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Procter and Gambler (P&G) Sustainability Reports

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Social and Environmental Accounting
Procter and Gambler (P&G)
SUSTAINABILITY REPORTS

Bara Aji Anggara / 9 / 7A BPKP/ 134060018313
___________________________________________________________________________

A. Pendahuluan
Sesuai dengan Standar Akuntansi Keuangan, akuntansi berfungsi untuk memberikan informasi untuk pengambilan keputusan dan pertangungjawaban. Selama ini perusahaan hanya menyampaikan informasi mengenai hasil operasi keuangan perusahaan kepada pemakai, tetapi mengabaikan eksternalitas dari operasi yang dilakukannya, misalnya polusi udara, pencemaran air, pemutusan hubungan kerja, dan lainnya. Hal ini menunjukkan pentingnya perusahaan melakukan pertanggungjawaban terhadap sosial dan lingkungan. Atas dasar tersebut maka munculah social and environmental accounting. Social and environmental accounting adalah proses mengkomunikasikan dampak sosial dan lingkungan dari tindakan ekonomi organisasi untuk kepentingan kelompok tertentu dalam masyarakat dan untuk masyarakat luas.
Tanggung jawab perusahaan merupakan suatu hal yang penting untuk dibahas sebelum pembahasan mengenai laporan pertanggungjawaban. Akan tetapi, sebelum membahas tanggung jawab perusahaan perlu kiranya membahas perusahaan bisnis.
Ada beberapa teori yang dapat menjelaskan keberadaan perusahaan, antara lain concession theory dan agency theory. a. Concession theory
Pada dasarnya perusahaan eksis karena konsesi atau hak istimewa yang diberikan oleh negara (Deegan, 2004:193). Dengan demikian, perusahaan ada karena negara memberikan hak atau konsesi untuk menjalankan usaha di suatu negara, dampaknya adalah kepentingan individu atau kelompok tertentu berada di bawah kepentingan publik. Hal ini mempengaruhi tanggung jawab perusahaan. Perusahaan bertanggung jawab tidak hanya kepada pemilik dan kreditor, tetapi juga kepada publik. b. Agent theory
Perusahaan merupakan kumpulan kontrak antara berbagai pihak yang berkepentingan. Dalam hal ini perusahaan tidak dapat dipandang sebagai entitas yang terpisah dengan berbagai pihak yang berkepentingan. Hal ini berdampak terhadap tanggung jawab yang dipikul oleh perusahaan. Perusahaan bertanggung jawab terhadap pihak-pihak yang berkepentingan dengan keberadaan perusahaan.
Berdasarkan pembahasan teori tersebut, berbagai dimensi tanggung jawab perusahaan dapat diidentifikasi. Perusahaan sebagai konsesi dari negara dan sebagai kumpulan kontrak antara berbagai pihak berkepentingan mempunyai tanggung jawab kepada berbagai pihak yang terkait dengan perusahaan. Investor dan kreditor merupakan pihak yang selama ini mendapat perhatian utama. Namun, berdasarkan penjelasan dua teori di atas perusahaan juga bertanggung jawab kepada pihak lain, yaitu karyawan, pemasok, konsumen, pemerintah, dan organisasi lain yang berkepntingan terhadap keberadaan perusahaan.
Dalam usaha untuk meningkatkan produktivitas dan efisiensi, perusahaan mengambil berbagai tindakan, antara lain menggunakan teknologi modern dalam berproduksi, melakukan akuisisi, penggunaan sumber daya yang lebih murah, pengurangan biaya, dan usaha lainnya untuk meningkatkan produktivitas. Semuanya dilakukan untuk memberikan hasil yang lebih banyak kepada pemegang saham. Tindakan perusahaan untuk meningkatkan produktivitas dan efisiensi, di satu sisi akan meningkatkan produktivitas perusahaan, tetapi di sisi lain mungkin akan merugikan pihak-pihak yang berkepentingan, antara lain karyawan, konsumen, dan masyarakat. Dalam usaha untuk meningkatkan produktivitas dan efisiensi sering kali mengakibatkan perusakan lingkungan, berupa pencemaran air, penggundulan hutan, pencemaran udara, dan lainnya. Perusahaan menganggap semua yang dilakukannya sebagai eksternalitas dari usaha meningkatkan produktivitas dan efisiensi perusahaan. Maka kepentingan publik dan lingkungan juga perlu mendapat perhatian perusahaan sebagai dukungan atas operasi perusahaan. Pelestarian lingkungan di samping bermanfaat bagi masyarakat di sekitar juga bermanfaat bagi perusahaan khususnya perusahaan yang memanfaatkan lingkungan dan mendapatkan keuntungan dari lingkunganya.
