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Properties of Ionic and Covalent Substances

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CHEMESTRY LAB

SUBJECT: CHEMESTRY
TEACHER: MISS MUGANAMBUGA
STUDENT: Levi Blaides

TITLE: Investigating the properties of ionic and covalent substances
INTRODUCTION: Certain characteristics such as solubility polar and non-polar solvents, melting point and conduction of electricity can be used to distinguish between ionic and covalent substances.
AIM: To determine whether a substances is ionic or covalent in nature by observing its melting point, solubility and conductivity.

APPARATUS/MATERIALS
SODIUM CHLORIDE, SUCROSE, NAPTHALENE, COPPER (II) OXIDE, CALCIUM AND COPPER (II) SULPHATE ,6 TEST TUBES ,6 SPATULAS ,TEST TUBE HOLDER ,BUNSEN BURNER ,2 (100CM3) BEAKERS ,LOW VOLTAGE BATTERY ,CONNECTING WIRES ,ELECTRODES ,CURRENT DETECTING DEVICES

METHOD: Two spatulas of naphthalene were placed in two test tubes heated for about one minute , gently at first then strongly until no further change occurred. Procedure was repeated and characteristics were record and it was stated whether the substances were:

A) DOES NOT MELT AT THE TEMPERATURE OF THE BURNER. B) MELTS WITHOUT DECOMPOSITION WHEN GREATLY HEATED C) MELTS WITHOUT DECOMPOSITION WHEN STRONGLY HEATED D) DECOMPOSES WHEN HEATED.

SOLUBILITY: Two beakers were filled, one with 50ml of ethanol and the other with 50 ml of distilled water. Two cups of distilled water were added and two spatulas of naphthalene and stir. Observations were recorded by stating if the substance was:

* IS-INSOLUBLE * SS-SOLUBLE * MS-MODERATELY SOLUBLE

Conductivity
HOOK UP THE BATTERY IN THE CASE IN WITH THE CONNNECTING WIRES AND ELECTRODES ATTACHED.USING THIS ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT TO DETERMINE WHETHER THE MIXTURES/SOLUTIONS FORMED IN WATER AND ETHANOL ARE ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTING.PLACE ELECTRODES INTO EACH MIXTURE/SOLUTION AND ODSERVE EVERY SMALL BUBBLES.BUBBLES WILL SHOW THAT IT DOES CONDUCT REPEAT THIS ENTTIRE PROCEDURE WITH ALL REMAINING SUBSTANCES RECORD YOUR FINDINGS/OBSERVATIONS IN THIS TABLE. An electric circuit was used to determine which mixtures conducted electricity. Electrodes were placed in each solution and the amounts of bubbles produced showed that it conducted electricity. Finding were recorded. | naphthalene | Copper (II)Sulphate | Sodium Chloride | Sucrose | Calcium Carbonate | Calcium oxide | MeltingCharacteristics | B | D | A | D | A | A | Solubility in water | MS | IS | MS | SS | MS | SS | Solubility in ethanol | IS | SS | SS | SS | MS | MS | Conductivity of solution in water | YES | YES | NO | NO | NO | NO | Conductivity of solution in ethanol | YES | NO | NO | YES | NO | NO |

RESULTS: Ionic substances have the following characteristics * HIGH B.P AND M.P * CONDUCTS ELECTRICITY WHEN IN A SOLUTION * DISSOLVES IN WATER
Covalent substances have the following characteristics * LOW M.P AND B.P * DOES NOT CONDUCT ELECTRICITY IN A SOLUTION * DOES NOT DISOLVE IN WATER

| Naphthalene | Copper (II)Sulphate | Sodium Chloride | Sucrose | Calcium Carbonate | Calcium Oxide | Ionic | YES | | | YES | | | Covalent | | YES | YES | | YES | YES |

VARIABLES: * Constant: amount in each substance used * Manipulative: sodium chloride, sucrose, naphthalene, calcium oxide, calcium carbonate and copper (II) sulphate * Responding: sodium chloride, sucrose, naphthalene, calcium oxide, calcium carbonate and copper (II) sulphate

DISCUSSION: There are different tests that can be used to test the content of a substance to see if it is ionic, covalent etc. The objectives of this lab were to test to see if sodium chloride, sucrose, naphthalene, calcium oxide, calcium carbonate and copper (II) sulphate were ionic or covalent. Ionic bonding takes place between a metal and a non-metal and involves the transfer of electrons. This type of bonding results in an atom that has a charge which is known as an ion. Ionic compounds tend to have high melting points, are soluble in water and conduct electricity when molten or dissolved in water. Covalent bonding on the other hand don’t usually have charges but there are some case were because one atom is larger than the other it pulls the shared electron closer to itself causing a small charge to be formed which are called dipoles. Covalent bonding tend to have low melting points, poor conductors of heat and electricity and soluble in organic solvents but not in water.

Limitations:-

CONCLUSION: Using substances melting point, solubility and conductivity you can determine whether it’s covalent or ionic in nature.

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