Free Essay

Psychology William Sheldon

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By pampam27
Words 530
Pages 3
Sheldon's correlations remain unproven and, in 1995, it was revealed that many of the photographs Sheldon studied were obtained by requiring students at universities to be photographed naked and without informed consent as to how the pictures might be used. Sheldon died of heart disease in Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1977.

He says that a fat person with a large bone structure tends to have an outgoing and more relaxed personality while a more muscular body-typed person is more active and aggressive.

A slim or scrawny person with thin muscles is usually characterized as quiet or fragile.

Endomorphic - Psychologically, they are also fun-loving, good humored, even-tempered, and they love food and affection.
The Endomorph is physically quite 'round', and is typified as the 'barrel of fun' person. They tend to have: * Wide hips and narrow shoulders, which makes them rather pear-shaped. * Quite a lot of fat spread across the body, including upper arms and thighs. * They have quite slim ankles and wrists, which only serves to accentuate the fatter other parts.

* Sociable * Fun-loving * Love of food * Tolerant * Even-tempered * Good humored * Relaxed * With a love of comfort * And has a need for affection

Ectomorphic - They may eat just as much as the endomorph but never seem to gain any weight. They always stay skinny.
They always keep to themselves and are a afraid to branch out.
The Ectomorph is a form of opposite of the Endomorph. Physically, they tend to have: * Narrow shoulders and hips * A thin and narrow face, with a high forehead * A thin and narrow chest and abdomen * Thin legs and arms * Very little body fat
Even though they may eat as much as the endomorph, they never seem to put on weight (much to the endomorph's chagrin). Psychologically they are: * Self-conscious * Private * Introverted * Inhibited * Socially anxious * Artistic * Intense * Emotionally restrained * Thoughtful

Mesomorphic - Physically, they tend to have a large head and broad shoulders with a narrow waist. They have a strong muscular body and strong arms and legs and little fat on the body.
They work for the body they have so that they could have an attractive body. Psychologically, the mesomorph is adventurous and courageous. They are not afraid to break out and do new things with new people. They are assertive
The mesomorph is somewhere between the round endomorph and the thin ectomorph. Physically, they have the more 'desirable' body, and have: * Large head, broad shoulders and narrow waist (wedge-shaped). * Muscular body, with strong forearms and and thighs * Very little body fat
They are generally considered as 'well-proportioned'. Psychologically, they are: * Adventurous * Courageous * Indifferent to what others think or want * Assertive/bold * Zest for physical activity * Competitive * With a desire for power/dominance * And a love of risk/chance

Sheldon's Motives

The original work of Sheldon was used to characterize criminals and he found that most of the criminals were mesomorphs because violent crimes were usually committed by big strong men. It makes sense because according to Sheldon's theory, people with a muscular and attractive body tend to be competative and want power and dominance. This also proved that mesomorphic people are usually criminal in nature.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Gung Ho!

...GUNG HO! Ken Blanchard and Sheldon Bowles, authors of the book Gung Ho!, discuss the process of getting an organization involved, productive, and energetic. By following simple guidelines set by the grandfather of the character Andy Longclaw, the Walton Waterworks #2 was able to recover from the threat of being shut down and become a role model for the other plants in the company. Blanchard and Bowles write that “the real secret of successful management is discovering what people do naturally and then figuring out how to adapt the organization to take advantage of natural behavior.” (Ken & Sheldon, 1998) Using the natural strengths and abilities of the members within the organization simplifies the managing process. As members within the organization are allowed to grow to their furthest natural potential, the management process becomes simpler. Blanchard and Bowles explain that in order to adapt the Gung Ho process, “First, team members had to be willing, even eager to take on considerable extra responsibility… Second, managers had to give up the levers of control they’d worked a lifetime to get hold of.” As managers learn to delegate their responsibilities to their employees, they are able to take on more of a managing role within the organization. Becoming Gung Ho requires an attitude change of the members, who may or may not be interested in change. The willingness members within the organization have to change affects the effectiveness of the Gung Ho process.......