Upaya yang telah dilakukan perusahaan terkait penyelamatan lingkungan, dituangkan dalam sebuah laporan, yaitu Sustainability Report. Laporan ini memuat tidak saja informasi kinerja keuangan tetapi juga informasi non keuangan yang terdiri dari informasi aktivitas sosial dan lingkungan yang memungkinkan perusahaan bisa bertumbuh secara berkesinambungan (sustainable performance). B. Penerapannya oleh perusahaan
Banyak perusahaan yang sudah menerapkan Social and Environment Accounting. Salah satu perusahaan tersebut adalah Procter & Gamble (P&G). Untuk pertanggungjawabannya, P&G telah membuat suatu laporan yaitu Sustainability Report. Di dalam Sustainability Report P&G berisi profil P&G, kondisi keuangan perusahaan, Environmental Sustainability, dan Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) yang telah dilakukan perusahaan. Berikut ini pemaparan lebih lanjut tentang hal tersebut. 1. WHO
Procter & Gamble
P&G adalah perusahaan multinasional yang berpusat di Amerika Serikat, yang didirikan oleh William Procter dan James Gamble tahun 1837. Pada awalnya P&G bermain di bisnis sabun dan lilin. Pada perkembangannya telah dilakukan diferensiasi produk. Sekarang, produknya mencakup industri makanan, minuman, kebersihan dan produk-produk perawatan tubuh. Contoh brand yang dimiliki P&G dan terkenal di Indonesia diantaranya adalah Head and Shoulder, Gillette, dan Vicks.
Pada tahun 2013, P&G mencapai penjualan senilai US$ 84,17 miliar, dan laba bersihnya mencapai US$ 11,31 miliar. Total aset yang dimiliki senilai US$ 139,26 miliar dan total ekuitasnya US$ 68,06 miliar. 2. WHAT
Dalam menjalankan bisnisnya, tentunya P&G banyak menggunakan energi dan sumber daya alam, baik yang bisa diperbarui ataupun yang tidak bisa diperbarui. Sebagai perusahaan yang bertanggung jawab terhadap kelestarian lingkungan dan kondisi sosial, P&G telah menyusun dan mengimplementasikan program-program environmental sustainability dan corporate social responsibility yang dirancang oleh tim yang kompeten. 3. WHEN
Dalam Sustanaibility Report-nya. P&G telah mulai melakukan komitmen tersebut sejak tahun 2010, dan untuk sementara ditargetkan sampai tahun 2020. 4. WHY
Hal ini dilakukan sebagai bentuk kepedulian P&G terhadap sumber daya alam yang masih tersisa dan berupaya untuk menjaga kelestariannya dalam rangka untuk keberlangsungan masa depan perusahaan dan generasi mendatang. Selain itu kegiatan sosial banyak dilakukan terutama di daerah tempat P&G beroperasi sebagai bentuk kepedulian perusahaan terhadap lingkungan sosial masyarakat, dengan harapan turut serta dalam meningkatkan kesejahteraan. 5. HOW
Dilakukan melalui 2 hal, yaitu environmental sustainability dan corporate social responsibility.
Enviromental Sustainability
P&G telah berkomitmen bahwa dalam menjalankan bisnisnya bertanggung jawab terhadap kelestarian lingkungan dan penggunaan sumber daya secara efisien. Dalam hal kelestarian, P&G selalu melakukan inovasi untuk memberi manfaat yang lebih baik kepada dunia, pemasok, partner bisnis, konsumen, dan para pegawai.
Ada 3 hal utama yang dilakukan P&G dalam kaitannya dengan kelestarian lingkungan, yaitu conservation of resources, renewable resources, dan worth from waste. a. Conservation of resources
P&G berusaha mengurangi pemakaian energi melalui, air, dan bahan baku namun tetap menghasilkan barang berkualitas sesuai harapan konsumen. b. Renewable resources
Kunci penting untuk kelangsungan bisnis adalah dengan memastikan bahwa kita mempunyai energi dan bahan yang tepat untuk beroperasi dalam jangka panjang. Hal inilah yang membuat P&G fokus dalam pemanfaatan sumber daya yang bisa diperbarui. P&G menargetkan tahun 2020 akan menggunakan energi dari sumber daya yang bisa diperbarui sebanyak 30%, kondisi sekarang masih 7,5%. Salah satu bentuk yang dilakukan misalnya penggunaan energi matahari dan pemanfaatan angin taicang untuk memperoleh listrik. c. Worth from waste
Untuk mengurangi sampah hasil pemakaian produknya, P&G melakukan reuse, recycling, atau mengubahnya menjadi energi.
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
P&G membayar pegawainya dengan gaji yang kompetitif, bekerja secara konstan dengan para pengecer dan pemasok, mencegah konflik kepentingan, memastikan privasi konsumen terjaga, dan mempertahankan pengelolaan keuangan yang baik. Semua pendekatan tersebut dilakukan untuk menjaga keharmonisan P&G dengan semua pihak yang terlibat di dalamnya.
