Free Essay

Programmable Mobile Servant Robot

In: Science

Submitted By pann
Words 2777
Pages 12
ISSN 2319-8885
Pages:3920-3925, Programmable Mobile Servant Robot

PG Scholar, Dept of Mechanical Engineering, Mandalay Technological University, Mandalay, Myanmar,
Assoc Prof, Dept of Mechanical Engineering, Mandalay Technological University, Mandalay, Myanmar,

Abstract: Mobile robots are becoming a common sight nowadays. This paper expresses the design and simulation of a programmable mobile servant robot that can be built at a minimum cost. It has four wheels for movement. It is capable of moving forwards and backwards. It is able to serve food and drink to customers in the restaurant. Depends on the desire design of a mobile servant robot, it is used two DC motors for motion control. As the driving system of DC motors, L298 motor driver and microcontroller technology are used in the controller. For the design analysis of motor driving system, PIC16F887 is used and it was implemented by using Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique. The driving circuit for the robot is designed and it should be synchronized such that the locomotion of both wheels is executed simultaneously. The entire operation can be made closed loop with the help of feedback circuitry using incremental encoder.
Keywords: DC Motor, Incremental Encoder, Pulse Width Modulation (PWM), Programmable Servant Robot.
Servant robots are intelligent and helpful agents. They decrease the workload of human beings and directly improve human lifestyle. Currently, there are a lot of ways of serving to customers. For instance, waiter serving system
(conventional), conveyor belt serving system (Japanese style), self-carrying system (fast food), pen-and-paper selfordering system, etc. These systems are made in order to get attraction from customers and to reduce the need of hiring

Fig.1. Frame design of a mobile servant robot. more employees in their workplace. Moreover, they have been widely used in industries as they are multifunctional and can perform unpleasant, repetitive, boring or dangerous jobs that human workers do not want to do. Moreover, they are easy to switch from task to task, are of great help in mass production of good quality products in a short period of time, and can

develop at the same rate as automation. The main idea of mobile servant robot is to deliver the food and drink from the main counter to the customer’s table in a restaurant. This study is essential in order to increase the efficiency of food serving to customers. In other words, it decreases the waiting time during peak hours.
The focus of this paper is to operate the robot with the program which can predetermine or repair the path of tables by keypad. And, this is also focus to reduce labors charges by using the less expensive robot then the human workers. The robot can go the desired table as the path stored in external
EEPROM or can also type the path for table from the keypad by the operator. This study is essential in order to increase the efficiency of food serving to customers. In other words, it decreases the waiting time during peak hours. Mobile servant robot has four wheels as shown in Fig.1. The diameter of each wheel is 4 inches. Front wheels are freewheel and back wheels are controllable wheels. Each wheel is driven with DC motors to move forwards and backwards.
Each motor is controlled by L298 motor driver. It was also implemented by using pulse width modulation (PWM) technique. The weight of this robot is about 2.4lbs (1.09Kg).
The dimension of this robot is represents in Table 1.
TABLE I: Dimension of Mobile Servnet Robot

Copyright @ 2014 SEMAR GROUPS TECHNICAL SOCIETY. All rights reserved.

The function of mobile servant robot contains different working systems such as motion planning system, Pulse
Width Modulation (PWM) technique and software development system. These systems can all communicate with others through intelligent automation robot system. The simple case includes PIC16F887microcontroller, three DC motors, LCD display, keypad, incremental encoder, external
EEPROM, buzzer and limit switch. The user can use the keypad to perform the movement of mobile servant robot.
Fig.2 represents block diagram of mobile servant robot. The
L298 dual full bridge driver circuits are used in mobile servant robot to control DC motors to run forwards and backwards. It was also implemented by using Pulse Width
Modulation (PWM) technique. It controls the motor speed by driving the motor with short pulses. These pulses vary in duration to change the speed of the motor. The longer the pulses, the faster the motor turns, and vice versa. LCD is used to display for all command and direction.
Fig.3. Pins configuration of PIC16F887.
EEPROM is user-modifiable read-only memory (ROM) that can be erased and reprogrammed written to repeatedly through the application of higher than normal electrical voltage generated externally or internally in the case of modern EEPROMs. In this paper, the external EEPROM is used to read and write the program for MSR. Circuit diagram of EEPROM 24C04 smart card is shown in Fig.4. EEPROM
24C04 chip is embedded in the contact smart card. It can store ID code and provide transmitting, storing and processing data with serial communication.

