Free Essay

Psychology of Child Development

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By Piston30
Words 915
Pages 4
Television and Child Development
By Gabriel Pitaro

For my book report I chose the book Television and Child Development by Judith Van Evra. In her writing Van Evra delves into the increased presence of media and technology amongst children in todays society and the effects it is having on their development. She breaks it down into four different categories, physical, cognitive, social and emotional development. Throughout the book Evra explores the ways in which media actually effects children as well as the other variables that come into play in the development of a child. By doing all of this research her goal is to find ways to maximize technology’s potential for improving development while neutralizing the negative effects as much as possible. Her research spans well beyond television, observing the effects video games, DVDs, cell phones and the Internet have on children as well. Overall I found it to be a very compelling book that had many strong connections to the material we learned in this course. Evra begins her book by reviewing previous findings and theories about psychology and child development. Many of the theories she covers are ones that we have also reviewed in our course. She discusses Bandura and his theory of model behavior as it applies to television. Bandura conducted a study where two groups of children would watch an adult act aggressively towards a doll before being given a chance to interact with the doll themselves. For one group, the adult was reprimanded and punished while for the other group the adult’s aggressive behavior had no consequences. Bandura found that children from the first group showed no hostility toward the doll, while children from the second group would attack the doll relentlessly. According to Evra, the results of this experiment hold true in today’s world regarding children and the media they use. A child that watches a violent movie or plays a violent video game is likely to carry the aggression they see into their real lives unless the violence is negatively reinforced. In most cases however, violence on television or in movies is glorified, leading to it also becoming glorified in the mind of the child. Another topic Evra covers is Gerbner’s cultivation theory and how it relates to child development. The cultivation theory states that as people spend more time immersing themselves in the world of television, they become more likely to mirror what they see and apply it to their real life. Evra’s research suggests that this theory is strongly applicable in today’s society because of the high amounts of drama and dispute seen on TV. She found that “long term exposure to television, in which frequent violence is virtually inescapable, tends to cultivate the image of a relatively mean and dangerous world. Responses of heavier compared to matching groups of lighter viewers suggest the conception of reality in which greater protection is needed, most people cannot be trusted, and most people are just looking out for themselves (Evra p.16).” I find this to be a very strong argument for the negative effects that TV has on children. Research shows that from ages eight to thirteen the average child spends close to seven hours per day watching television. There is convincing evidence that by doing this they are cultivating strong feelings of distrust and selfishness from a very early age. These traits are likely to manifest themselves and carry over into adolescence and adult hood, one day creating a generation of narcissistic disparagers. Adding the glorified view of violence from the previous chapter paints a truly scary picture of what children today could develop into ten years from now. When reading this book I thought Evra had many strong points to her arguments. The extensive amount of research and legwork she conducted in order to support her ideas was very impressive. She also recalled the theories and ideas of many respected psychologists that we covered in this class (Bandura, Freud, Gerbner to name a few) to support her findings. In addition she tested philosophies from lesser-known minds such as Rubin and Dominick, which only strengthens her credence in my opinion. One of the major strengths of this book to me is the objective point of view that Eva narrative offers. This book is simply a presentation of facts and research. There is no attempt to sway the reader towards hating television or using it even more. Instead Evra leaves you to make your own informed decision based off of her findings. The only glaring weak point to me was that the book got a little dull and boring as it went along. Evra never strays from her matter of fact, straightforward writing and it grows a little tiresome by the later stages of the book. This was not necessarily a surprise to me however, given the educational and investigatory nature of the topic. All in all I definitely enjoyed this book. It is a great read for just about all ages. Parents looking to help their children can find very useful information on ways to protect their kids from the harms of media. Children themselves can also be made aware of the dangers present to them in the television they watch or the video games they play. It is evident that media and technology have a very influential role in today’s society, and this book helps not only to inform us of these influences, but also educates us on how to deal with them.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Academic Performance, Child Psychology and Development

