Free Essay

Psychological Adjustments to Aging

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By simmons252
Words 1122
Pages 5
Psychological Adjustments to Aging
This paper will cover the ongoing changes one makes from early adulthood to middle adulthood. Early adulthood spans from the ages of 20 and 40 and middle adulthood spans between 41 and 60. All the trials and tribulations that ensue when taking that next journey into adulthood will be addressed. They can include emotional and personal development; physical changes; decision to marry and raise a family or do you put your career first. The realization that you are no longer a young spring chicken hits some people in middle adulthood. In your mind you feel the same way you did when you were in your twenties, but the body tell you a different story. There are two different stages of love during early and middle adulthood described by. Psychologist Elaine Hatfield: there is compassionate love and passionate love. Compassionate love involves feelings of mutual respect, trust and affection, while passionate love involves intense feelings and sexual attraction.
The Evolution of Social and Intimate Relationships
Relationships during early adulthood can be a series of emotional and social changes. It often involves balancing intimacy and commitment with independence and freedom. According to Erikson, young adults face the controversy between intimacy and isolation. To solve this conflict, the individual wants to maintain a sense of independence while still having intimacy. A major task in early adulthood is to find a partner that is similar in age, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, education, and other attributes. Romantic love is found but has strong components of sexuality and infatuation, sexual desire is the most important ingredient. As for friendships, women have more close friends and the friendships involve more self-disclosure and an exchange of mutual support. Friendships are very important during this time of life. Siblings become closer friends, but early adults are basically at risk for loneliness because they do not seek out friendships as much. Adult relationships are established with parents as well.
Some early adults are career focused, choosing to start a career as opposed to starting a family. They acquire marketable skills for the workplaces, choose a career path to follow; use money to further their development in a social capacity and once that is established they may consider settling down.
Some major milestones during middle adulthood may be raising and sending children off to college, coping with a midlife crisis, and assisting with elderly parents. Many changes occur in the physical, cognitive, emotional, and social aspects of development during this time. Middle aged adults have to start dealing with changes in body image. They have to make adjustments with the realities of aging. Women have more trouble than men accepting being older. However, only a minority of people experience midlife crisis. It can be described as a time when a person has self-doubt and inner problems which make them go through some sort of drastic change. In middle adulthood, adults become more in touch with themselves than ever before. They also become introspective.
Middle adulthood relationships have more emphasis on relationships that move from passionate love to companionate love. Passionate love sometimes quickly fades but compassionate love endures and ensures longevity. Middle-aged adults often become more appreciative of their own parents, and the relationship improves. Adults that have to take care of their ill or frail parents are referred to as the "sandwich generation. Sibling bonds strengthen, while fewer new friendships are made but they are more deeply valued.
Burnout is sometimes faced in careers. A person gets tired of their job, especially in jobs involving work with specific people. Most middle-aged people keep their same job, and a radical career change often signals a personal or midlife crisis.
Role Changes
As one grows older, roles change and each change represents a major decision in a persons’ life. One of the first changes for early adults is psychological separation from parents. Getting out on your own and becoming responsible and financially independent is the first step to adulthood. You are no longer relying on your parents to help you. The ability to establish your own financial independence is an important step in the life of the early adult because it leaves them with a strong feeling of success. The role as a single adult involves individuality but when you marry the role is changed to that of a spouse. Marriage decides what your specific role will be in the marriage. Will you be the primary bread winner or share the responsibility. The role change to spouse also involves you being responsible for your family as well as being a strong moral example. There also a the period of time in which children leave the home and parents face a new phase of life that does not involve rearing young children. Some parents go through the empty-nest syndrome, in which they have difficulty adjusting to life without their children, but this is usually temporary and many adults begin to enjoy the new freedoms that come with middle age. Women and men become more androgynous, which means they take on both gender role characteristics. In middle adulthood there is a shift in the relationship with the parents. You are now responsible for your parents care and they come to rely on your more than ever. The roles have been switched you are now the parent to your parents.