Fig.2. Block diagram of mobile servant robot.
The Mobile Servant Robot system can be roughly divided as input, output, monitoring and processing sections. This system is composed of several parts and control routine. The main components of the system are:
 PIC microcontroller
 Input portion (EEPROM, Keypad, Limit Switch,
Incremental encoder)
 Output portion (LCD displays, L298 motor driver)
A. PICA6F887 Microcontroller
For this system, PIC16F887 - 8 bit microcontroller is chosen because its program memory contains 8K words, which translates to 8192 instructions. Data memory (RAM) contains 368 bytes and EEPROM is 256 bytes. In
PIC16F887, there are 40 pins and 36 I/O pins that are userconfigured on a pin-to-pin basis. There are five I/O ports such as port A, B, C, D and E. Both ports are bi-directional
I/O ports. The high-level programming language, Basic-pro
Universal micro software, is loaded to PIC 16F887. Pins configuration of PIC16F887 is shown in Fig.3.

Fig.4. Circuit diagram of EEPROM 24C04.
C. Keypad
The keypad which is used in this paper is arranged as 4 rows by 3 columns matrix, will be interfaced to the PIC microcontroller. Rows are connected to four peripheral input/output pins configured as input pins whereas columns are connected to three I/O pins configured as output pins. The keypad acts as the mainly writer function that is used to input the table number and path for each table is shown in Fig.5.












Fig.5. Keypad.

International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology Research
Volume.03, IssueNo.19, September-2014, Pages: 3920-3925

Programmable Mobile Servant Robot
The pins of LCD (16x2) are connected with the PIC output
D. Limit Switch
Limit switch is used as the input signal for microcontroller. pins. RS pin is the register select signal which is connected to
The robot arm moves up and down to drop the tray on the the PIC output pin RD5. E pin is used to connect with RD4 table from predetermine position is as shown in Fig.6. The from PIC output. D4, D5, D6 and D7 are the Data bus pins of robot will drop down the tray on the table when the limit
LCD. They are used to connect with RD0, RD1, RD2 and switch which is mounted on the robot is pressed. Therefore,
RD3 from PIC output. limit switch is used as the sensor to know the position of
G. L298 Motor Driver table to drop the tray.
The L298 is an integrated monolithic circuit in a 15 – lead
Multi watt and PowerSO20 packages. It is a high voltage, high current dual full-bridge driver designed to accept standard TTL logic levels and drive inductive loads such as relays, solenoids, DC and stepping motors. Two enable inputs are provided to enable or disable the device independently of the input signals. In this thesis, two L298 motor drivers are used for mobile servant robot. One is used to drive the locomotion of wheels and the other one is used to move up and down position for lifter is shown in Fig.9.
Fig.6. Limit switch.
E. Incremental Encoder
Incremental encoder is a device which is used to measure the speed and a position. Incremental encoders generate a series of pulses as they move. These pulses can be used to measure speed, of be fed to a counter to keep track of position. The general idea of this tool is to convert motion into a sequence of digital pulses. Later, counting these pulses we are able to estimate the relative or absolute position and the speed of the movement. In this paper, incremental encoder is used to feedback the revolution of motor. Fig.7 shows the incremental encoder.

Fig.9. L298 motor driver.

Fig.7. Incremental Encoder.
F. LCD Display
The LCD (16x2) Characters is used to display the table number, forward revolution and turn left or right which the operator typed. Pin diagram of LCD (16x2) is shown in

The system is design and simulation of programmable mobile servant robot. The Proteus 8 professional software was used to simulate the circuit. Keypad is used to input all command. Using the information received form the keypad, the microcontroller will control the DC motors with L298 motor driver. The system consists of two processes: old path process for old workplace and new path process for new workplace. The operator can choose the process with the switch which is used as input pin of microcontroller. Old path process is used to type only the table number because the path of table for the workplace has been predetermined in the program. New path process is used to determine the table number with its new path [e.g. Fwd_1, Turn L/R or 0 (0 for the table which does not need to turn left or right like table 1) and Fwd_2] for the robot to go the customer’s table. All data for workplace are stored in external EEPROM which can read and write for the program. The workplace of mobile servant robot is shown in Fig.10.

