vary. No out of state travel, without prior arrangement through my office. I must be made away of your location at all times. Questions?

J: (Thinking) No, not at all. Actually, its far less rules than what I had in prison. Is there a sheet of all my mandatory appointments and contact numbers? I can be forgetful at times so I need to ensure I make everything.

A: All the information is provided in the package I brought with me. Take care.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Job Analysis Paper

...Paper Job Analysis of Probation Officers This paper will provide some insight on the functional job analysis for a probation officer, it will discuss how a functional job analysis can be used within this organization, it will go on to evaluate the reliability and validity of a functional job analysis, this paper will also evaluate different performance appraisal methods and how they might be applied to a probation officer, this paper will conclude by explaining the various benefits and vulnerabilities of each performance appraisal method concerning the job of a probation officer. Probation Officer: Functional Job Analysis The selection method for probation officials utilizing the functional job evaluation is very important. The functional job evaluation consists of observation and selection interviews; it assists to set recommendations for the job outline. Rapport shared with probation/parole and a functional job evaluation is the least complicated. The job requirements for a probation officer candidate should satisfy the requirements. At the least a bachelor’s qualification in social work, criminal justice, psychology, or a relevant study is needed for certification (Education Portal. 2011). Nevertheless, much more information by way of functional job evaluation assists to decide eligibility needs to work for the Department of Corrections. In the state of Delaware I/O psychiatrists have evolved physical, psychological, medical, selection interviews, and track record......

Words: 1113 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

The Penal Treatments of Offenders

...mental illness lies in the assumed need for the offender to recognize the danger and undesirability of his criminal behavior and make a significant effort to renounce it. The treatment model does not "remove" criminal behavior, as surgery might remove a malignancy or chemotherapy extinguish an infection; rather the "patient" or inmate is made to see the rewards of socially acceptable behavior and encouraged to adopt it as a mode of conduct for himself. (1) Contrary to some popular misconceptions, the treatment ideology does not mean that inmates are "coddled" and permitted to do as they please within an institution. ______________________________ (1) Sanford Bates, "The Establishment and Early Years of the Federal Probation System," Federal Probation 51 June 1987, p : 4-9. - National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals, A National Strategy to Reduce Crime, Washington , U.S. Government Printing Office, 1973p: 121. In fact, some form of treatment ideology can permeate the most restrictive and security-oriented institution . The major difference between the treatment and punishment ideologies is that in the former the inmate is assigned to a correctional program intended to prepare him for readjustment to the community, and in the latter such programs are not available. There is room for punishment in the treatment approach, but little room for treatment in the punitive approach. Treatment methods are intended to be used in......

Words: 10996 - Pages: 44

Premium Essay

South Carolina Department of Juvenile Justice

...Public Personnel Case Study Abstract This paper will address the functionality of the South Carolina Department of Juvenile Justice. First, it will examine the Agency as a whole and then it will explore the individuality of sectors within the agency. Second, the paper will discuss the different ways that the agency survives and serves the community. The South Carolina Department of Juvenile Justice plays a vital role in the success of at risk youth and maintaining a secure structure to assist youth that end up in troublesome situations. Introduction The public service of assisting youth may be one of the most difficult jobs around. Not only does the job have to consider what is in the best interest of the child but it also has to satisfy the child’s parents. Therefore choosing the right individuals to fulfill the dynamic roles within this public service is vital. The South Carolina Department of Juvenile Justice (DJJ) is an agency dedicated to assisting at risk youth with correcting negative behaviors so that they can one day become more responsible members of the community. In order for this agency to accomplish this goal they have to seek resources from many different avenues. Moreover, they have to assure that the quality of life for the housed youth are humane. This is done through proper care, continuous education, and providing the right rehabilitative services possible to name a few. This means drawing in a wide range of candidates to fill positions.......

Words: 2050 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Criminal Justice

...jeopardize the proper functionality of the next process in that system. This is not the case of the U.S. criminal justice system. The U.S. criminal justice system is comprised of numerous individuals, groups, organizations, and agencies funded by both government and non-government sources. Because, the U.S. criminal justice system is funded from different entities, there are several different agendas being carried out. There are three major components to the administration of the U.S. criminal justice system: the police, the courts, and corrections. In a perfect criminal justice system the police would arrest violators of the law, the courts would prosecute all law violators, and corrections would punish and rehabilitate violators, to integrate them back into society. While this is the formula the U.S. criminal justice system governs itself by, reality shows us that this quite often this is not the case. Only ten percent of court cases ever go to trial, with almost 90 percent of trials, being settled by plea bargain before going to trial. This often time eliminates the rehabilitation aspect of corrections. There are also instances where due to over packed jails and prisons, inmates do not end up serving their whole sentence. This is a break in corrections ability to complete the process started by the police. THE PROSECUTOR The key administrative officer in the processing of cases is the prosecutor. Theoretically the examination of the evidence against a defendant......