Impacts of Healthy and Unhealthy Habits
Health habits formed in early adulthood reduce risk factors in middle age. If you practice good health habits as an early adult it can reduce the chances of heart disease. Healthy lifestyle such as no smoking, eating a healthy balanced diet, regular exercise and limiting alcohol intake can result in a low risk of cardiovascular disease. Many adults develop unhealthy diets, gain weight and aren’t physically active, so following this lifestyle can lead to high blood pressure and cholesterol, diabetes and elevated cardiovascular risk.
Researchers noted that the benefits of these lifestyle changes are greater the earlier they become a regular habit in the day to day process. Clogging of the arteries begins during the late teenage years, so nipping poor health habits in the bud decreases the accumulation of both plaque and greater risk. Plus, when habits are established early, they're easier to continue into later life. Bottom line, unhealthy habits will shorten the lifespan. People who engaged in bad habits such as smoking, drinking and bad diets had an increase of 3x the death rate from cancer and heart disease and 4x the death rate from other causes than people who did not have any of the bad vices. The key to a long life span and longevity is prevention. Practicing healthy habits makes for a better way of life.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Developmental Psych

...ASSIGNMENT: |DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE |CHARACTERISTICS | |Prenatal Period |The hereditary endowment, which serves as the foundation for later development, is fixed, once and for | | |all, at this time. While favourable or unfavourable conditions both before and after birth will affect to| | |some extent the physical and psychological traits that make up this hereditary endowment. | | |Favorable conditions in the mother’s body can foster the development of hereditary potentials while | | |unfavourable conditions can stunt their development, even to the point of distorting the pattern of | | |future development. | | |At few if any other times in the life span are hereditary potentials so influenced by environmental | | |conditions as they are during the prenatal period. | | |The sex of the newly created individual is fixed at the time of conception and conditions within the | | ...

Words: 1798 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Pyc4805

...THE INFLUENCE OF PERSONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON LIFE SATISFACTION IN THE ELDERLY PERSONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO AND INFLUENCE LIFE SATISFACTION DURING LATE ADULTHOOD ASSIGNMENT 4 FOR PYC4805 UNIQUE NUMBER: 714714 STUDENT 3350-133-5 JULY 2013 PYC4805 ASSIGNMENT 4 - Page 1 THE INFLUENCE OF PERSONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON LIFE SATISFACTION IN THE ELDERLY Table of Contents Page 1. Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………… 3 2. Discussion……………………………………………………………………………………….. 3 2.1 Environmental factors associated with life satisfaction………………………………….. 4 2.1.1 Social support…………………………………………………………………………… 4 2.1.2 Socioeconomic factors…………………………………………………………………. 4 2.1.3 Neighbourhood structure………………………………………………………………. 5 2.1.4 Facilities and resources………………………………………………………………... 5 2.1.5 Involvement in activities………………………………………………………………... 5 2.2 Individual factors and life satisfaction……………………………………………………... 6 2.2.1 Personality and character traits……………………………………………………….. 6 2.2.2 Physical health………………………………………………………………………….. 6 2.2.3 Financial resources…………………………………………………………………….. 7 2.2.4 Locus of control…………………………………………………………………………. 7 2.2.5 Personal autonomy…………………………………………………………………….. 7 2.2.6 Social engagement and sense of connectedness………………………………….. 7 3. Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………………. 8 4. References……………………………………………………………………………………….8 PYC4805 ASSIGNMENT 4 - Page 2 THE INFLUENCE OF PERSONAL AND......

Words: 3454 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Psychosocial Aspects of Aging

...Chelsea McKoy Psychosocial Aspects of Aging PM 738 Long Island University Table of Contents Introduction 3 Background 4 Cultural Background 5 Health Status 6 Community Programs and Resources 7 Psychosocial Well Being 8 Conclusion 9 References 10 Introduction Since the beginning of the 20th century, life expectancy has increased in the developed world more than in all of recorded history prior to 1900. The elderly population in the United States is growing. Today, over 35 million persons are 65 years of age or older, accounting for about 13 percent of the population. According to the Administration on Aging (AOA) (2014) in the year 2030, their numbers will more than double resulting in one in every five Americans being over 65. As scientists and doctors find new ways to cure illnesses, more people are living longer lives. In fact, the fastest-growing age group in the U.S. is the 85 years and older group. This group now represents about 40 percent of the elderly population (AOA, 2014). The process of aging for elders 65 years and older often involves a number of progressive physiological changes. Within the context of these changes, and often related to them, prominent issues of psychological and social adjustment emerge. Such issues include coping with declines in physical and functional abilities, changing social relationships and roles, and......