Words: 581 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Psychlogy Position Paper

...Communicating the Value of Psychology Position Paper Nagle Catholic College Danni Carroll “Psychology is the scientific study of how we think, feel and act. It aims to answer important questions such as what motivates people to behave the way they do and what factors influence the way they think, feel and behave as they grow up and develop” (Fletcher and Garton, 2007). Psychology is applied to society as a whole; it can help us understand how we as individuals can function as members of society and the values and attitudes to things such as Culture, Social values and practices and Social, Historical and Political Influences. Psychology studies have also taken us into the minds of others and how they react to certain situations; from this psychologists have created the areas of Social Psychology, Relational Influences and Communication that their studies fall under. The study of psychology also lets us find out more about ourselves as individuals such as our Biological Influences, Cognition, Developmental and Personality (Fletcher and Garton 2007). This position paper is aimed at a year 12 Psychology class studying 3AB Psychology: Self, Others and Society. The class consists 17 students with the majority of the students being female and aged 16-17. The purpose of this paper is to provide the students with a clearer understanding of the Psychology areas of Self, Others and Society. Case Study 1 – Personality Personality is defined as the characteristics of a......

Words: 2383 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Investigatory Project

...Anglican (nominal); Unitarian | 5 | Louis Pasteur | the Germ Theory of Disease | Catholic | 6 | Sigmund Freud | Psychology of the Unconscious | Jewish; Atheist; Freudian psychoanalysis (Freudianism) | 7 | Galileo Galilei | the New Science | Catholic | 8 | Antoine Laurent Lavoisier | the Revolution in Chemistry | Catholic | 9 | Johannes Kepler | Motion of the Planets | Lutheran | 10 | Nicolaus Copernicus | the Heliocentric Universe | Catholic (priest) | 11 | Michael Faraday | the Classical Field Theory | Sandemanian | 12 | James Clerk Maxwell | the Electromagnetic Field | Presbyterian; Anglican; Baptist | 13 | Claude Bernard | the Founding of Modern Physiology |   | 14 | Franz Boas | Modern Anthropology | Jewish | 15 | Werner Heisenberg | Quantum Theory | Lutheran | 16 | Linus Pauling | Twentieth-Century Chemistry | Lutheran | 17 | Rudolf Virchow | the Cell Doctrine |   | 18 | Erwin Schrodinger | Wave Mechanics | Catholic | 19 | Ernest Rutherford | the Structure of the Atom |   | 20 | Paul Dirac | Quantum Electrodynamics |   | 21 | Andreas Vesalius | the New Anatomy | Catholic | 22 | Tycho Brahe | the New Astronomy | Lutheran | 23 | Comte de Buffon | l'Histoire Naturelle |   | 24 | Ludwig Boltzmann | Thermodynamics |   | 25 | Max Planck | the Quanta | Protestant | 26 | Marie Curie | Radioactivity | Catholic (lapsed) | 27 | William Herschel | the Discovery of the Heavens | Jewish | 28 | Charles Lyell | Modern Geology |   | 29 |......

Words: 729 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Team Dynamics

...everyone has different values and different priorities, everyone has different personalities and different ways on working with others. It’s how you overcome each other’s differences to reach the goal of the group. That is what Team Dynamics is all about. References Gillies, R., (2003). Structuring cooperative group work in classrooms. International Journal of Education Research, 39, 35-49. Davis, A. (1991). Piaget, teachers and education: Into the 1990s. In P. Lights, S. Sheldon & M. Woodhead (Eds.), Learning to think (pp. 16-31). London: Routledge. Cazden, C. B., Cox, M., Dickinson, D., Steinberg, Z., & Stone, C. (1979). You all gonna hafta listen: Peer teaching in a primary classroom. In W. A. Collins (Ed.), Children’s language and communication: The Minnesota symposia on child psychology, 12. Hillsdale, NJ: Erbaum. Latane, B., Williams, K. & Harkins, S. (1979). Many hands make light the work: The causes and consequences of social loafing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 822-832. Wegerif, R. (2000). Applying a dialogical model of reason in the classroom. In R. Joiner, K. Littleton, D. Faulkener & D. Miell (Eds.), Rethinking collaborative learning (pp. 119-136). London: Free Association Books. Bryant, B., Professor of leadership and organization at the Institute for Management Development, Oct 2008, Vol 14, Issue 20¸ 11-11, ½ p. retrieved from American Association of Family and Consumer Sciences......

