Premium Essay

Profiting from Punishment

In: Business and Management

Submitted By Namrah13
Words 1275
Pages 6
Profiting from punishment * As punishment is complex social, ideological and cultural terrain, it will never be an entirely rational execution of orders with clear objectives and controllable outcomes. It is has multiple and competing aims and innumerable intended and unintended consequences. In accordance with this Garland has argued “(t)he failure of modern punishment is in part the inevitable outcome of an over rationalized conception of its functions” (1991, p. 12). As prisons enable a society to separate and classify those that it deems to be ‘criminal’, the introduction of privately operated prisons further separates criminals from society because of the shifts this enables in terms of public accountability. In light of this, the ability for a private corporation to profit from nuanced state and social objectives acted out on the body of a citizen could be considered unreasonable and morally repugnant. By no means is it surprising that corporations will act to minimise costs, and cost is an obvious consideration in the delivery of any public sector function but the centrality of cost and the possibility of profit are problematic. * Prisons and penal policy should be focused on broader social objectives and questions that lead to better outcomes for all members of a society, including prisoners, as has been shown, these questions are not enabled within the current accountability arrangements. This is a view supported by Shearer (2002, p. 546) who argued that “when economic entities render accounts of themselves in economic terms, the identity so portrayed and the obligations of the entity with respect to the broader community are both dependent upon the specific conceptions of subjectivity and intersubjectivity that are instantiated by economic discourse”. It has been argued throughout this paper that imprisonment has an undeniable moral component, as...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Private Corrections

...Private Corrections Linda Lewis-Nellum National American University Abstract There is a growing concern in the United States about the increase of the prison population and how it directly correlates to the privatization of correctional facilities. We will delve into the major players that own and/or invest in privately own prisons, as well as the ethical dilemmas that follow and view if this type of capitalism is beneficial to the society. Private Corrections Major Players In researching who benefitted the most from prisons being privatized, it became apparent that there are two companies, Corrections Corporation of America (CCA), headed by Henri Wedell on the board of directors and The GEO Group, with George Zoley as CEO which earn millions of dollars in profit for the incarceration of an offender. Wedell, who owns 650,000 shares in CCA, worth 25 million dollars, was asked if he felt any moral shame for profiting from a legal system that jails more people than any other country in the world to which he replied, “America allow more freedom than any other country in the world, so there’ll be a certain number of people, who take advantage of that freedom, abuse it, and end up in prison.”(Ray Downs). George Zoley, who made at least 6 million dollars in salary and bonuses is so proud of his investment, he assures his shareholders that the incarceration rate will not be dropping anytime in the near future. How can these men guarantee that there will not be a drop in......

Words: 728 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Business Law Assignment

...familiar with. I also chose this regulation because of my place of occupation. I currently work at Hertz rental. I had no idea how many people get arrested for trafficking drugs, alcohol, or firearms. So it kind of drew me towards this regulation. According to Regulations.gov “The Department of Justice is proposing to amend the regulations of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives to execute certain provisions of the USA PATRIOT Improvement and Reauthorization Act of 2005 (enacted March 9, 2006) relating to trafficking in contraband cigarettes or smokeless tobacco. The new law amends the Contraband Cigarette Trafficking Act by: reducing the threshold amount of cigarettes necessary to trigger jurisdiction under the CCTA from a quantity in excess of 60,000 to a quantity in excess of 10,000; extending the provisions of the CCTA to cover contraband smokeless tobacco; imposing reporting requirements on persons, except tribal governments, who engage in delivery sales of more than 10,000 cigarettes or 500 single-unit consumer-sized...

Words: 882 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Student

...and became InterNorth. InterNorth was in the business of creating energy products such as natural gas and plastics. Later InterNorth merged into what was known as Enron with the new CEO Kenneth Lay running the show. He then began moving the headquarters to Houston, where they began selling off assets to limit their losses initially. The misleading financial accounts began when Jeffrey Skilling wanting to hide their losses. He and Andrew Fastow used special purpose entities to off load liabilities to those company to keep their main business looking as if they were profiting. Which intern made them look as though their business is successful and made their stocks increase because investors saw that the business was profiting not failing. A way that they were able to show the company as profitable was transferring debits and losses to offshore businesses that made it look as though on the books they were profiting and to make those unprofitable parts of the company disappear into an offshore business. To hide their losses in the trading business Skilling used mark-to-market accounting. Mark-to-market accounting is used in the security business but what Skilling did was use it for everyday business. Doing this let them write out what they thought a certain venture would be making in the future, without having to have actually made a dime. This let Enron show on the books that the company was actually turning a profit, which made the company look as though it was good to......