Words: 2252 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Later Adulthood

...Later Adulthood Development Anna Silva February 27, 2015 BSHS/325 Laura Cobb Later Adulthood Development The transition into later adulthood can be very rewarding and fulfilling by learning to accept the new changes ahead. Psychological, social, and biological changes begin, each varying from person to person. Many experience retirement in this stage and it can have an effect on the individual’s entire world. For many individuals, work is the main aspect of their lives and making a transition to suddenly having so much time on their hands can be difficult for some to cope with. The role in society as a working individual is different and it can be focused on other activities like volunteering and travel. Such adjustment may require help from friends and family for support and for new living accommodations. As the world around is transforming, the body is also taking a toll with the increase risk of disease and disabilities. Possible living accommodations may be needed to help keep as much independence for the aging adult. The transition can be positive with many new relationships and experiences, however, the transition can also be a negative alteration. Acknowledging what is to come with the aid of those around can make later adulthood be worth the wait. The stage of retirement is intertwined with the development of later adulthood and the change in role in society. With the ability to no longer work, there is a......

Words: 1096 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Seniors on the Rise

...Seniors on the Rise Their or three psychological shifts that need to be made when comfortably settling into aging gracefully. The first shift that needs to be made is shifting from work to a self-differentiation. Self-differentiation involves older people having the ability to separate themselves from their peers to have them be better psychologically and emotionally more adjusted. Being emotionally and psychologically well rounded tends to create higher self-esteem and eliminates self-doubt and negative stereotypes that are associated with old age. Some of the common stereotypes about being old relate to the decline in physical, cognitive, and social functioning. Those concerns are not that much of a concern with older adults that continue to remain active and positively engaged. A second adjustment involves shifting from body preoccupation to body transcendence. In this stage elderly people move from a state of questioning their aging features and self-doubt to acceptance. In this stage the individual makes the focus about self while still interacting and engaging family and having strong social networks. They are still able to enjoy their lives despite their declining health and physical appearance. The third adjustment involves shifting from self-preoccupation to self-transcendence. At this stage the elder adult realize that death is something that must be addressed. While some elderly people choose to have their families deal with the role of death and dying......

Words: 1099 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Psychology of Aging

...Running head: WEEK 5 FINAL ASSIGNMENT: PSYCHOLOGY OF AGING 1 Psychology of Aging Mildred T. Murphy PSY 317: Cognitive Functioning in the Elderly Professor Rhonda Travland Ashford University August 26, 2013 Running head: WEEK 5 FINAL ASSIGNMENT: PSYCHOLOGY OF AGING 2 Abstract Aging in the United States raises challenges in terms of belonging, especially for older people. The interrelationship between aging and a sense of belonging is complicated because the aging process itself is influenced by many factors, including biological, sociological, psychological, economical, and attitudinal factors. Each of these factors has a unique impact on aging. Exacerbating these factors are society’s negative stereotypes and myths, discrimination, biases, prejudices, and negative attitudes toward the older people, which are cumulatively identified as ageism for the purposes of this paper. Thinking about the dimensions of aging for older people gives rise to a number of questions. For example, what are our cultural attitudes and traditions towards aging? How do these attitudes and traditions inform our private thoughts and public policies towards aging? This paper will focus on the mysteries that control human lifespan which are yet to be unraveled. Running head: WEEK 5 FINAL ASSIGNMENT: PSYCHOLOGY OF AGING 3 Part I-Intro to the Psychology of Aging Psychology is the study of the mind and behavior, and is......

Words: 3208 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Understanding Aging and Outliving Your Current Life Expectancy

...Understanding Aging and Outliving Your Current Life Expectancy Connie Tracy English 104 Dr. Baggett April 15, 2014 The Study of Successful Aging Gerontology is the study of the biological, psychological, and social aspects of aging. Gerontologists are interested in the study of human relationships, health, economics, retirement, widowhood, and the care of the aged population. Gerontologists not only focus on studies from all the social sciences—sociology, psychology, economics, and political science--but also want to demonstrate to others that biological changes have an effect on our social characteristics as we age (Quadagno, 2014, p. 4). Aging can be challenging, but research suggests many ways to age successfully. What does that mean to age successfully? According to researcher Quadagno (2014), “ successful aging depends not just on the prevention of disease and disability, but also on the attainment of peak physical and psychological functioning and participation in rewarding social and productive activities. Instead of taking a negative approach to the problems of aging, social gerontologists are now investigating the factors that create a healthy, fulfilling life in old age” (p.4). If we want to grow old gracefully, we need to have personal objectives to accomplish. How well we achieve our personal objectives is a measure of our success. During our lifetimes if we make positive choices in the areas of our own biological, psychological, environmental and......