Words: 919 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Motivational Processes

...results of one survey, intrinsic motives (competence and enjoyment), motivates adherence and attendance to a selected physical activity (Ryan, Frederick, Lepes, Rubio, & Sheldon, 1997). Intrinsic factors influence motivation by satisfying particular basic psychological needs. In particular, feeling of autonomy and competence is an important factor in intrinsic motivation. Since intrinsic motivation is an evolved and natural propensity, certain environmental factors can diminish or undermine how the intrinsic factors can influence motivation for exercise. Cognitive evaluation theory (CET) explains that events that negatively affect an individual’s experience of autonomy and or competence diminish the influence intrinsic factors would have on motivating exercise. On the other hand, an event that support or promote feelings of autonomy and or competence enhances intrinsic influence on exercise motivation. For instance, while football may be interesting to an individual, presence of a controlling coach who puts too much pressure and orders on players can diminish an individual’s interest and joy of participating in the activity. In parallel, environmental conditions that pose extreme challenges may make an individual to feel incompetent and thus demoralize him or her in engaging in the activity (Ryan, Williams, & Patrick, 2009). Influence of Extrinsic Factors on Exercise Motivation for engagement in exercise activities is also influenced by external gains. In fact, even most......

Words: 1471 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Personality Analysis: Dispositional and Learning Theories

...Instincts in Psychoanalysis Other Psychodynamic Theorists (Social-) Learning Theories Dollard/Miller's Stimulus-Response Theory B. F. Skinner and Personality as Behavior Bandura and Social Learning Self-Growth Theories Carl Rogers and Person-Centered Theory Maslow's Holistic Theory A Modern Theory of Personality: Big Five USING PSYCHOLOGY: What Determines Your Personality -Heredity? Environment? USING PSYCHOLOGY: What Determines Your Personality -Heredity and Environment REVIEW ACTIVITIES INTERESTED IN MORE? Personality: Theories WHAT'S THE ANSWER? "I'm really jealous of my sister. Here I am about to graduate, and I only made it into the Student Association this year. Sis's a freshman -- a frosh -- and she's already been elected." "Wilma, I know what you mean. My older brother was the same way. You know what your sister and my brother have in common? They've both got a lot of personality. Your sister kind of just radiates charm -- even for a first-year student! And Kirk's the same way: Everywhere he goes, people smile with him. He gushes at the right time, gets serious when he needs to, and always has a good word for everybody. He's just got a PSYCHOLOGY: Exploring Behavior Personality: Theories magnetic personality." here? 430 How is the term "personality" being used "I'll never forget that cookie jar. When we were real young, every time we visited my grandmother I used to scheme with my twin sister about how we could get into the jar and get those......

Words: 10917 - Pages: 44

Premium Essay

Facebook Epidemic

...revolutionized what it means to communicate with someone and what it means to be connected, and whether or not these changes have been beneficial or detrimental to relationships has been a hot topic among many scholars. Some scholars say that Facebook is beneficial for relationships. They claim that Facebook has made it easier to stay in contact with others, easier to express oneself to people online, that it enlarges their social circle, and they say that it makes it easier to connect and communicate with people that have meaning in their life. This is a valid argument because Facebook has opened up new forms of communication and connectivity with its 500 million-user society to keep in touch and communicate easily (Facebook, Kujath, Bargh, Sheldon, Ellison, Joinson). Other scholars argue that Facebook isn’t allowing for the right kind of interpersonal connections and communications to occur among relationships. Many scholars argue that Facebook creates superficial relationships, teaches people to express themselves through a screen rather than the actual world, and allows a blur of connectivity (Schotz, Millen, Kraut, Rhoads). Although the scholarly arguments on this topic are very polar, there is a middle ground where Facebook can be beneficial if it is used in moderation. Facebook can be very beneficial in enhancing communication and connectivity but it should not be used as the main medium to do so in relationships. For the purposes of this essay, communication will be......

