Free Essay

Processor Model

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By aaron2015
Words 261
Pages 2
Processor Model Year Transistor Count
Intel 4004 1971 2,300
Intel 8008 1972 2,500
Intel 8080 1974 4,500
Intel 8085 1976 8,500
Intel 8086 1978 29,000
Intel 8088 1979 29,000
Intel 80186 1982 55,000
Intel 286 1982 134,000
Intel 386 1985 275,000
Intel 486 1989 1,200,000
Intel Pentium I 1993 3,100,000
Intel Pentium II 1997 7,500,000
Intel Pentium III 1999 9,500,000
Intel Pentium 4 2000 42,000,000
Intel Itanium 2001 25,000,000
Intel Itanium 2 2003 220,000,000
Intel Itanium 2 (9MB Cache) 2004 592,000,000
Core 2 Duo 2006 291,000,000
Core i7 (quad) 2008 731,000,000
Quad-core Itanium 2010 2,000,000,000
Six-Core i7/8 2011 2,270,000,000
8-Core Itanium 2012 3,100,000,000
62-Core Xeon Phi 2010 5,000,000,000

The processor chip to hold 2 billion transistors is the Intel Itanium 9300 Processor announced February 8, 2010. The growth is reasonable, computing power has grown every few years and will continue to rise in the future just as it has done since its first Intel Processor in 1971. My opinion on the growth moving fast or slow I would say it’s moving very fast every two years a new processor is out and technology is evolving with it every day. Reaching 100 billion even a trillion transistors will probably be around 2022 since looking at history every chip doubles every two years.

References: www.intel.com

Similar Documents

Free Essay

The Five State Processor Model

...The Five State Processor Model Michael K. Shannon POS355 October 15th, 2014 Gary Teed The Five State Processor Model Our lives have become very dependent on computers. We use them for EVERYTHING from playing games, being the brains behind our phones to running our automobiles. As complicated as these have all become they all still depend on a microprocessor to make the decisions happen and all microprocessors have the same five state model used to make decisions on what runs when. These five states are new, running, ready, blocked, and exit (Sinapova, 2001). This paper will cover provide a brief explanation of each of these states. The first state we will cover is the “new” state. The “new” state can simply be described as what a process becomes when it is first accessed by the user. You can think of this as when you double click an icon on your desktop. When the user double clicks the icon the processors receives a request to start up a new process and depending on what the processor is already doing will depend on how quickly it answers the request to start that application. The second state we will cover is the “running” state. The “running” state can be thought of as a process that is currently being attended to by the processor. A simple example of this would be using the calculator function of the operating system and having it execute a simple math function. The third state we will cover is the “ready” state. The “ready” state can simply be thought...

Words: 509 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Systems

...Component 01 - Computing Principles | AS-Level (H046) | A-Level (H446) | 1 The characteristics of contemporary processors, input, output and storage devices | Structure and function of the processor | The Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU), Control Unit and registers: Program Counter (PC), Accumulator (ACC), Memory Address Register (MAR), Memory Data Register (MDR), Current Instruction Register (CIR).Buses: data, address and control: How this relates to assembly language programs.The fetch-decode-execute cycle, including its effect on registers.The factors affecting the performance of the CPU, clock speed, number of cores, cache.Von Neumann, Harvard and contemporary processor architecture. | The use of pipelining in a processor to improve efficiency. | Types of processor | The differences between, and uses of, CISC and RISC processors.Multicore and parallel systems. | GPUs and their uses (including those not related to graphics). | Input, output and storage | How different input output and storage devices can be applied as a solution of different problems.The uses of magnetic, flash and optical storage devices.RAM and ROM.Virtual storage. | | 2 Software and software development | Operating systems | The need for, function and purpose of operating systems.Memory management (paging, segmentation and virtual memory).Interrupts, the role of interrupts and Interrupt Service Routines (ISR), role within the fetch decode execute cycle.Scheduling: round robin, first......

Words: 1302 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Frequently Asked Questions

...version of software will work on the computers in our business? 1. What is (Saas) Software as a service? Software as a service or (Saas) is a model of software distribution where applications are hosted by a vendor or service provider. Usually made available for people over a network, commonly the internet. Basically instead of installing software, you are able to access it over the internet. http://searchcloudcomputing.techtarget.com/definition/Software-as-a-Service https://www.salesforce.com/saas/ a. What are the benefits of SaaS over traditional software? A few benefits of Saas are first there is a lower cost of entry, allowing you to pay for what you need rather than buy hardware to run your applications. Second, the host of your Saas is responsible of up keeping software upgrades and keeping the application’s data secure. Third, these programs are available on most devices and can be accessed with ease. https://www.handshake.com/blog/why-saas-cloud-benefits-vs-on-premise-software/ http://www.salesforce.com/saas/benefits-of-saas/ 2. What is productivity software? a. Word Processing- Programs that let you edit and print documents. There are many forms of word processors, ranging from open-sourced to proprietary software. An example would be Microsoft Word. b. Spreadsheet- A document similar to a word processor in some ways, but allowing you to impute data on a series of rows and columns on a grid system. Making it easy to show vital......