Words: 2227 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

To Pay or Not to Pay Doc

...Motors, the bankrupt General Motors, which appeared as though it could do nothing ideal for some years, grew 8 percent amid the same time. As indicated by a few writers, the review cost Toyota more than $2 billion. Be that as it may, by March 2010, things appeared to be on the bounce back. Deals grabbed significantly, 35 percent from the earlier year, and 88 percent of the preceding month. You could simply pay the fine and concede shortcoming, however, if you do, the organization's notoriety for quality will take a maybe deadly blow. You wouldn't just be admitting that you committed an error, yet that you intentionally lied about it so as to continue profiting. Besides, affirmation of concealing would give extraordinary backing to the many claims that case Toyota submitted buyer extortion. What amount of cash would those settlements cost? You could, of course, only challenge the punishment and the confirmation. Be that as it may, your organization's notoriety is now delicate, and battling the administration (and possibly losing) may aggravate things even. 2. The push to lift quality at the organization will be driven by a group of quality boss officers from real locales, including North America and Europe. Toyota said it would hold worldwide quality gatherings twice every year and territorial meetings all the more much of the time. "Toyota has the full contribution of any wellbeing issues going ahead," he said. However, he added that any choice to publish a review in the......

Words: 452 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

The Poor Law

...The poor relief of 1601 was an act of the Parliament of England. It created a National poor law system for England and Wales, which is commonly known as the Law that made the individual parishes responsible for poor law legislation. It drew together a collection of laws from between 16th and 18th centuries which included an improvement of the ‘Act for the relief of the Poor 1597’ that founded ‘overseers of the poor’ (May, 1995). The 1601 act was responsible for introducing a less barbaric approach, which was prevalent under the Tudor system and its main focus was to help as oppose to punish beggars and vagabonds (Slack,1990). The two forms of relief for the poor was either indoor relief meaning inside a workhouse or outdoor relief (outside a workhouse), this was the most common form of relief as the cost of building different workhouse were extremely expensive. A huge majority of relief came in the form of food and distribution of money during this period (Slack,1990). The ‘Deserving’ and ‘undeserving poor’ were ways of defining whether a person was accepted of the poor relief. The idle poor were identified as those avoiding work, the law wanted to warrant that these people were punished, although branding and whipping was abolished once the 1601 poor law was introduced as it was seen as barbaric and a more humane approach was maintained (Quigley,1996). They were still forced into work, much often forced to work long hours in the workhouses. The impotent poor were......

Words: 784 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Human Trafficking

...crime against humanity. It is also a symptom of a world that has yet to meet the goal of recognizing that we are all the same and that we are interconnected. It is a crime that demonstrates a clear lack of the value that we are all brothers and sisters. It is the continued victimization of people who are most in need of help. It is the willful and deliberate act of taking advantage of human beings by forcing them into forced slave labor or sexual exploitation. It is a form of modern slavery and it should have no place in modern society. Human trafficking is not just a problem in the so-called Third World. It is not just a problem in countries with a high rate of poverty, such as Haiti; that is a stereotype that can prevent wealthier nations from intervening and putting an end to this blight. Human trafficking is a problem that can be found in the United States and other industrialized Western nations. It is a problem that can be found on a global scale, a problem that requires micro and macro strategies to intervene and eliminate. Human...

Words: 1717 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Ethics and Compliance Program

...program is essential for all organizations contrary to the beliefs that some may have. Effective ethical and compliance initiatives are a combination of high moral, spiritual, with ethical beliefs that are formulated and executed with obedience to the law as well. Some feel that ethics are derived from logical reasoning or observation. Others may feel it is the gut feeling that decides ethics. Companies with no ethical program stand the risk of limited or no success with unethical behavior. Leadership must be the leading example of the ethical and compliance program. Planning an ethical and compliance program could be a huge undertaken in the beginning, but the benefits are astounding and worthwhile (Rae & Wong, 2012). This plan for the 186th Air Refueling Wing’s (186 ARW) Communication Flight in Meridian, MS will reside within the Quality Assurance (QA) shop whose office sits beside the commander. The QA shop will maintain and update the plan as necessary. This plan will establish an ethics and compliance program that will consist of knowing the importance of ethics and compliance guidelines, establishing and maintaining the code of conduct to include the formal letter from the Communication Flight Commander, method of code introduction, establishing an ethical culture, handling ethical issues to include reporting, and knowing the policy regarding Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) initiatives to include its reward program. This ethics and compliance program......