Words: 3328 - Pages: 14

Free Essay

Body Parts

...angle and cranial index c. Edward A. Spitzka, M.D., (1876-1922) and “brain size” (1903), Philadelphia –also an MD, in Philly. Began to do same kind of research in US as Broca. Publishes article in JAMA in 1908, called “the brains of eminent men”, saying that the larger the brain, the more intelligent the individual. Argued that brains get larger through use, so the bigger brains are used more. People could be reformed by exercising the brain. Spitzka also argued for the dependence of face angle and superiority, again showing white as superior. Craniometry starts to lose popularity around 1900 because of the beginning of intelligence testing. It wasn’t based on the face, the bumps on the head, brain size or weight, it was a branch of psychology and anthropology that showed that size wasn’t that important. Education and environment were much more important. Leads to IQ, showed fairly conclusively that real intelligence didn’t match up at all with these measurements. These three are seen as pseudoscience (but segments keep coming back). 3. Criminal anthropology –The recapitulation theory is true, that there is some ape in all of us. All of us develop differently (monogenism), some develop further than others. Certain races and genders are slowed down. Some races were compared to white children, they didn’t develop into mature adult intelligence. This is used to explain criminality. Savages and women were emotionally like children. a. “recapitulation”—general theory of......

Words: 3381 - Pages: 14

Free Essay

Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Alcohol

...Running head: Risk and Protective factors associated with Alcohol, Cigarette and Marijuana use during Adolescence. Risk and Protective factors: the effects of specific substances on adolescence. Sheldon Harrison Psychology LD10, Substance Use Professor S. Williams Fall 2008, Article #4 Researchers have studied the risk and protective factors associated with Alcohol, Cigarette and Marijuana use during Adolescence. Also they studied to determine if there were differences in risk and protective factors depending on the magnitude of their association with the previously mentioned substances. It was believed that substance use by adolescence had an effect on an individual’s whole cognitive functions, increases risk of crimes and maybe even death. It was also proven that the total economic cost of drug abuse was quite costly. Hence this research was deemed highly beneficial. In this study of risk and protective factors by Graves, Fernandez, Shelton, Frabutt and Williford (2005), both 11 – 17 year old male and female adolescent individuals were observed in the experiment. Results showed that cigarettes were the highest used substance, and also that there was a high correlation among the three substances. The predictions were that higher frequencies of substance use would be higher for older adolescence, adolescent males and those with a history of parental criminal involvement (Graves et al.,......

Words: 1244 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Evaluation of Criminal Theory

...of crime. All of these studies and theories will be compared and examined to understand the standing of criminology today. The first study of why people commit crime revolved around the belief that criminal behavior resulted from a persons� abnormal psychology. These theories suggest that criminal behavior is caused by some underlying physical or mental condition. These conditions separate the societies criminals from the non- criminals (Adler et. al, 2007 p.116). The first people to study this rationale where called Positivist Criminologist and believed that; Human behavior is determined by forces beyond individual control and that is it possible to measure those forces�{They} view criminal behavior as stemming from biological, psychological and social factors. (Adler et. al, 2007 p.60) In the late 1870�s, Cesare Lombroso developed the theory that some people are just �born criminal� and have certain traits called atavistic stigmata that distinguish them from non-criminals. (Adler et. al, 2007 p.68) This theory soon lead to similar theories including the somatotype school of criminology. This theory was based upon a persons� physical build. Psychiatrist such as Ernst Kretschner, William Sheldon and Sheldon Glueck all theorized that criminal behavior could be determined from an individuals� body. This school of thought was abandoned shortly after World War II due to the similarities with eugenics. (Adler et. al, 2007 p.68) Another theory that......

