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Projectmanager

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a. Management principles are universal in nature explain (5marks)

NATURE OF MANAGEMENT To understand the basic nature of management, it must be analysed in terms of art and science, in relation to administration, and as a profession, in terms of managerial skills and style of managers. Management is Combination of Art and Science Management knowledge exhibits characteristics of both art and science, the two not mutually exclusive but supplementary. Every discipline of art is always backed by science which is basic knowledge of that art. Similarly, every discipline of science is complete only when it is used in practice for solving various kinds of problems faced by human beings in an organisation or in other fields of social life which is more related to an art. Art basically deals with an application of knowledge personal skill and know-how in a specific situation for efficiently achieving a given objective. It is concerned with the best way of doing things and is consequently, personalised in nature. During the primitive stages of development of management knowledge, it was considered as an art. There was a jungle of managerial knowledge. It was not codified and systemised. People used it to get things done by others, in their own way giving an impression that whosoever uses it, knows the art of using it. This kind of loose and inadequate understanding of management supported the view that it was an art. Management as a Science Science means a systematic body of knowledge pertaining to a specific field of study. It contains general principles and facts which explains a phenomenon. These principles establish cause-and-effect relationship

between two or more factors. These principles and theories help to explain past events and may be used to predict the outcome of actions. Scientific methods of observations, and experiments are used to develop principles of...

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