Fig.8. Pin diagram of LCD (16x2).
International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology Research
Volume.03, IssueNo.19, September-2014, Pages: 3920-3925

Table 2

Table 3

Table 1


When the robot reaches the table that the operator desired, the service will start. The robot will drop down the lifter to put the tray on the customer’s table until the limit switch which is mounted on the robot is pressed. The lifter will go to the up position after the tray is put on the table and will go to the operator as the path it came.


Table 4

Table 5

Fig.10. Workplace of mobile servant robot.
For software implementation, PIC Basic Pro has been implemented by using Microcode Studio Compiler software to program the 16F887 microcontroller. The flow chart of mobile servant robot is shown in Fig.11. Firstly, the program initializes the inputs, outputs and variables. When the power is supplied into the system, the operator needs to press the switch because the switch is the selection of process. If the operator wants to type only the table number, he needs to switch on to choose old path process because the program for the workplace has been stored in EEPROM. The path of table for workplace is got from EEPROM which is used to store program by the operator. If the operator wants to type the path of table for new workplace, he has to switch off to select the new path to input the new path for table. In new path process, the operator has to type the number of table and path for table [e.g. Fwd_1, Turn L/R or 0 (0 for the table which does not need to turn left or right like table 1) and Fwd_2] where he wants to go in his desired workplace.

In old path process, the operator can input only the table number where he wants to go. The robot will go to the table as the number that the operator typed because the path of the table is predetermined in program. The revolution of the DC motor B1 will count with the help of incremental encoder c1.
The encoder will sense the revolution of the motor to send the microcontroller and the counter will count down the revolution of the motor. Fig.12 shows the simulation of old program process and Fig.13 describes the revolution of DC motor with the feedback of incremental encoder.

Fig.12. Simulation of old path process for mobile servant robot. Fig.13. Revolution of DC motor with the feedback of encoder. Fig.11. Flow chart of mobile servant robot.
International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology Research
Volume.03, IssueNo.19, September-2014, Pages: 3920-3925

Programmable Mobile Servant Robot
In new path process, the operator has to command for the path of table (Fwd_1, Turn L/R of 0 and Fwd_2) where he wants to go. Fig.14 shows the input command for the path of table. Fig.15. Simulation for lifter up.
Fig.14. Simulation for the input command of table in new path. As the command, the robot will go to the customer’s table.
The lifter of the robot will drop down the tray on the table until the limit switch is pressed. Then, the robot moves backward and the lifter will go to the original position. After servicing, the robot will come back to the operator as the path it came. The whole function and data are displayed on LCD screen. Fig.15 and 16 show the simulation of service.

This paper discussed about the programmable mobile servant robot actuated by two motors. This is implemented using PIC 16F887 microcontroller which was programmed using the basic pro language to control the robot. The robot was successfully built and tested as specified by the objective. Through the development of the project, many skills have been acquired. For future work, the mechanical structure can be improved by building it lifter with gripper to grab cup and plate.
At first, the author would like to express deepest gratitude to her beloved parents for their noble support, encouragement and their unique loving kindness to attain her destination without any trouble. The author would like to thank Dr. Nu
Nu Win (Associate Professor), Department of Mechatronic
Engineering, Mandalay Technological University for her kindly guidance and supervision over everything until the completion of this paper and sharing her precious time in editing the paper.