Words: 6671 - Pages: 27

Premium Essay

Prison Life and Recidivism

... One case involving a cross gender strip search in jail. The other involved overcrowding in California's prisons. Different as the legal and factual issues in each case are, both decisions went by a fundamental principle: the dignity of everyone, including those who find themselves on the wrong side of the law (Fellner, 2011) . Recidivism has long been the scapegoat used to prove that a person never changes. Recidivism rates increase yearly and show that the majority of inmates that reenter the community are more than likely going to reoffend and become incarcerated again within three years of release. Over the years, many proponents of prison education have believed that by offering an educational program in the prison system, the rate of recidivism would drop considerably and make it worth the time and effort. This result is found at some levels of the prison system educational program, but is not equivocal across the differing facilities. One such program has theorized that the obtainment of a General Equivalent diploma (GED) or high school diploma would create a significant decrease in the number of repeat offenders. The researchers looked at many programs and found that approximately 30% of prison educated offenders would recidivate. However, that is a much lower number than the national average which states that of the 95% of newly released uneducated offenders, 67% would reoffend. This shows a decrease in recidivism of 50%. The majority of the studies......

Words: 2641 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Corrections

...million victimizations in 2009 repeat violent felons off of the streets treat minors as adults create mandatory sentencing laws reduce time-off-for-good-behavior - Shift in Public Opinion 4.3 million violent crimes 33 million personal theft crimes - 7.2 million 3% (1 in 33) of adults in the U.S. are under some sort of correctional supervision -Probation (community sentence) and parole are NOT the same thing -1.3% average annual increase from 2000 to 2009 But declined 1.3% in 2010 to 2009 “has the correctional population supervision increased or decreased from 2000 to 2009?” Answer: INCREASED - the majority of people in the corrections system are on PROBATION - Percentage breakdowns for types of offences: 9% Public Disorder (35% federal) DUI, indecent exposure, drunken disorderly, prostitution, etc. 18% Drug Offence (51% federal) 19% Property Offense (less than 10% federal) 53% Violent Offenses (less than 10% federal) - Regions highest to lowest South West Midwest Fed? North East - Top 5 States Federal Texas California Florida New York Notes From Ch. 1 in Textbook- - Penology the study of the use of punishment for criminal acts - Penitentiary typically used to describe older or highly secure prisons; first term used to describe secure facilities to hold criminals - Corrections the range of community and institutional sanctions, treatment programs, and services for managing criminal offenders - Gaols English system of jails -......

Words: 4157 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

Criminal Justice Integration

...Crime and law enforcement is in a unique period that has been going on for over 30 years. During the 1960s crimes presented to police skyrocketed and more criminals being apprehended. Lawmakers started enacting strict laws that expanded punishments for criminals, the amount of legal cases prosecuted by the court of law soared, the amount of individuals in jails, prisons, and undergoing probation or prison release observation escalated dramatically, and spending by branches of government surrounding criminal justice organizations increased. It was also during this time that the Federal Governments position in the Nations attempts to combat crime was additionally restructured. Agency policies There were more than 14,000 law enforcement agencies in the United States in 2008, employing more than 700,000 officers. Intrinsically, policies are different between law enforcement agencies; and are centered on the agencies history and problems they have encountered. Law Enforcement policies, budget and technology evolves as society around it evolves. In 1987, the Association of Chief of Police joined alliance with the U.S. Justice Department to establish a nationwide policy. The Chiefs of Police commission was founded to aid agencies throughout the country enforce the same set of laws. According to Matz, and Kim, (2013), the result of the partnerships between agencies resulted in created an alert system called “America’s Missing Broadcast Emergency Response (AMBER)” and......

Words: 2610 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Half Way House Programs

...offenders who are approved for release by community corrections boards, formerly known as Parole Boards (Begg&Tasmania). A level of Supervision Inventory (LSI) assessment for risk and needs are required on each offender before a final decision to release is made as a safety precaution to the communities (Howard, John, 2002). C. Why were the programs created? Like most community-base correctional programs , halfway house were designed to contribute to the reduction of prison and jail overcrowding and is considered a cost saving component compared to traditional correctional system(Howard,john,2002). According to the Colorado, Department of Public Safety, halfway house were created for felons who need more treatment and supervision than those on probation but less confinement than prisoners. PURPOSE OF HALFWAY HOUSE PROGRAMS A. The objective of Halfway House Programs The main goal of Halfway House programs is to protect the community’s well-being by reducing recidivism (Marion, 2002), strengthening neighborhoods, enforcing social justice, and creating a better and safer place for the residents to live (Gilbert, Settles, 2007). B. What are the programs designed to accomplish? The offender is expected to apply for and maintain employment, pay for room and board, go to school, or attend rehabilitative treatment programs (Bonta, Motiuk, 1985). Once the offender is granted full parole while at a halfway house, they are eventually allowed to move back into the community but......