...Bab I Pendahuluan I.A. The Nature of Anxiety Rasa takut merupakan emosi normal individu terhadap ancaman dari lingkungan. Anak usia pra-sekolah biasanya takut akan perpisahan, gelap, orang asing, imaginery beings, dan binatang sedangkan anak usia sekolah biasanya takut akan kemunkinan terluka, kesendirian, gelap, dan binatang. Dalam proses perkembangan normal, anak dapat mengatasi rasa takut itu dengan menggunakan adaptive defense mechanism. Misalnya, setelah mimpi buruk seorang anak mengingatkan dirinya sendiri bahwa itu hanyalah mimpi dan bukan sesuatu yang nyata. Anak juga dapat menilai besaran rasa takutnya terhadap sebuah stimulus tertentu. Misalnya, seorang anak dapat menilai bahwa saat ini stimulus itu terlalu menyebabkan kecemassan sehingga untuk sementara dia tidak akan pergi ke arah stimulus itu. (Wenar & Kerig, 2005) Seorang anak dikatakan memiliki gangguan kecemasan apabila rasa takut tersebut berlebihan dan anak gagal menggunakan defense mechanism untuk mengatasi rasa takut itu. Perbedaan gangguan kecemasan dan rasa takut yang normal teletak pada intensitas situasi, perilaku maladaptif, persistence, di luar kontrol anak, dan tidak dapat dijelaskan ataupun diselesaikan. (Wenar & Kerig, 2005) I.B. Anxiety Disorders Dalam dua puluh tahun terakhir ini, pemahaman mengenai psikopatologi, course, dan ketidakmampuan berkaitan dengan gangguan kecemasan mengalami kemajuan. Sebelumnya, kecemasan dianggap sebagai bagian yang normal dalam......

Words: 8434 - Pages: 34

Premium Essay

Psychology and Education

...understands the qualities and nature of child and human psychology. The subject Educational Psychology is also a challenging field through which different complex problems of educational system can be solved. The knowledge of Educational Psychology has a great relevance for the teacher, because it helps the teacher to realize his objective of effective teaching and educating the pupils properly. Precisely speaking, the knowledge of Educational Psychology helps the teacher in the following ways: (1) Understanding the child: It has been rightly recognized that the teacher can truly teach the child only when he possesses the knowledge of child psychology individual as well as collective. For example, the teacher must know how children think; what are their interests at various stages of their development; and how their energies can best be utilized for educational purpose. In fact, all modifications in the techniques of teaching are really the growing application of the knowledge of psychology to the process of teaching learning. (2) Understanding individual differences: Previously it was presumes that all children are more or less alike and therefore, almost same speed of progress was expected of them. Moreover, it was also thought that the mind of the child is just like a clean state and therefore, anything could be written on it. Now, from the knowledge of psychology, we understand that there are marked differences among the children, and every child is endowed with......

Words: 824 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Textbook Chapter

...Developmental psychology did not appear in the late 1800's like many fields of psychology. It appeared in the beginning of the 20th century and one of the main founders of developmental psychology was G. Stanley Hall (Smuts, 1996). There were many studies and experiments that were taken that helped process Developmental psychology into what it is today. Developmental psychology was not an easy subject to study. Since Developmental psychology is the study of how humans develop throughout the course of their life span, this made Developmental psychology a very broad field to study. In order to find out the origins and history of developmental psychology, we must first see how it all started beginning with the study of children. Without child psychology, developmental psychology would not exist because In order to study how humans develop we must first study the early stages, beginning with infants and children. Studying children was not an easy task at that time. There were many confusion in the process of studying infants and children. The researchers did not know if children had any bias or what infants sees and feels so the first step that was taken in studying infants and children's were studying their cognitive thinking and their perception. Many researches have been done and some of the results were that infant's cognitive components are being challenged actively (Keil, 2000). Since their cognitive components are being challenged actively, the children's environment......