Words: 1983 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Tar Sands Native Americans

...reporting illnesses at ratios that are much higher than population that are not exposed to oil waste from their food, water, and atmosphere. People that live here are upset, angry, and grieving for those who have died from these serious illnesses, and they have a right to be. Causes of their illness As I mentioned early, much of the population of Fort Chipewyan are indigenous people, who sustain themselves on a traditional diet of local animals and plants. Some of the common meats include fish, moose, and muskrat. After oil began being drilled in this area, habitants began noticing a change in the physical appearance of animals. Some of the fish had cysts, and hunter would often find muskrats with bloody noses or they would smell of oil. Continuously, the population of these animals appeared to be declining. A study found that the level of Arsenic in the moose meat was four hundred times the recommended safe amount to ingest. These people and their doctor believe that the exposure to oil in their habitat through their food, water, and atmosphere, lead to larger health problems and specifically above average cancer rates in the population. Lesser amounts of water in the spring owned by Mountain Lite Spring Water Company Mountain Lite Spring Water Company siphoned water directly from a spring that came from the mountain, and that was fed by melting glacier water. This company takes water from the spring, fills giant plastic jugs with it, and then sells it to individuals. They......

Words: 1232 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

The Slave In The Dismal Swamp Essay

...Historians usually refer to “the Abolitionist Movement”, as occurring in a distinct time period between the 1700’s and the 1860’s, during which the United States commenced a major effort to put an end to the slave trade. Through this time period, innocent people were torn from their families and homes by white men profiting from the slave trade and forced to traverse to America where they would spend the rest of their lives working without any form of compensation. Upon their capture, slaves would then be sold at auction; whoever had the most money to spend would walk away with the most skilled and strongest slaves available. After being purchased, the slaves would arrive at whatever plantation they would live on under incredibly harsh conditions....

Words: 1394 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Burglary

...By TUAGIRA Mike From RWANDA BURGLARY I. Introduction Nowadays, serious property crimes are among types of crimes that most people of various societies fear. Burglary is then one of the serious property crimes and it was defined differently by different scholars. In this essay, burglary will be discussed in its details by looking its historical background, its patterns and trends, characteristics of offender, victim and offence. Indeed, there will be analysis of its constitutive elements, reaction and response of the society to it, policing strategies in preventing and investigating burglary as well as challenges in its prosecution. II. Historical perspective II. 1. Background and definitions Historically, an offence to be qualified as burglary required entry into any structure even if the occupant is not therein at that time of entry. Traditionally, to be qualified as burglary, an offence must have occurred at nighttime when natural light was insufficient to identify a face (Hall and Clark, 2002). Finally burglary required the intention of perpetrator to commit a felony when entering the other’s dwelling even if the perpetrator did not commit or attempt to commit crime inside the structure. Today, many states recognize that there is a burglary when there is entry into any construction suitable for occupancy such as residential or commercial houses, car and others, while for the first degree burglary requires entering dwelling. Burglary in its modern appearance......

Words: 3800 - Pages: 16

Free Essay

Case

...UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK ------------------------------------- x UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, : : -v: : RAJAT K. GUPTA, : : Defendant. : ------------------------------------- x JED S. RAKOFF, U.S.D.J. 11 Cr. 907 (JSR) SENTENCING MEMORANDUM AND ORDER The Court is called upon to impose sentence on Rajat K. Gupta, who on June 15, 2012, was found guilty by a jury of one count of conspiracy and three counts of substantive securities fraud, in connection with providing material non-public information to Raj Rajaratnam. Federal law requires a court to state, not only orally but in writing, its reasons for imposing a sentence “different from” a Guidelines sentence. 18 U.S.C. § 3553(c)(2). See also United States v. Rattoballi, 452 F.3d 127, 128-29 (2d Cir. 2006). This will be a non-guidelines sentence, and, accordingly, the Court will both read this Sentencing Memorandum in open court and docket it promptly thereafter. Imposing a sentence on a fellow human being is a formidable responsibility. It requires a court to consider, with great care and The notion that sensitivity, a large complex of facts and factors. this complicated analysis, and moral responsibility, can be reduced to the mechanical adding-up of a small set of numbers artificially assigned to a few arbitrarily-selected variables wars with common sense. Whereas apples and oranges may have but a few salient qualities, human beings in their interactions with society......