Words: 647 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Organizational Change

...Resources Department 9 Old Practices 10 Turning Point 13 The New Hiring Process 14 We’re Not Done Yet! 18 Review of Kotter’s 8 step Model 22 Human Capital, the most Important Asset of an Organization 25 My Hopes 26 The Massachusetts Court System Massachusetts Trial Court Focus The Massachusetts Court System consists of the Supreme Judicial Court, the Appeals Court, and the Executive Office of the Trial Court, the 7 Trial Court Departments, the Office of the Commissioner of Probation, and the Office of the Jury Commissioner. For the purpose of this paper I will be discussing my place of work which is the Massachusetts Trial Court consisting of: Executive Office of the Trial Court, the 7 Trial Court Departments (Boston Municipal Court, District Court, Juvenile Court, Superior Court, Housing Court, Land Court, and Probate and Family Court), Office of the Commissioner of Probation (OCP), and the Office of Jury Commissioner. Exhibit 1 Massachusetts Trial Court is committed to fair and impartial administration of justice; protection of constitutional and statutory rights and liberties; equal access to justice for all in a safe and dignified environment; efficient, effective and accountable resolution of disputes; prompt and courteous service to the public by committed and dedicated professionals utilizing best practices in a manner that inspires public trust and confidence. The Massachusetts Trial Court......

Words: 6984 - Pages: 28

Free Essay

Boob

...out of the system altogether. Of those youth who do enter the system, some 150 low risk youth are supervised by 1 1/2 officers with diversion programs and minimal supervision, while the remaining officers are managing the 130 moderate to high risk juveniles (a 38% reduction in individual case load size) and providing individualized treatment through programs such as FFT (Functional Family Therapy) and T4C (Thinking for a Change)– cognitive behavioral programs that have shown through research to reduce a youth’s likelihood to reoffend. continued on page 8 Yolo County CA Probation Department Achieving Positive Outcomes with Assessments.com With her County experiencing a dramatic 70% reduction in juvenile residential placement over a three-year period, the chief of Yolo County Probation was being questioned by other juvenile justice professionals who wanted to know how she had done it. “We just applied the available research the best we could. I read The Psychology of Criminal Conduct, by Andrews and Bonta—a book I saw on the Assessments.com list of recommended reading on Evidence-Based Practices (EBP)—and followed it, as well as advice from other experts in the field,” said Chief Probation Officer Marjorie Rist. And it has worked. Since reorganizing the department to emphasize EBP, Yolo has seen statistical improvements for both individual programs and the department as a whole. Some programs have shown as much as a 60% improvement in program completion, a 39% decrease in......

Words: 3942 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

Employability of Ex-Prisoners

...A STUDY ON THE EMPLOYABILITY AND ATTITUDE OF EMPLOYERS, TOWARDS EMPLOYING EX-PRISONERS AND EX-OFFENDERS AS PERCEIVED BY HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGERS IN ORTIGAS PASIG CITY Prepared By: Ms. Marilyn Dimaculangan CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND INTRODUCTION It is well known that employment is an important need of most individuals; it provides income, social connection, and feelings of societal contribution and self worth. What may be less well known are the barriers to employment faced by those with criminal record, the challenges faced by employers in hiring ex-offenders and what can be done to facilitate employment opportunities as record numbers of people transition from incarceration to the community. A great number of employers are reluctant to hire individuals with a criminal past citing lack of skills and work history, untrustworthiness, and fear of liability for negligent hiring, among other things. Employers use of criminal history background checks over the past decades and they are less willing to hire ex-offenders that any other advantaged group. Their willingness to hire ex-prisoners varies according to the industry and position, the type and severity of offense committed by applicant and work experience since release. Employers are not always consistent in what they say versus what they do when it comes to hiring former offenders and prisoners Jail is a synonym for prison, especially when the facility is of a similar size as a prison. As with......