P&G juga melakukan beberapa upaya untuk kemanusian, yaitu social responsibility program dan social responsibility policies and practices. a. Social responsibility program
P&G selalu memberi donasi kepada para korban bencana alam, membuat program anak asuh, program air bersih, keselamatan ibu hamil, dan program-program lainnya. b. Social responsibility policies and practices
Concern pada masalah hak asasi manusia, SDM, pengobatan global, dan kebijakan serta praktik lainnya. C. Isu terkait P&G dan lingkungan
Sebuah LSM internasional yang concern terhadap masalah lingkungan, Greenpeace, telah melakukan investigasi terhadap aktivitas P&G. Investigasi Greenpeace menemukan, pasokan sawit P&G diperoleh dari sumber-sumber yang diduga kuat merusak hutan di Indonesia, Malaysia, dan Afrika. Dari total kebutuhan sawit sebanyak 432 ribu ton, hanya 10% perusahaan pemasok yang bersetifikat, sisanya 90% terindikasi merusak hutan karena tak terlacak. Pasokan tersebut untuk mencukupi produksi minyak sawit berupa sabun, shampo, handbody, dan lain-lain. Banyak pemasok sawit tersebut yang membuka lahan secara ilegal di habitat orangutan. Hasil investigasi Greenpeace, di Indonesia dan Malaysia, masih terjadi deforestasi dan perusakan habitat orangutan. Di Liberia, terlibat konflik sosial dalam proses akuisisi lahan.
Terkait hal itu, Greenpeace sangat gencar berkampanye dan mengajak masyarakat dunia untuk melawan pengrusakan lingkungan ini. Di berbagai media dilakukan sosialisasi kepada masyarakat. Greenpeace juga mengajak masyarakat untuk menyuarakan hal ini kepada petinggi P&G. D. Penutup
Social and Environmental Accounting muncul karena kebutuhan masyarakat dunia untuk saling menjaga kelestarian lingkungan, dan kebutuhan perusahaan untuk tetap menjaga hubungan baik dengan pihak terkait dan masyarakat luas, jadi tidak semata-mata hanya mementingkan kesejahteraan ekonomi perusahaan. Kegiatan yang telah dilakukan perusahaan harus dilaporkan secara transparan kepada masyarakat luas. P&G adalah salah satu perusahaan yang mempunyai komitmen tinggi dalam hal kelestarian lingkungan dan tanggung jawab sosial. Berbagai upaya telah dilakukan di berbagai negara. Namun ternyata ada satu kasus besar yang menjadi perhatian dunia internasional. Pengrusakan hutan yang membabi buta oleh partner bisnis P&G selaku penyuplai bahan mentah untuk P&G.
Hal tersebut bisa terjadi karena 2 hal: 1. P&G sebenarnya bukan perusahaan yang peduli dengan kelestarian lingkungan, namun hanya sebagai pemenuh kewajiban dari mandatory yang telah ditetapkan dunia internasional dalam rangka kelestarian lingkungan. Sehingga P&G membuat sustainability report hanya untuk pencitraan agar nilai perusahaan tetap terjaga. 2. Adanya kelalaian dari dalam internal P&G dalam melakukan pengawasan terhadap semua unsur terkait perusahaan, sehingga terdapat suatu praktik ilegal dari partner bisnis P&G. Walau tidak secara langsung merusak, namun hal ini juga merupakan tanggung jawab P&G karena produksinya berasal dari perusahaan perusak lingkungan tersebut.
Untuk mencegah hal tersebut terjadi lagi, setidaknya perlu dilakukan 2 hal berikut: 1. Perlu dibuat suatu standar audit internasional terkait dengan kegiatan perusahaan dalam pelestarian lingkungan, dan diterapkan sesuai standar yang berlaku. 2. Pengawasan yang lebih intens dari dalam perusahaan terhadap semua aspek yang melingkupinya, termasuk supplier dan retailer. E. Referensi 1. Procter and Gamble, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Procter_%26_Gamble 2. List of Procter and Gamble, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Procter_%26_Gamble_brands 3. Akuntansi Lingkungan, http://esaunggul200912155.student.esaunggul.ac.id/2012/11/18/akuntansi-lingkungan-environment-accounting/ 4. Investigasi Greenpeace, https://id.berita.yahoo.com/investigasi-greenpeace-p-g-pakai-sawit-dari-babat-233030601.html 5. Facebook Greenpeace, https://www.facebook.com/GreenpeaceIndonesia 6. Petisi greenpeace kepada P&G, http://dirtysecret.greenpeace.org/id-ID

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