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Chapter 1: The Science of Child Development * John Locke (1632-1704) British philosopher Tabula rasa “blank slate”- Learning through: instruct, reward, discipline * Jean J. Rousseau (1712-1778) French Philosopher Noble savage- Endowed with an innate sense of justice and morality that unfolds naturally as children grow * Charles Darwin British Naturalist 1809 -1882 Conceptual Contribution: evolutionary theory; survival of the fittest * Stanley Hall (1844-1924) norming studies: founded child-study institute at Clark University. First president of American Psychological Association. * Alfred Binet (1857-1911) French psychologist- intelligence test - Binet-Simon Test Stanford-Binet Test
The Biological Perspective:
Definition: Development is determined primarily by biological forces * In ethological theory, many behaviors are viewed as adaptive because they have survival value (examples: Reflexes, crying, social interactions (attention-seeking); self-control/independence; * In maturational theory, development reflects the natural unfolding of a pre-arranged biological plan; Arnold Gesell (1880-1961)Critical Period – imprinting (Konrad Lorez 1903-1989), language)
The Learning Perspective * Classical Conditioning – Watson’s little Albert Experiment * Operant Conditioning – B. F. Skinner (reinforcement and punishment) * Bandura’s social cognitive theory: children are actively trying to understand what is going on in their world; what is reinforced and punished tells children about the world;
The Psychodynamic Perspective * Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Early childhood experiences are related to adult behavior. Development is determined by how a child resolves conflicts at different ages. Freud’s components to personality -- id, ego, and superego
The Cognitive-Developmental Perspective * Development reflects children’s efforts to understand the world * Jean Piaget developed a four-stage sequence theory that characterizes children’s cognitive development The Contextual Perspective * Development is determined by immediate and more distant environments, which typically influence each other. * Lev Vygotsky believed that adults convey to children the beliefs, customs, and skills of their culture * Urie Bronfenbrenner believes that the developing child is embedded in a series of complex and interactive systems
Themes in Child-Development Research * Early Development is Related to Later Development but Not Perfectly * Development is Always Jointly Influenced by Heredity and Environment * Children Influence Their Own Development * Development in Different Domains is Connected
General Designs for Research * In field quasi-experiments, the researcher manipulates independent variables in a natural setting; e.g., programs in schools * Correlational studies look at relations as they exist in the real world
Measurements or Approaches * Systematic observation * Sampling behavior with tasks * Self report * Physiological response measurement
Systematic Observation: systematically observe children and carefully record what they do or say; * naturalistic observation: observe spontaneous behavior in real-life situations; * structured observation: observe in an created setting that is likely to elicit the behavior of interest;
Physiological Responses * Heart rate * Hormone level * Brain activation
Cross-sectional study: children of different ages are tested at one time point
Longitudinal study: the same individuals are tested repeatedly length –
Chapter 2:Genetic Bases of Child Development * Genotype is one’s complete set of genes that makes up a person’s heredity. * Phenotype is one’s physical, behavioral, and psychological features * Polygenic inheritance: when phenotypes reflects the combined activity of many separate genes
Genetics
1. Structure of cells: Nucleus, Chromosomes, DNA, Genes 2. Sex cells: autosomes, sex chromosomes 3. Twins: identical (monozygotic), fraternal (dizygotic) * Pairs of alleles can be either homozygous or heterozygous * Dominant allele: its chemical instructions are followed * Recessive allele: its chemical instructions are ignored * Incomplete dominance: one allele doesn’t dominate the other completely---------------------- * Some people are born with too many, too few, or damaged chromosomes * People with Down Syndrome usually have an extra 21st chromosome * A number of disorders (e.g., Turner’s Syndrome, Klinefelter’s Syndrome, XYY complement, XXX Syndrome) are caused by missing or extra sex chromosomes * A genotype can lead to a range of phenotypes depending on the environment * People with PKU genotype: those who eat normal diet will be mentally retarded, but those who eat special diet will have normal intelligence * Passive G-E relation: parents pass on genotype and environment * Evocative G-E relation: different genotypes evoke different responses from the environment * Active G-E relation: actively seek environments related to their genes * Niche-picking: deliberately seeking environments that fit one’s heredity
Chapter 3: Prenatal Development, Birth, and the Newborn-Period of the Zygote, Period of the Embryo, and Period of the Fetus ZYGOTE * Begins when egg is fertilized in the fallopian tube. * Period of rapid cell division * Ends 2 weeks later when the zygote is implanted in the wall of the uterus
EMBRYO
* From 3 to 8 weeks after conception * Body parts are formed during this period * Embryo rests in the amnion filled with amniotic fluid * Umbilical cord joins embryo to placenta
FETUS
* From 9 weeks after conception to birth * Increase in size * Fetal movement * Behavioral maturity of senses * Age of viability: occurs at 22 to 28 weeks and fetus has a chance to survive
General Risk Factors * Teratogens: agent that causes abnormal prenatal development-Diseases, Drugs, and Environmental Hazards * Nutrition: adequate amount of food, protein, vitamins, & minerals * Stress: decreases oxygen to fetus, weakens mother’s immune system, and lead to unhealthy behaviors such as smoking or drinking alcohol * Mother’s Age: neither too young, nor too old is best * Many diseases pass through the placenta directly and attack the fetus and others attack at birth * Potentially dangerous drugs are not limited to cocaine but include alcohol, caffeine, and aspirin * Environmental hazards are treacherous because we’re often unaware of their presence * Many diseases pass through the placenta directly and attack the fetus and others attack at birth * Potentially dangerous drugs are not limited to cocaine but include alcohol, caffeine, and aspirin * Environmental hazards are treacherous because we’re often unaware of their presence * Diagnosis: ultrasound, amniocentesis, and chorionic villus sampling can detect physical deformities and genetic disorders * Treatment: fetal medicine and genetic engineering are experimental or surgery
Chapter 4: Growth and Health
Growth patterns from infancy through adolescence * Muscles * Fat layer * Cartilage and bone * Secular growth trends-------- * Sleep and growth hormone production * Proper nutrition, including breast feeding and caloric requirements * Developmental changes in eating patterns
Sleep
* Essential for normal growth * 80% of growth hormones produced during child and adolescent sleep
Nutrition
* AAP guidelines for encouraging children to be more open-minded about food
Timing of puberty regulated by genes, nutrition, and health * Weight * Events and timing of sexual maturation by gender * Effects of early maturation by gender
The Developing Nervous System- Organization of the Mature Brain The Developing Brain – three ways in which the brain grows * Neuron: basic unit of nervous system * Cerebral hemispheres: right and left halves of the cortex * Frontal cortex: area of the cortex that controls personality and the ability to carry out plans