Words: 947 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Information Systems Proposal

...commerce To operate a successful business one must know and understand the information technology aspects, which enhances the daily operations of the business. Small businesses are at a disadvantage and must seek ways to expand and become viable. “Strategic Information Systems provide a competitive advantage by helping an organization implement its strategic goals and increase its performance and productivity” (R. Kelly Rainer Jr., Casey G. Cegielski, 2011). There are six reasons why information systems are so important for businesses today and they include: * Operational excellence - Businesses improve the efficiency of their operations in order to achieve higher profitability. * New products, services, and business models - Business models describe how a company produces, delivers, and sells a product or service to create wealth. * Customer and supplier intimacy - When businesses serve its customers well, the customers usually return and purchase more. This allows businesses to engage its suppliers, which enables the suppliers to provide vital input. * Improved decision making - Information system made it possible for the managers to use real time data from the marketplace when making decision. * Competitive advantage - Performing better than one’s competitors, lower prices for superior products, and responding to customers and suppliers in real time all generate an increase in sales and profits. * Survival - Businesses invest in......

Words: 648 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Student Guide

...Responses, and IT Support • Business Pressures • Organizational Responses o Why Are Information Systems Important to Me? • Information Systems and Information Technologies Are Integral to Your Lives • IT Offers Career Opportunities • IT Is Used by All Departments • Ch. 2: Information Systems: Concepts and Management of Introduction to Information Systems o Types of Information Systems • Computer-Based Information Systems • Application Programs • Breadth of Support of Information Systems • Support for Organizational Employees o Competitive Advantage and Strategic Information Systems • Porter’s Competitive Forces Model • Porter’s Value Chain Model •...

Words: 608 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Thesis

...introduction Computers have a profound effect on all aspects of language learning and teaching and can be used in developing writing skills. In this unit we discuss the use of computer to develop writing skills. The unit consists of three sections, and in each section there are three sub-sections. The first section deals with the basics/ fundamentals of a computer such as main components, multimedia devices (hardware) and Internet, web-resources (software). In the second section you have to deal with word processor and its various uses for developing writing skills such as composing,/drafting, writing, revising, editing, spelling check. The third unit deals with email communication and how it helps in developing communicative skills especially writing skills. Since this unit is mostly practical oriented, it will be useful if you have access to a computer with word processor. Writing is one of the important skills that is often neglected by students. Developing this skill is a big challenge to the teachers as Tangermpoon (2008:1) said, “it requires writers to have a great deal of lexical and syntactic knowledge as well as principle of organization in L2 to produce good writing.” To be successful in ones career, every student should work on improving writing skills. This paper discusses the development of writing skills through CALL with reference to Study Skills Success (SSS) software. background of the studies The 21st century has seen drastic changes where......

Words: 1805 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Computer Generation

...Computer Organization 1. Introduction STUDY MATERIALS ON COMPUTER ORGANIZATION (As per the curriculum of Third semester B.Sc. Electronics of Mahatma Gandh Uniiversity) Compiled by Sam Kollannore U.. Lecturer in Electronics M.E.S. College, Marampally 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 GENERATION OF COMPUTERS The first electronic computer was designed and built at the University of Pennsylvania based on vacuum tube technology. Vacuum tubes were used to perform logic operations and to store data. Generations of computers has been divided into five according to the development of technologies used to fabricate the processors, memories and I/O units. I Generation II Generation III Generation IV Generation V Generation : 1945 – 55 : 1955 – 65 : 1965 – 75 : 1975 – 89 : 1989 to present First Generation (ENIAC - Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator EDSAC – Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator EDVAC – Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer UNIVAC – Universal Automatic Computer IBM 701) Vacuum tubes were used – basic arithmetic operations took few milliseconds Bulky Consume more power with limited performance High cost Uses assembly language – to prepare programs. These were translated into machine level language for execution. Mercury delay line memories and Electrostatic memories were used Fixed point arithmetic was used 100 to 1000 fold increase in speed relative to the earlier mechanical and relay based electromechanical technology Punched cards and paper tape......