Words: 2891 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Elderly Lesbians and Breast Cancer

...Running Head: ELDERLY LESBIANS AND BREAST CANCER 1 Elderly Lesbians and Breast Cancer California State University, Dominguez Hills School of Nursing MSN 533-08 Theoretical Aspects of Aging Running Head: ELDERLY LESBIANS AND BREAST CANCER 2 Elderly Lesbians and Breast Cancer Cancer health disparities have been documented in specific populations in the United States. Elderly lesbians are one such population, with factors related to lifestyle, socioeconomic status, healthcare practices, and access to services (Brown & Tracy, 2008). There is a pressing need for understanding of the health care disparities faced by elderly lesbians, so that the needs of this group can be adequately met. In the United States, breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. Several risk factors for breast cancer are at least partially modifiable, and are present more among the lesbian population than heterosexual women (Brown & Tracy, 2008). Breast cancer is the most common invasive cancer among women worldwide, with rates significantly higher in developed nations. Over 80% of all female breast cancers occur among post-menopausal women. Breast cancer is not primarily found to be hereditary, but women who have the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes (which can be inherited) have a considerably higher breast cancer risk (Miller, 2012). Lesbian elders have particular well-being requirements, but often suffer from subpar care and reduced access to services. Fear of discrimination, low rates of......

Words: 1897 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Later Adulthood Developmental Reprt

...Adulthood Developmental Report When an individual reaches later adulthood they face a number of changes within their body, ad mind because of the aging process. During the later adulthood change there are role and position changes that happen along with health care changes and accessibility stages. There is also usually a change from working every day to retirement that also will involve changes in the marriage, and family relationships along with other peer relationships because as you age you change at different times and rates than others. There are many social policies that affect older adulthood because everything seems to slow down as you age. Suicide is also a big factor in later adulthood because it has risen for elderly men in general. Suicide in later life is a global public health problem with those who are aged 65 or older (Fassberg, 2012). When the individual goes the later adulthood stage the individual evaluates their life and if the individual feels they didn’t fulfill their life they may commit suicide. Aging and entering later adulthood is a big part of an individual’s life and is different for each individual. The process of aging is called senescence which is bodily changes that accompanies aging (Zastrow, & Kirst-Ashman 2010). There are many changes that happen during the aging process which are changes in your appearance, your senses start to deteriorate, vision starts to decrease, your teeth lose calcium and become weak,......

Words: 1422 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Later Adulthood Development Report

...Later Adulthood Development Report Adriane McClendon BSHS/325 - HUMAN SYSTEMS AND DEVELOPMENT November 2, 2015 Susan W. Jernigan Over the time in their lives, most people can acquire protected attachments; cognitively, socially, and morally, and produce families and discover good jobs. Ultimately, though, as an individual enter into their 60s and beyond, getting older leads to quicker changes in our bodily, cognitive, and social capabilities and desires, and life starts to approach its natural ending, resulting in the last life stage, beginning in the 60s, known as late adulthood. "Social changes affect a person's decision. If they move, for example, to be closer to family, they will need to make new friends in the new environment, to cope with the loss of old friends, and to deal with the changing roles within the family dynamics as one becomes older." ("End-of-Life Decisions and Late Adulthood," 2007). When an individual enters late adulthood, they start to go through various changes in their role and social position in society. At one point in their life, they were young and had a prominent role in the decisions they made for themselves and others. Many elderly people are parents and grandparents and at one point had the role of being the caretaker of their offspring. During this time of their life this position changes, and it is usually their children taking care of them now. They do not have as much power over their life as they used to have and may not......

Words: 1237 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Issues with Social Development

...* * * * * Issues of Social Development in Adulthood Yvonne Gonzalez University of Phoenix PSY/201 Foundations of Psychology Tracy S. Ramos, Faculty April 7th, 2013 * * * * * * * * * I found this article to be very interesting. Surprisingly, it was difficult to locate a credible article that discussed women in their midlife; which it is why I really liked this article. Life Course Transitions and Depressive Symptoms among Women in Midlife, discusses about different issues that has accrue in adult women through midlife. It also discusses how midlife in adult women can affect their social development. This article will provide you with transitioning stage of midlife in adult women, as well as some of the consequences that can occur as women transition into midlife. It gives you step by step as to how each transition will affect her. This study was done on women from the ages 50-59 to show midlife transition and depression will affect the women. It will also tell you things about the male midlife transition and how they will react differently than women in their midlife transition. * Yes, I find that this article would be a great choice as a main source for a research paper. I say this because; it provides you with credible information and statistics on social development in women transitioning through midlife. It also provides you with information on how to overcome the issues......

