# Program Design and Tools

Submitted By eringveer
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PROGRAM DESIGN TOOLS
Algorithms, Flow Charts, Pseudo codes and Decision Tables

Designed by Parul Khurana, LIECA.

Introduction
• The various tools collectively referred to as program design tools, that helps in planning the program are:– Algorithm. – Flowchart. – Pseudo-code.

Designed by Parul Khurana, LIECA.

Algorithms
• An algorithm is defined as a finite sequence of instructions defining the solution of a particular problem, where each instruction is numbered.

• However, in order to qualify as an algorithm, every sequence of instructions must satisfy the following criteria:

Designed by Parul Khurana, LIECA.

Algorithms
• Input: There are zero or more values which are externally supplied. • Output: At least one value is produced. • Definiteness: Each step must be clear and unambiguous, i.e., having one and only one meaning. • Finiteness: If we trace the steps of an algorithm, then for all cases, the algorithm must terminate after a finite number of steps.
Designed by Parul Khurana, LIECA.

Algorithms
• Effectiveness: Each step must be sufficiently basic that it can in principle be carried out by a person using only one paper and pencil.
– In addition, not only each step is definite, it must also be feasible.

Designed by Parul Khurana, LIECA.

Formulation of Algorithm
• Formulate an algorithm to display the nature of roots of a quadratic equation of the type: ax2 + bx + c = 0 provided a ≠ 0

Designed by Parul Khurana, LIECA.

Formulation of Algorithm
• The roots of the quadratic equation are given by the formula:

where the expression b2-4ac is known as the discriminant.

Designed by Parul Khurana, LIECA.

Formulation of Algorithm
• Depending on the sign of the discriminant, there are three mutually exclusive possibilities for the roots:

1. 2.
3.

If b2 – 4ac < 0, then the root are imaginary. If b2 – 4ac =...

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