Words: 1023 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Developmental Psy Paper

...Developmental psychology is the scientific study of systematic psychological changes, emotional changes, and perception changes that occur in human beings over the course of their life span. Originally concerned with infants and children, the field has expanded to include adolescence, adult development, aging and the entire life span. This field examines change across a broad range of topics including motor skills and other psycho-physiological processes; cognitive development involving areas such as problem solving, moral understanding, and conceptual understanding; language acquisition; social, personality, and emotional development; and self-concept and identity formation. 3 major contexts to consider when analysing child psychology are: social context, cultural context, and socioeconomic context. Developmental psychology includes issues such as the extent to which development occurs through the gradual accumulation of knowledge versus stage-like development, or the extent to which children are born with innate mental structures versus learning through experience. Many researchers are interested in the interaction between personal characteristics, the individual's behavior, and environmental factors including social context, and their impact on development; others take a more narrowly-focused approach.Developmental psychology informs several applied fields, including: educational psychology, child psychopathology, and forensic developmental psychology. Developmental......

Words: 1041 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Jean Piaget

...Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development PIAGET’S BACKGROUND His was one of the most important, yet most controversial theories of cognitive development (Hetherington & Parke, 2000). In 1907 at age ten, he published his first scholarly article in a journal on a rare albino sparrow.1 The career of this philosopher, psychologist and observer of children began the day his wife said to him, “watch the children for a while, will you, Jean?”2 He is a philosopher, psychologist and observer of children.2 He studied in Paris with Alfred Binet. He began to focus on the relationship between psychology and biological science with particular emphasis on development. While assisting Binet to develop standardized IQ tests for children, Piaget noticed not only that children of the same age made similar errors but that these errors differed from those of older or younger children. His opinion about cognitive development began to form as he also observed that these differences in the types of children’s errors seemed to also show unique age-related thought style and understanding of the world. Thus, he opined that the study of what children know or do not know is an avenue to understand the changes in how they think.3 He adopted unstructured interviews with children, such that he would pose the children with a problem to solve or a question to answer. But he substituted detailed observations for formal interviews, and this approach led others to criticize his work. He later...

Words: 2569 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Different Schools of Psychology to the Advancement of the Field of Psychology

...Different schools of Psychology to the advancement of the field of Psychology Psychology began or has its roots in philosophy, the mother of all sciences. Aristotle in his works speaks rather remotely on different aspects of psychology. Among some of Aristotle’s major and famous works namely metaphysics, De Anime; he speaks of the soul which in profound consideration could come to the conclusion that it sounds synonymous with our modern understanding of ‘mind’. Thus psychology was a part of philosophy from the very beginning through it stands independently now. Further long before Aristotle existed; philosophers like Thales, Pythagoras, Heraclites and Parmenides spoke on the same subject even though it was not that much elaborated. Here we cannot forget the contribution made by Plato. He very clearly explains in his dialogues further on this matter. Psychology originated very simply as a result of the development of the metaphysical approach of the people of different times. In sociology it is an acceptable fact that the prevailing circumstances and state of a particular social milieu make a great impact on a particular matter. This impact varies from place to place time to time depending on the social characteristics. By inferences the aforementioned is the reason why there are different schools in psychology. When we analyses it stands to reason that all psychologists were trying to deal with the same matter. They have seen the same problems or the issues with regard to......

Words: 4796 - Pages: 20

Premium Essay

Human Development

...Human Development; Child Psychology Lisa Martin Liberty University Human Development; Child Psychology Child Psychology is concerned with the mentality and actions of children from a very tender age and through their youth as they prepare for adulthood. According to Cherry in her article, this covers mind development that is reflected in physical reactions either socially or emotionally. Initially, children were perceived as mere representatives of adults but at a smaller scale both in term of age and reasoning capacity. This theory perceives them as being sample representative of adults which means they may contain all or smaller traits in characteristics or in terms of behavior. I beg to differ because physical brain structure is totally different from psychology which involves reaction of the brain based on how it is programmed to react to a varied number of stimuli. According to Jean Piaget, children do act differently from adults and Albert Einstein concurred with the simplicity of the statement. Child psychology is universally agreed to be complex by experts and psychologies and yet they also differ in a wide variety of approaches they use to study the phenomenon. Development of the child is normally perceived from the internal aspects like genes and hereditary personality and analysts alongside other interested parties should consider external aspects such as social, cultural and socioeconomic contexts (Cherry). Social context refers......