[1] An autonomous four wheeled robot, Sangeet Thomas, EC
Engineering Department, Parul Institute of Engineering &
Technology, Vadodara, India. National Conference on
Recent Trends in Engineering & Technology. 13-14 May
[2] Design and Implementation of driving circuits for DC motor control using 8051, Ashmi, Department of Electrical
Engineering, National Institute of Technology Calicut,
Kerala, India, National Journal of Engineering Research &
Technology (IJERT), ISSN: 2278-0181, Vol.2 Issue 6, June –
Fig.15. Simulation for lifter down.
International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology Research
Volume.03, IssueNo.19, September-2014, Pages: 3920-3925

[3] Ti Bei Huang. An Rfid Based Serving Robot
(Servingbot). Bachelor of Engineering (ElectricalMechatronics), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University
Technology Malaysia. JULY 2012.
[4] Wireless Control of an Automated Guided Vehicle,
Proceeding of the International Multiconference of
Engineering and Computer Scientists 2011 Vol 2, IMESC
2011, March-16-18-2011, Hong Kong.
[5] Analysis on Modeling and Simulink of DC Motor and its
Driving System Used for Wheeled Mobile Robot, Wai Phyo
Aung, World Academy of Science, Engineering and
Technology, International Journal of Electrical, Electronic
Science and Engineering Vol:1 No:8,2007.
[6] Pulse Width Modulation for DC Motor Control Based on
LM324, Dr.Jamal A Mohammed, Electromechanical
Engineering Department, University of Technology,
Baghdad, Eng. & Tech. Journal, Vol.31, Part (A), No.10,

International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology Research
Volume.03, IssueNo.19, September-2014, Pages: 3920-3925

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Ai Report

...problems encountered in modern robotics. It describes possible solutions to those problems without going deeply into theory. The problems introduced are perception, basic pose description, transition and sensor models, localization as a special case of perception (Monte Carlo Localization, Extended Kalman Filter), representation of environment (workspace and configuration space), path planning (cell decomposition, potential fields, skeletonization, Voronoi diagrams, and probabilistic roadmaps), movement of robots, and some real-life examples. This document was created accompanying a talk in the context of the proseminar "Artificial Intelligence" in summer semester 2003 at the RWTH Aachen, Chair of Computer Science V, Knowledge-based Systems Group. 1 1.1 Introduction Capek and his Robots The term "Robot" can be traced back to Karel Capek's play "R.U.R. Rossum's universal robots" (in 1921) that comes from the Czech word for "corvee". 1.2 A brief History of Robots Robotics are based on two enabling technologies: Telemanipulators and the ability of numerical control of machines. Telemanipulators are remotely controlled machines which usually consist of an arm and a gripper. The movements of arm and gripper follow the instructions the human gives through his control device. First telemanipulators have been used to deal with radio-active material. Numeric control allows to control machines very precisely in relation to a given coordinate system. It was...

Words: 7115 - Pages: 29

Premium Essay


... European Commission Joint Research Centre Institute for Prospective Technological Studies Contact information Address: Edificio Expo. c/ Inca Garcilaso, 3. E-41092 Seville (Spain) E-mail: Tel.: +34 954488318 Fax: +34 954488300 Legal Notice Neither the European Commission nor any person acting on behalf of the Commission is responsible for the use which might be made of this publication. The report reflects the views of the authors and does not necessarily reflect those of the European Commission Europe Direct is a service to help you find answers to your questions about the European Union Freephone number (*): 00 800 6 7 8 9 10 11 (*) Certain mobile telephone operators do not allow access to 00 800 numbers or these calls may be billed. A great deal of additional information on the European Union is available on the Internet. It can be accessed through the Europa server JRC 61539 EUR 24600 EN ISBN 978-92-79-17657-9 ISSN 1018-5593 doi:10.2791/48951 Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union © European Union, 2010 Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged Printed in Spain PREFACE Information and Communication Technology (ICT) markets are exposed to more rapid cycles of innovation and obsolescence than most other industries. As a consequence, if the European ICT sector is to remain...