Words: 3359 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Final Paper for It205

...talked to each manager, we went through the system analysis phase to determine what hardware, software, databases and training would work best for our system. We will now begin the next steps of the process in which we will design our system, develop, test, and then roll it out to the entire company. Remember, we have decided to make this jump into the information age so that Bead Bar can grow its existing business and be more competitive in a growing market. In the systems analysis phase, we decided on purchasing 14 personal computer systems that would run and operate using Microsoft XP Windows Operating System. Each of these computers will be equipped with a standard keyboard, mouse and a LCD monitor. Each computer will need to have a processor at 2.8 MHz, 512 MB of memory, a CD Drive, and an 80 gigabyte hard drive. We will install one computer system at each of the company owned studios, one for each senior manager and will have one extra as a backup. We also decided to purchase a higher end computer for Mariam that would support digital media and graphics, as well as a color printer for her. We will need to begin purchasing these system and getting them installed in each location as this is a precursor to all the other steps we will need to take. We also decided to purchase Microsoft Office Suite for use on each of the computer systems. We will pre-install this program onto each of the systems prior to delivering and installing them in each location. We should arrange......

Words: 1376 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Bill Gate Paper

...Bill Gates – The Mind of Microsoft By Christina Jones Could you imagine what it would like not having Microsoft Word to type up your important documents? Gates is not only a genius, but he is also a modernizer in education, technology, and philanthropy. Bill Gates, A business magnate and chairman of Microsoft has impacted American culture by developing the most popular computer system called Microsoft Office. William H. Gates, III was born on October 28, 1955 in Seattle, Washington. Bill was the second of three children from William H. Gates II, a prominent Seattle lawyer, and Mary Gates, who worked as a teacher before she had kids. Bill had an older sister, Kristi, and a younger sister, Libby. Growing up, Bill Gates’ nickname was Trey. This nickname was indicative of the III after his name. He always loved reading the World Book Encyclopedia from start to finish. By the age of 13, his parents believed he was not being challenged in his public school and decided enrolled him into Lakeside School. He was a remarkably gifted scholar who did well in all subjects but showed a special ability for mathematics. Lakeside school purchased time on one of these computers that the students could use. Bill found the computer intriguing. The school developed a computer terminal and young Bill Gates was instantly spellbound. Bill Gates has always been a very confident person, confident about his vision towards innovation of technology for the future. Bill Gates states that” if......

Words: 1301 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Fingerprint

...of operating system A brief overview of computer architecture Concept of process States of process; Process control block; Address space Threads and processes Concept of threads; context of a thread Symmetric Multiprocessing (SMP) Microkernel architecture of Operating system Concurrency, Mutual exclusion and Synchronization Principles of concurrency Hardware support for mutual exclusion Semaphores and monitors Synchronization through message passing Deadlock and Starvation Deadlock prevention, avoidance and detection Algorithms for deadlock prevention, avoidance and detection Memory management Requirements; Memory partitioning; paging and segmentation Virtual memory management and operating system support Processor Scheduling Types of scheduling and scheduling algorithms Multiprocessor scheduling and real-time scheduling I/O Management and Disk Scheduling Organization of I/O devices; Buffering Disk scheduling; Disk cache RAIDs File management File organization and file directories File sharing and record blocking Secondary storage management Protection and Security Computer security; Threats and attacks Viruses, Worms and Bots Authentication and access control Intrusion detection and malware defence Distributed processing and Networks Communication architecture; Client/server computing Distributed message passing; Remote procedure calls Text Book Operating Systems – Internals and Design......

Words: 2109 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Baderman Rfp

...a golf course with pro shop and convention center and a spa. Baderman’s existing computer architecture consists of three differing operating systems including Windows 98, Windows 200 and Windows XP. Three separate types of word processing are also used throughout Baderman including Word 97, Word 2000 and Word XP. These different parts of Baderman were all started at different times meaning they were given the latest OS at the time of their start up. Unfortunately, Baderman has not updated those systems since the unit began and now they find themselves with a splintered system. Statement of Purpose This document will serve as a request for proposals to solve Baderman’s word processing issue. This solution will serve as the model by which additional upgrades are done in the future. The purpose is to upgrade the existing system in place at Baderman by the company chosen through this process. The two main areas targeted for upgrade are the operating systems and the word processing software. Business Goals Baderman has built a high standard of specialized customer service. Baderman’s business goals are to “provide a unique and quality experience to Island guests and day visitors” (Apollo Group, Inc., 2005). Project Goals While the main goals are to upgrade the operating systems and the word processing software there are some tertiary goals necessary for project success. They include: • Decrease overhead costs • Increase......