Words: 10043 - Pages: 41

Premium Essay

Final Project Persuasive Research Paper

...reducing recidivism therefore; prisons, county jails, and the probation offices should adopt mandatory programs so ex-offenders can become productive members of society. Every year approximately 9 million people are released from prison in the U.S. (Center, T. N.-e., 2012) and due to lack of education and job skills, 52% of those 9 million returns within three years. According to Yamatani & Spjeldnes (2011), “The United States represents only 5 percent of the world’s population, but we hold 25 percent of the world's inmates in our prisons and jails (Pew Center on the States, 2008). We have more people behind bars in total numbers and per capita than any other industrialized country--2.3 million out of nearly 300 million (750 per 100,000 residents)--one out of 100 U.S.” This essay will show the difference between recidivism and rehabilitation as well as showing how education and job training can effectively reduce the rate of recidivism in the U.S. What is recidivism you ask? The Merriam-Webster defines recidivism as a tendency to relapse into a previous condition or mode of behavior (Merriam-Webster Dictionary, 2012). Recidivism comes into play because people who have limited education and no job skills tend to find other means of support which are not always legal. According to O’Brien, (2005), Women who left prisons that offered educational and job training programs were less likely to recidivate. The study also showed that these women suffered from lack of......

Words: 1803 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Is There Really Celebrity Justice?

...(Cole 5) Some feel no matter the crime, the rich and famous will find a way to settle out of court, pay off witnesses or just erase some or all charges against them. Celebrities get the best lawyers and the best chance at justice that money can buy”. (“Times”) There are many court cases that lead people to believe the justice system is unfair. Celebrities, in the eyes of the public, receive less time than the average American citizen for the same crime. Furthermore, celebrities also receive more publicity than the average American citizen. Why do celebrities receive more camera time and less punishment time? However, our judicial system claims that all men are equal in the court of law. For example, in the court case of Marcus Dixon, a high school football player at Pepperell High School in Floyd County, Georgia, the state Supreme Court sentenced Dixon to ten years in prison. He was a black athlete accused of sexually assaulting a 15-year-old white girl in a small Georgia town. In addition, many believe that the justice system is not equal because of the outcomes of celebrity court cases. Some may disagree with the fact that celebrities get special treatment in the courtroom, but their court cases seem to prove contrary. Celebrities in America are able to get any and everything that money can buy. Hence, wherever they go they get treated like royalty. This royal treatment is not diminished once in the courtrooms or in the hands of the law. Many celebrities feel as if they......

Words: 2578 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Socilology

... Social Science, Researchers INTERNSHIP Source: ASA Research and Development Department, What Can I Do With a Bachelor's Degree in Sociology? Wave I and Wave II Emergency Management Agency. Typical job descriptions include providing financial analysis, workforce planning, quality assurance, and employee evaluation. A smaller percentage of full-time workers are employed in sales and marketing for information technology hardware and software firms. They design and execute marketing plans, do marketing research, run capital campaigns, and write creative copy. Additional occupations of fulltime workers include teachers and librarians employed in the education sector, and as police officers, crime scene investigators and parole officers in the criminal justice system. One member of the class of 2005 was employed in a food service occupation as a pastry chef. Among the smallest full-time occupational category are those employed as social science researchers, suggesting that 2005 graduates did not receive enough training in research methods, computer applications, and statistics as part of their undergraduate major to obtain positions in the science workforce. To compensate for this lack of training some members of the class of 2005 went on to graduate school and obtained internships as social science researchers (almost one-quarter of those interns were in training to learn additional social science and research skills). Still, more than half ...

Words: 4206 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

Desistance

...‘non-treatment paradigm’ for probation practice. Their argument rested on a careful and considered analysis not only of empirical evidence about the ineffectiveness of rehabilitative treatment but also of theoretical, moral and philosophical questions about such interventions. By 1994, emerging evidence about the potential effectiveness of some intervention programmes was sufficient to lead Peter Raynor and Maurice Vanstone to suggest significant revisions to the ‘non-treatment paradigm’. In this article, it is argued that a different but equally relevant form of empirical evidence—that derived from desistance studies—suggests a need to re-evaluate these earlier paradigms for probation practice. This reevaluation is also required by the way that such studies enable us to understand and theorize both desistance itself and the role that penal professionals might play in supporting it. Ultimately, these empirical and theoretical insights drive us back to the complex interfaces between technical and moral questions that preoccupied Bottoms and McWilliams and that should feature more prominently in contemporary debates about the futures of ‘offender management’ and of our penal systems. Key Words desistance • effectiveness • ethics • offender management • nontreatment paradigm • probation 39 40 Criminology & Criminal Justice 6(1) Introduction Critical analysts of the history of ideas in the probation service have charted the various reconstructions of probation......

Words: 10652 - Pages: 43