Words: 50200 - Pages: 201

Free Essay

La Singularidad

...NOTE: This PDF document has a handy set of “bookmarks” for it, which are accessible by pressing the Bookmarks tab on the left side of this window. ***************************************************** We are the last. The last generation to be unaugmented. The last generation to be intellectually alone. The last generation to be limited by our bodies. We are the first. The first generation to be augmented. The first generation to be intellectually together. The first generation to be limited only by our imaginations. We stand both before and after, balancing on the razor edge of the Event Horizon of the Singularity. That this sublime juxtapositional tautology has gone unnoticed until now is itself remarkable. We're so exquisitely privileged to be living in this time, to be born right on the precipice of the greatest paradigm shift in human history, the only thing that approaches the importance of that reality is finding like minds that realize the same, and being able to make some connection with them. If these books have influenced you the same way that they have us, we invite your contact at the email addresses listed below. Enjoy, Michael Beight, Steven Reddell, Here are some new links that we’ve found interesting: News articles, essays, and discussion on the latest topics in technology and accelerating intelligence. The Singularity Institute for Artificial Intelligence: think tank devoted to......

Words: 237133 - Pages: 949

Premium Essay

Pom102 Term Paper

...SAGE COURSE COMPANIONS K N O W L E D G E A N D S K I L L S for S U C C E S S Operations Management Andrew Greasley © Andrew Greasley 2008 First published 2008 Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers. SAGE Publications Ltd 1 Oliver’s Yard 55 City Road London EC1Y 1SP SAGE Publications Inc. 2455 Teller Road Thousand Oaks, California 91320 SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area Mathura Road, New Delhi 110 044 India SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte Ltd 33 Pekin Street #02-01 Far East Square Singapore 048763 Library of Congress Control Number: 2006939578 British Library Cataloguing in Publication data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN 978-1-4129-1882-4 ISBN 978-1-4129-1883-1 (pbk) Typeset by C&M Digitals (P) Ltd, Chennai, India Printed in Great Britain by The Cromwell Press, Trowbridge, Wiltshire Printed on paper from sustainable resources contents Part One Part Two 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10...

Words: 42457 - Pages: 170

Premium Essay


...The World is Flat Thomas L Friedman Kq p K To Matt and Kay and to Ron Kq p K Contents How the World Became Flat One: While I Was Sleeping / 3 Two: The Ten Forces That Flattened the World / 48 Flattener#l. 11/9/89 Flattener #2. 8/9/95 Flattener #3. Work Flow Software Flattener #4. Open-Sourcing Flattener #5. Outsourcing Flattener #6. Offshoring Flattener #7. Supply-Chaining Flattener #8. Insourcing Flattener #9. In-forming Flattener #10. The Steroids Three: The Triple Convergence / 173 Four: The Great Sorting Out / 201 America and the Flat World Five: America and Free Trade / 225 Six: The Untouchables / 237 Seven: The Quiet Crisis / 250 Eight: This Is Not a Test / 276 Developing Countries and the Flat World Nine: The Virgin of Guadalupe / 309 Companies and the Flat World Geopolitics and the Flat World Eleven: The Unflat World / 371 Twelve: The Dell Theory of Conflict Prevention / 414 Conclusion: Imagination Thirteen: 11/9 Versus 9/11 / 441 Acknowledgments I 471 Index I 475 Kq p K :::::How the World Became Flat ::::: ONE While I Was Sleeping Your Highnesses, as Catholic Christians, and princes who love and promote the holy Christian faith, and are enemies of the doctrine of Mahomet, and of all idolatry and heresy, determined to send me, Christopher Columbus, to the above-mentioned countries of India, to see the said princes, people, and territories, and to learn their disposition and the proper method of converting them to......

Words: 170179 - Pages: 681

Free Essay

Industrial Engineering

...McGraw-Hill Create™ Review Copy for Instructor Espinoza. Not for distribution. Course BBE 4505 Omar Espinoza University Of Minnesota NATURAL RESOURCES McGraw-Hill Create™ Review Copy for Instructor Espinoza. Not for distribution. Copyright 2012 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without prior written permission of the publisher. This McGraw-Hill Create text may include materials submitted to McGraw-Hill for publication by the instructor of this course. The instructor is solely responsible for the editorial content of such materials. Instructors retain copyright of these additional materials. ISBN-10: 1121789048 ISBN-13: 9781121789043 McGraw-Hill Create™ Review Copy for Instructor Espinoza. Not for distribution. Contents 1. Preface 1 2. Methods, Standards, and Work Design: Introduction 7 Problem-Solving Tools 27 3. Tex 29 4. Operation Analysis 79 5. Manual Work Design 133 6. Workplace, Equipment, and Tool Design 185 7. Work Environment Design 239 8. Design of Cognitive Work 281 9. Workplace and Systems Safety 327 10. Proposed Method Implementation 379 11. Time Study 413 12. Performance Rating and Allowances 447 13. Standard Data and Formulas 485 14. Predetermined Time Systems......