Words: 10720 - Pages: 43

Premium Essay

Economic Factors

...Factors Affecting Investment Decision A multitude of factors influence the investing agencies decision in the choice of projects the amount of initial investment itself in influenced by the choice of location. For instant, the central government of India in consultation with the respective state government has declared certain areas, districts and taluses backward and has given a subsidy of 15 per cent on the cost of land buildings, to encourage balanced growth of industries, Another significant factor is the service rendered by state governmental agencies in providing infrastructural facilities, managerial expertise, loans, technical assistance, etc. Third, the cost of capital is a very important factor in the investment decision. While considering the cost of capital. Due card should be given to factors such as the opportunity cost. The entrepreneur, who is investing capital, is obviously interested in setting a return within a planned time horizon. For this purpose he has to consider the gestation period of the project, projected cash flow, taking into account factors such a inflation, governmental taxes, risk involved in investment, raw material prices, competitions, growth rate, trend, of wages, market demand, operating costs, fixed costs, development rebate estimated life or physical facilities, availability of build raw materials, cost of skilled labor, etc. Two other crucial factors which are estimated on the basis of particular state, and industrial relations climate...

Words: 5817 - Pages: 24

Free Essay

Retirement

...effects on a physical and psychological level, it also can have its benefits. It depends on how prepared you are, going in to this stage of life. In most cases, the economical status of an individual can be a major factor in being prepared for this event. As human beings, we are not able to depend on our own selves and that is where psychological stress may impair our vision of retirement should be. Now, I ask, why do we retire? Obviously, to enjoy what we have achieved from all the hard work that have had to endure. For some it may come easy; for others it becomes a difficult stage where independence becomes dependence and that is where anxiety and depression come in to play. In this paper, I will discuss the findings psychologists that have studied the effects of this life stage. First, let’s review the psychological perspective of retirement. As stated by Kenneth S. Shultz and Mo Wang, “Retirement is an interdisciplinary topic studied by researchers in psychology, sociology, social work, demography, economics, and organizational sciences…” Because of this, literature on retirement has grown a great deal and has research has taken many different forms. The basic conclusion is simple; retirement is a process that older individuals go through and it does not consist of only a single event. We must understand that this process is different for each individual and this has made researchers get a better psychological perspective of the......

Words: 1590 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

When Billy Broke His Head

...Reflections: When Billy Broke His Head Billy Golfus, who suffered brain damage in a motorcycle accident, struggles to find ways to rejoin society and understand disability as a social category (Aufderheide, 1997). Challenge of Personal Belief The theory “a person may be impaired, but it is society which causes disability” resonates with me. I agree with the concept of placing the person before the disorder. This assignment has made me take a hard look at how American culture describes impairment. A search on the Web for a synonym of “disability” finds words like: affliction, ailment, complaint, defect, disablement, disorder, handicap, impairment, infirmity. These are not positive words. Perhaps one day we will have the utopia Karl Marx envisioned, a classless society where everyone is equal regardless of gender, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, religion or impairment. Until then, a definite shift is required in the perception and definition of disability. Portrayals of PWD Interviews were conducted with highly intelligent people who engaged in political activism, who were artists and individuals who wanted control over their lives and destinies. These are atypical of how PWD are portrayed in western mainstream society. In every person there exists the innate human power to overcome challenges, the will to succeed, the desire to feel accepted by peers, and the desire to be treated with respect. The quality of “overcoming” cannot be measured. In each individual case,......

Words: 822 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Issue Analysis

...Issue Analysis Child rearing and career pursuit are commonplace during early adulthood although men and women experience the two differently for obvious reasons. Women have the biological requirement to carry the growing child during pregnancy and giving birth. Nature also wired women with a maternal instinct to nurture and care for their children. Biology places women in a position that often puts them at odds with their career objectives. The level of success of the feminist movement to place women on an equal platform in the workplace with men is debatable. Further, whether professional women are opting out of the workplace by choice or are forced out by socio-cultural pressures is in question. Some observers suggest that the feminist movement has not gone far enough whereas others suggest that the movement has already served its purpose. In this paper, I examine the pros and cons on either side of the issue. I will also explore optional roles adults may adopt through their primary roles as parent, spouse, or through career pursuits. Often professional women leave their careers giving family priority. However, the rationale that drives that choice is debatable. Strengths and Weaknesses of the Pro Side Linda Hirschman in an article titled “Homeward Bound,” takes the position that while publicly and professionally attitudes toward women’s roles have changed allowing them greater opportunity in the business world. However, Hirschman (2005 p. 341) notes “private lives......

Words: 1475 - Pages: 6