Words: 1249 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Psychology for Management

...QUESTION 1 (B) - Students who go to class half an hour later than the prescribed start time for eight classes in a semester lost every desirable privileges (breaks during class, no football games, graduation dinner etc.). After the rule was implemented, there seemed to be a marked improvement in student attendance in class. How does operant conditioning explain the students’ behavior? Introduction Operant conditioning was thoroughly studied by Burrhus Frederick Skinner (B.F. Skinner), which he confirmed that someone learning ability is displayed by his or her behavior. When a factor in the person’s environment changes the consequences that they endure from their learning, can cause a positive or a negative impact on their behavior, which he categorize as reinforcers or punishments. Therefore, Operant Conditioning is a tool that can influence a person’s increasing or decrease his or her behavior by the consequences of their behavior. Operant conditioning will be illustrated by the behavior of the students when removing negative reinforcement or punishment or adding positive reinforcement or punishment (Robins et al, 2013). In this paragraph, the student’s behavior will be explained using Negative Reinforcement with the illustration of their behavior being increased frequently, towards the termination of the unfavorable consequence, which is, not having the privileges. From the question, the students attended to class early, which is their behavior, in order to......

Words: 4555 - Pages: 19

Premium Essay

Developmental Psychology

...DEVELOPMENT PSYCHOLOGY: WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO CRITICALLY LOOK AT DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES? . The term development is very broad and multi-dimensional that it is a topic dealt with in almost every discipline. Psychology is also a multi-dimensional discipline, and when encompassing development it constructs a field of study known as developmental psychology. The main focus of this area is on human growth throughout the lifespan. Originally, developmental psychology was concerned with infants and children, but the field has since expanded to include adolescence, adult development and aging. This is due to the fact that although childhood is obviously a time of tremendous change, people also continue to grow and develop during the early adult, middle age, and senior years. Inclusive in this field are related topics such as child development, intellectual development, cognitive development, and the aging process. In simpler terms then, developmental psychology is defined as the scientific study of age-related changes that occur in human beings cross different domains over the course of life. The direct focus of developmental psychology on human growth involves thorough observation and examination in order to be able to categorise and label a being. This marking of belonging to a certain group is another transformation......

Words: 1044 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Developmental Psychology Case Study

...Developmental Psychology Referencing style: APA Word Count: Student Name: Course Code: Date: 1. Find three Canadian Developmental Psychologists (CDP) who study aggression in children. For each researcher, indicate their university affiiation, describe their research in 1-2 sentences and provide the reference for one of their published articles. (6 marks). a. Victoira Talwar of McGill University has put forth a plethora of scientific evidence in the realm of child development as it pertains to aggresssion. Moreover, Talwar serves as the tier 2 research chair of psychology for the government of Canada. It appears as though much of Talwar’s research focuses on child development as it pertains to lying and aggressive behavious....

Words: 1131 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Social Psychology

...Social orientation is the recognition of human psychology and behavior. The emphasis on human thought, emotion, and behavior was to represent the thought, emotion, and behavior of members of a social group. Thomas Hobbes declared that the social groups are nothing more than a collection of individuals and that of social thought, emotion, and behavior, governed by the pursuit of pleasure and avoidance of pain (Greenwood, 2009). Cognitive psychology represents the distinction amongst the human mind and a computer that suggest that humans have the ability to process information from around the world just as computer. Cognitive psychology is not old but the newest part of psychology where the information we receive through our senses is then administered through the brain. Cognitive psychologists try to develop explanations of cognitive development, memory, attention, artificial intelligence, perception, and social cognition. The laboratory methods used to determine the outcome of a controlled circumstance are memory test and research studies. During the early 21st century, it appears that experimental psychology is healthy and growing; likewise the crisis in theories and progress is of discern. At this time there is not a crisis in psychology, nevertheless psychology can be described as an interregnum period, with much activity and no major leading directions or theoretical commitments (Mandler, 2011). The first crisis shown in psychology was seen in 1899. There was an......