Words: 294686 - Pages: 1179

Premium Essay


...Fourth Edition Reframing Organizations Artistry, Choice, and Leadership LEE G. BOLMAN TERRENCE E. DEAL B est- se l l i n g a u t h o rs of LEADING WITH SOUL FOURTH EDITION Reframing Organizations Artistry, Choice, and Leadership Lee G. Bolman • Terrence E. Deal Copyright © 2008 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Published by Jossey-Bass A Wiley Imprint 989 Market Street, San Francisco, CA 94103-1741— No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400, fax 978-6468600, or on the Web at Requests to the publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, 201-7486011, fax 201-748-6008, or online at Credits are on page 528. Readers should be aware that Internet Web sites offered as citations and/or sources for further information may have changed or disappeared between the time this was written and when it is read. Limit of......

Words: 193447 - Pages: 774

Free Essay

Child Labour

...10000 quiz questions and answers 10000 general knowledge questions and answers 10000 general knowledge questions and answers No Questions Quiz 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 Carl and the Passions changed band name to what How many rings on the Olympic flag What colour is vermilion a shade of King Zog ruled which country What colour is Spock's blood Where in your body is your patella Where can you find London bridge today What spirit is mixed with ginger beer in a Moscow mule Who was the first man in space What would you do with a Yashmak Who betrayed Jesus to the Romans Which animal lays eggs On television what was Flipper Who's band was The Quarrymen Which was the most successful Grand National horse Who starred as the Six Million Dollar Man In the song Waltzing Matilda - What is a Jumbuck Who was Dan Dare's greatest enemy in the Eagle What is Dick Grayson better known as What was given on the fourth day of Christmas What was Skippy ( on TV ) What does a funambulist do What is the name of Dennis the Menace's dog What are bactrians and dromedaries Who played The Fugitive Who was the King of Swing Who was the first man to fly across the channel Who starred as Rocky Balboa In which war was the charge of the Light Brigade Who invented the television Who would use a mashie niblick In the song who killed Cock Robin What do......

Words: 123102 - Pages: 493

Free Essay

One Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.

...E SSAYS ON TWENTIETH-C ENTURY H ISTORY In the series Critical Perspectives on the Past, edited by Susan Porter Benson, Stephen Brier, and Roy Rosenzweig Also in this series: Paula Hamilton and Linda Shopes, eds., Oral History and Public Memories Tiffany Ruby Patterson, Zora Neale Hurston and a History of Southern Life Lisa M. Fine, The Story of Reo Joe: Work, Kin, and Community in Autotown, U.S.A. Van Gosse and Richard Moser, eds., The World the Sixties Made: Politics and Culture in Recent America Joanne Meyerowitz, ed., History and September 11th John McMillian and Paul Buhle, eds., The New Left Revisited David M. Scobey, Empire City: The Making and Meaning of the New York City Landscape Gerda Lerner, Fireweed: A Political Autobiography Allida M. Black, ed., Modern American Queer History Eric Sandweiss, St. Louis: The Evolution of an American Urban Landscape Sam Wineburg, Historical Thinking and Other Unnatural Acts: Charting the Future of Teaching the Past Sharon Hartman Strom, Political Woman: Florence Luscomb and the Legacy of Radical Reform Michael Adas, ed., Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History Jack Metzgar, Striking Steel: Solidarity Remembered Janis Appier, Policing Women: The Sexual Politics of Law Enforcement and the LAPD Allen Hunter, ed., Rethinking the Cold War Eric Foner, ed., The New American History. Revised and Expanded Edition E SSAYS ON _ T WENTIETH- C ENTURY H ISTORY Edited......