Words: 3632 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Exam Notes Government

...to MAKE LAWS. There are 435 members in the House of Representatives. There are 100 Senators. Qualifications for being in the House of Representatives- 25 Years old, 7 Years a Citizen, Being a citizen, Reside in the state Qualifications for being in the Senate- 30 Years old, 9 Years a Citizen, Being a citizen, Reside in the state Impeachment is to be ACCUSED of something The house BRING THE ACCUSATION and the senate HOLDS THE TRIAL The Great Compromise (Connecticut Compromise) made a Bicameral legislature. NJ (small) VS. VA (big) During each election year 1/3 or 33-34 Senators are up for re-election -> KEPT experienced people in there at all times The WHOLE HOUSE gets re-elected every 2 years -> COMPLETELY NEW PEOPLE Two punishments the U.S. Senate gives to an impeaches and convicted official-> Kicked out of office, Never be in a U.S. Office again Posterity is the FUTURE GENERATIONS of people What did the 17th amendment have on Article 1, Section 3, Clause 1 -> Makes the people vote for a senator INSTEAD of state legislature During impeachment trial it takes 2/3 of all senators that are PRESENT at the trial to convict an official Review Quiz (Sec. 4,5,6) A quorum is the majority of members required to do business A quorum call is compelling attendance of the people who don’t show up Emoluments is your salary or pay Congress OR each state legislature decides when, where, and how congressional elections are held Either house of congress can expel a......

Words: 1351 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Mafia History

...clearly. The history of the Mafia is sketchy but many believe that the Mafia was born in order to protect and help the less fortunate. The methods used to help and protect were, and still remain illegal. Today, the organization still continues to practice these acts or "rituals." The difference between early Mafia and modern Mafia, is that during late 1800's to early 1900's, the Mafia used these illicit crimes to help their families and the noble good less fortunate, now they abuse their power and distribute the "dirty money" in abundance amongst themselves. (keep in mind that the Mafia was born in Sicily, in a time where authorities weren't accessible). The Mafia also has a very organized family tree. This tree includes everything from bosses to soldiers. Soldiers usually belong in the bottom. Followed by these are called "enforcers". They usually serve as bodyguards or bouncers who watch and protect their establishment. These enforcers are able to have their own gambling or other financial establishment. They are...

Words: 1432 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Assess the Explanations for Gender and Crime

...Outline and assess sociological explanations of gender difference in patterns of crime. In this essay, I am going to assess the patterns of crime committed by males and females. Many general theories tend to neglect gender as a factor influencing criminality. There is a common assumption that males often commit more crime than women. The study of criminology have tended to be dominated by males, therefore the studies are done by men about men. The official statistics suggest that gender is perhaps the most significant single factor in whether an individual is convicted of crime. The official statistics often comply with the common assumption that men commit more crimes then women. According to official statistics, in 2005, 1.8 million offenders were guilty in which 79% were male and 7% of these were aged fewer than 18. The ratio of male offenders to female offenders is four to one. The highest rates of offending for the most serious crimes were 17 year olds for males and 15 year olds for females. Pollak (1950) argued that official statistics on gender and crime were highly misleading. He claimed that statistics underestimated the extent of female criminality. Pollack claimed to have identified crimes that are usually committed by women but which are likely to go unreported. According to him, nearly all offences of shoplifting and all criminal abortion were carried out by women. Many unreported crimes are committed by female domestic servants. Pollack accepted official......

Words: 2222 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Earning Emancipation

...was earned, fought for, and wept over, by great Africans and white abolitionists that cared more for their brothers and sisters futures than themselves. African-Americans created their own freedom, it is illustrated and proven by great Africans who rose to eloquently convince, fiercely battle through the bloodiest war on American Soil, passionately illustrate deep humanity, and patiently march forward for freedom, taking action, and creating equality. Dr. Robert Francis Engs is a well-loved historian, a graduate from Princeton and Yale, and revered professor proclaims in his own words, “THE SLAVES FREED THEMSELVES.”1 Dr. Engs has compiled a database that holds primary source documents that provide deep insight to the real state of affairs in both the north and south. Letters going back and forth and primary addresses on the state of affairs in various regions illustrate the complexities of debate, the stubbornness of racism, and the volume of propaganda and arguments from both sides of slavery. What’s clear is 1 James M. Mcpherson, “Who...

Words: 2717 - Pages: 11