1. Brian grows in size by gaining more neurons 2. Layer construction: The brain is built in layers, beginning with the innermost layer, to the outmost layer. This process completes when 6 layers are built around 7 months after conception. 3. Neuron migration: Neurons migrate to their designated spots to connect to each other to perform various functions Factors that may interfere with this process: the effects of alcohol the effects of radiation 4. Synaptic pruning
Chapter 5: Perceptual and Motor Development
Smell, Taste, and Touch, Hearing, Seeing Integrating Sensory Information * , Habituation: paying less attention as something becomes familiar * Dishabituation: reassume attention as something new is presented

* Infants hear well * Infants use sound to locate objects, estimate distance * Infants’ hearing is best for sounds that have pitches in the range of human speech * Infants prefer mother’s voice, recognize speech exposed to during prenatal stage * Infants can make fine discriminations of speech sounds------------------------------------- * From birth, respond to light, track moving objects * Acuity reaches adult level at age 1 year * By 3 or 4 months, infants’ color perception is like adults’ color perception---------------------- * Infants can recognize visually an object that they have only touched previously * Infants can detect relations between visual and auditory information * Infants’ sensory systems are attuned to intersensory redundancy------------------------------------- * Infants like to look at human faces * By 4 months, infants have size, shape, brightness, and color constancy * Motion, color, texture, and aligned edges are used to perceive objects * ADHD-Occurs more often in boys than girls-Symptoms: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity
Motor Development * Locomotion – Gross Motor Skills * Fine-Motor Skills * Physical Fitness

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