Words: 163893 - Pages: 656

Free Essay

Steve Jobs Biography

...Titre de l’édition originale STEVE JOBS : A BIOGRAPHY publiée par Simon & Schuster, Inc. Maquette de couverture : Bleu T Photo de couverture : Albert Watson © 2011 by Walter Isaacson Tous droits réservés. © 2011, éditions Jean-Claude Lattès pour la traduction française. Première édition novembre 2011. ISBN : 978-2-7096-3882-1 « Seuls ceux qui sont assez fous pour penser qu’ils peuvent changer le monde y parviennent. » Publicité Apple « Think Different », 1997 Table des matières Les personnages Introduction : La genèse de ce livre 1- L’enfance : abandonné puis choisi 2- Un couple improbable : les deux Steve 3- Tout lâcher : harmonie, ouverture, détachement… 4- Atari et l’Inde : du zen et de l’art de concevoir des jeux 5- L’Apple I : allumage, démarrage, connexion 6- L’Apple II : l’aube d’une ère nouvelle 7- Chrisann et Lisa : celui qui a abandonné… 8- Xerox et Lisa : les interfaces graphiques 9- Passer en Bourse : vers la gloire et la fortune… 10- Le Mac est né : vous vouliez une révolution 11- Le champ de distorsion de la réalité : imposer ses propres règles du jeu 12- Le design : les vrais artistes simplifient 13- Fabriquer le Mac : le voyage est la récompense 14- Entrée en scène de Sculley : le défi Pepsi 15- Le lancement : changer le monde 16- Gates et Jobs : quand deux orbites se croisent 17- Icare : à monter trop haut… 18- NeXT : Prométhée délivré 19- Pixar : quand la technologie rencontre l’art 20- Un homme comme les......

Words: 233799 - Pages: 936

Free Essay


...62118 0/nm 1/n1 2/nm 3/nm 4/nm 5/nm 6/nm 7/nm 8/nm 9/nm 1990s 0th/pt 1st/p 1th/tc 2nd/p 2th/tc 3rd/p 3th/tc 4th/pt 5th/pt 6th/pt 7th/pt 8th/pt 9th/pt 0s/pt a A AA AAA Aachen/M aardvark/SM Aaren/M Aarhus/M Aarika/M Aaron/M AB aback abacus/SM abaft Abagael/M Abagail/M abalone/SM abandoner/M abandon/LGDRS abandonment/SM abase/LGDSR abasement/S abaser/M abashed/UY abashment/MS abash/SDLG abate/DSRLG abated/U abatement/MS abater/M abattoir/SM Abba/M Abbe/M abbé/S abbess/SM Abbey/M abbey/MS Abbie/M Abbi/M Abbot/M abbot/MS Abbott/M abbr abbrev abbreviated/UA abbreviates/A abbreviate/XDSNG abbreviating/A abbreviation/M Abbye/M Abby/M ABC/M Abdel/M abdicate/NGDSX abdication/M abdomen/SM abdominal/YS abduct/DGS abduction/SM abductor/SM Abdul/M ab/DY abeam Abelard/M Abel/M Abelson/M Abe/M Aberdeen/M Abernathy/M aberrant/YS aberrational aberration/SM abet/S abetted abetting abettor/SM Abeu/M abeyance/MS abeyant Abey/M abhorred abhorrence/MS abhorrent/Y abhorrer/M abhorring abhor/S abidance/MS abide/JGSR abider/M abiding/Y Abidjan/M Abie/M Abigael/M Abigail/M Abigale/M Abilene/M ability/IMES abjection/MS abjectness/SM abject/SGPDY abjuration/SM abjuratory abjurer/M abjure/ZGSRD ablate/VGNSDX ablation/M ablative/SY ablaze abler/E ables/E ablest able/U abloom ablution/MS Ab/M ABM/S abnegate/NGSDX abnegation/M Abner/M abnormality/SM abnormal/SY ab......

Words: 113589 - Pages: 455