Words: 1534 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

The Hanx Writer

...The Hanx application is a very simple yet rewarding productivity software that lets the avid user turn his/her ipad into a portable typewriter. The one responsible for this charming little app is the one and only, oscar-winning actor, Tom Hanks! It turns out Tom has been a fan, as well as a serious collector of various models of typewriters since before he was famous. Tom says tpewriters are "beautiful works of art. I've ended up collecting them from every riduculous source possible." The Main features of this application is the ability to simulate a typewriter in a modern way. a review from ndtv summarizes it "a smooth animation showing the letters strike the page. All this, with a very satisfying clicking noise, and the joyous ding as you hit the end of a line - very retro indeed!" The delete is also unique in that it has the option to "X" out a mistyped letter which makes the difficulty increasingly stressful. Though with such features this could prove useful in school systems; as said by classmate Shawn Matsuura "This app could also train people to type without mistakes for each mistake leaves an X." Though, in this new generation of technology and increasingly demanding need for easier productivity, will this application find a spot on the interface of one's idevice? The answer seems to be a firm "Yes!" The Hanx writer was released in mid August and has since than been the conquering software of apple's app store for "free apps." Although, the Hanx writer is free,......

Words: 485 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Computer

...Assembly Language Programming Lecture Notes Delivered by Belal Hashmi Compiled by Junaid Haroon Preface Assembly language programming develops a very basic and low level understanding of the computer. In higher level languages there is a distance between the computer and the programmer. This is because higher level languages are designed to be closer and friendlier to the programmer, thereby creating distance with the machine. This distance is covered by translators called compilers and interpreters. The aim of programming in assembly language is to bypass these intermediates and talk directly with the computer. There is a general impression that assembly language programming is a difficult chore and not everyone is capable enough to understand it. The reality is in contrast, as assembly language is a very simple subject. The wrong impression is created because it is very difficult to realize that the real computer can be so simple. Assembly language programming gives a freehand exposure to the computer and lets the programmer talk with it in its language. The only translator that remains between the programmer and the computer is there to symbolize the computer’s numeric world for the ease of remembering. To cover the practical aspects of assembly language programming, IBM PC based on Intel architecture will be used as an example. However this course will not be tied to a particular architecture as it is often done. In our view such an......

Words: 85913 - Pages: 344

Free Essay

Reverse Engineering

...About the Tutorial Assembly language is a low-level programming language for a computer or other programmable device specific to a particular computer architecture in contrast to most high-level programming languages, which are generally portable across multiple systems. Assembly language is converted into executable machine code by a utility program referred to as an assembler like NASM, MASM, etc. Audience This tutorial has been designed for those who want to learn the basics of assembly programming from scratch. This tutorial will give you enough understanding on assembly programming from where you can take yourself to higher levels of expertise. Prerequisites Before proceeding with this tutorial, you should have a basic understanding of Computer Programming terminologies. A basic understanding of any of the programming languages will help you in understanding the Assembly programming concepts and move fast on the learning track. Copyright & Disclaimer  Copyright 2014 by Tutorials Point (I) Pvt. Ltd. All the content and graphics published in this e-book are the property of Tutorials Point (I) Pvt. Ltd. The user of this e-book is prohibited to reuse, retain, copy, distribute or republish any contents or a part of contents of this e-book in any manner without written consent of the publisher. We strive to update the contents of our website and tutorials as timely and as precisely as possible, however, the contents may contain inaccuracies or errors. Tutorials Point......

Words: 16458 - Pages: 66

Premium Essay

Saudi Electricity Company

...Essentials of Management Information Systems, 9e (Laudon/Laudon) Chapter 4 IT Infrastructure: Hardware and Software 1) IT infrastructure technology is the set of physical devices required to operate the entire enterprise. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 117 AACSB: Use of IT CASE: Comprehension 2) Today, most system and application software is custom built by in-house programmers. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 118 AACSB: Reflective Thinking CASE: Comprehension 3) Systems integration means ensuring the legacy systems work with new elements of the infrastructure. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 119 AACSB: Use of IT CASE: Comprehension 4) One of the main benefits of moving to mobile business computing platforms is the dramatically lower costs of hardware. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 145 AACSB: Reflective Thinking CASE: Comprehension 5) Today most business firms have discontinued operating their legacy systems, and they have been extremely inexpensive to replace with newer technology. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 119 AACSB: Use of IT CASE: Comprehension 6) A mainframe is a type of legacy workstation. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 119 AACSB: Reflective Thinking CASE: Comprehension 7) Client/server computing is the most widely used form of centralized processing. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 120 AACSB: Reflective Thinking CASE: Comprehension 8) In two-tiered client/server architecture, the......

Words: 5111 - Pages: 21