Words: 1716 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Beh Week 9 Paper

...A graduate degree in psychology can open the doors to a lot of career options. It is the only graduate degree which helps in understanding the thought perspective of humans and equips you to be in a better position to communicate with others. The variety of options available after majors in psychology makes the decision even more difficult. The two career options which interest me the most are pediatric psychology and marketing. I have chosen one of the career options in the field of psychology only and another being a different field. I am interested in pursuing a career in marketing and being more involved in the creative design rather than analytics. Marketing is one career option where I feel the concepts of psychology shall be very useful. Many of my relatives are in the field of advertising or marketing and since child hood I have been somehow fascinated by this world. To grow in marketing apart from the educational qualifications, one needs to have excellent communication skills and structured thought perspective to influence the consumer. Apart from communication which is the most important skill, marketing would require strong skills to build or develop client relationships, creative writing skills in order to articulate your thoughts in a manner that it has an impact on the reader, out of the box thinking and the educational qualifications. One would need knowledge about data crunching as well, though I am not good in maths but I feel I can manage the basic levels....

Words: 770 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Emotions and Motivation

...The field of psychology may have grown to be respected as a science. Objectivity and the scientific method are both part of the psychologist's mode of operation. However, even the greatest of psychologists can only theorize about what makes human beings act the way they do. Absolutes are not part of psychology . Everything is relative and open to speculation. Theorists give us their views or ideas about life. In the field of psychology, there have been many different areas of interest. Human development is one of the most popular areas of interest for those who study psychology. Freud, Erikson and Piaget are all great theorists with different ideas concerning human development. Each theorist developed ideas and stages for human development. Their theories on human development had human beings passing through different stages. Each theory differed on what these stages were. These theories also differed with their respect towards paradigmatic assumptions, learning and development, and relationship towards educational practice. Freud is known as the father of psychology. Although some of his work has been dismissed, most of it still holds weight in the world of psychology. Freud believed that human development was fueled by inner forces. He believed the most powerful of all inner forces was our sexual being. Freud linked everything with sex. This includes any bodily pleasure whatsoever. Thus, when Freud discusses the sexual needs of children, they are not the same kind of sexual...

Words: 1755 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Child Psychology

...Child Psychology Anabel Rodriguez PSY/305 University of phoenix Child psychology deals with the study of behavior of the child from birth through adolescence. Thus, this branch of psychology focuses on the physical, motor, cognitive, perceptual, emotional and social. This is how child psychologists carry on methods to anticipate and solve problems in the mental health of children. Children experience a period of rapid growth and development that represents a clear difference from the relative stability of adults. Besides the physical changes associated with aging, there are important social, cognitive and behavioral changes that have profound implications for child psychopathology and its treatment. Age is presented as one of the most important aspects to take into account in the consideration and prognosis of childish behavior, since what may be as absolutely normal for a certain age may no longer be so in another age (fighting, bedwetting, fears or sexual activity), Behavior of this type are considered very differently and have a different prognosis according to the age of the child that manifests. In fact most of the symptoms of childhood behavior disorders are appropriate, or at least typical in the early stages of development (hyperactivity, restlessness and even aggression). For example, epidemiological studies of normal children show that parents report that about half of the children are restless hyperactive and distractible; the most......

Words: 499 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Humanistic Psychology

...humanistic psychology to the field of education Education has a critical role to play in nurturing children’s development across a range of intelligences and skills, and in laying the foundations for successful participation in adult life. The objective of the education system in Ireland is to provide a broadly based inclusive, high quality education that will enable individuals to develop to their full potential and to live fulfilled lives, as well as contributing to Ireland’s social and economic development. Humanistic perspective believes the purpose of education is to create better human beings. To create better communities, societies, use their knowledge to make better decisions resulting in a better world. “Education is an important factor in the development of the child. Education is a significant aspect in the day-to-day development of a child and education contributes to the personal, social, cultural and accomplishment of the adult” (Ncca.ie, www, Dated assessed 27th of November 2012) Humanistic psychology clearly highlights the role of the individual and their potential. It takes the environmental concerns and matters into account, rather than concentrating exclusively on their internal thoughts, desires and emphases the value of growth and self-actualisation. Humanistic psychology focuses on a holistic approach towards an individual and encourages the teacher to integrate and concentrate on the ‘whole’ when relating to the development of......

Words: 2185 - Pages: 9