Words: 3220 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Crime and the Affecting Factors of the Criminal Behavior

...the Crime. pursued by some scholars is to investigate the criminality of identical twins. ____________________ (1) Friedlander, Kate, The Psycho-Analytical Approach to Juvenile Delinquency, Routledge and Kegan Paul, , London, 1947, pp:95-110, pp:311-314. - Cohen, Albert K., Delinquent Boys, Free Press , New York, 1955, pp:356-360. - Eysenck, H. J., Crime and Personality, second edition. Routledge and Kegan Paul, London,1977, pp:227-237. - Friedlander, Kate, The Psycho-Analytical Approach to Juvenile Delinquency, Routledge and Kegan Paul, , London, 1947, pp:95-110, pp:311-314. - Hakeem, Michael, "A Critique of the Psychiatric Approach to the Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency." Social Problems",1957, pp:194-205. - Healy, William and Augusta F. Bronner, New Light on Delinquency and Its Treatment. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1936,pp : 154-160. - Lewis, Dorothy Ottow, and others , " Biopsychosocial Characteristics of Matched Samples of Delinquents and Nondelinquents." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry , 1987, pp:744-752. - Void, George B. and Thomas J. Bernard, Theoretical Criminology, third edition. Oxford University Press , New York,1986, pp:331-336 . - Wilson, James and Richard J. Herrnstein, Crime and Human Nature, Simon and Schuster, New York ,1985, pp:34-39. 8.1:- Twin studies : One method of testing the question of the possible influence of inherited factors on crime which has been One should explain that twins......

Words: 12519 - Pages: 51

Premium Essay

Research That Has Suggested a Link Between Stress and Ill Health

...stress hormones, including cortisol. The flow of hormones, in turn shuts off the immune response. This negative-feedback loop allows a short burst of immune activity, but prevents the immune system from over-activity. In this way some stress can be beneficial for the individual. But chronic stress produces such a constant flow of cortisol that the immune system is dampened too much. This helps explain how stress makes us ill (Sternberg, 2000). In a review of the scientific literature on the relationship between stress and disease, Carnegie Mellon University psychologist Sheldon Cohen has found that stress is a contributing factor in human disease, and in particular depression, cardiovascular disease and HIV/AIDS. Cohen's findings were published in the Oct. 10 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA). As recently as April (2012) further research done at Carnegie Mellon University by Sheldon Cohen and published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences shows for the first time that the effects of psychological stress on the body’s ability to control inflammation can further the development and advancement of illness and disease. In conclusion we see that all the various studies done some way or the other provide evidence to suggest a link between illness and stress, and shows that the more stress the person is under the more likely he or she is to becoming ill. Long term stress can disable the body’s ability to cope as a result of the......

Words: 2057 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Business Law

...America, the National Council of Churches, United Church of Christ and the United Methodist Church were among the supporters of the anti- discrimination measure (Bagett, Lau, Sears, & Ho, 2007). Even with overwhelming support from religious based organizations, strong resistance is still an issue by right-wing and anti-gay coalitions to the bill (Lafferty & Sheldon, 2009). The groups attempt to confuse the public about the parameters of the bills objectives by stating, “if ENDA is signed into law, the homosexual/transgender movement will have won a major victory. They will have accomplished a long-term goal of having “sexual orientation” and “gender identity” given federally-protected minority status under the law”, (Lafferty & Sheldon, 2009). In addition to the sexual orientation and gender identity concerns, focus for these groups is on Christians and other religious faiths who they think will be forced to violate their Constitutionally-protected and firmly held religious beliefs to bend to the will of homosexual and transgender activists (Lafferty & Sheldon, 2009). There is also apprehension with the opposition on who the bill will affect and the impact on businesses. For example * the cost of defending—and winning one discrimination case can be enough to break a small company. Most small companies do not have insurance that covers discrimination claims. * The Law of Unintended Consequences......

Words: 3185 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

General Psychology

...General Psychology Autism- severe chronic developmental disorder * Characterized by severely compromised ability to engage in and by a lack of interest in social interaction. *Autism Spectrum* 1. Asperger’s Syndrome * high/ normal intelligence * shy * problem on eye contact * don’t recognize facial expressions * focus only on 1 thing * absent minded * can’t adapt to changes 2. Semantic Pragmantic Disorder- more sociable 3. Hyperlexia- more on a symptom than a disorder - fascinated in letters and numbers but don’t communicate 4. Non-verbal Learning Disability- can’t recognize faces 5. Prosopagnosia- face blind (2.5% of the entire world) ~ ~ ~ Learning Disorder Dyslexia- reading disorder “Dyslexia” ADHD- attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Stuttering- therapy “singing” Tics- abnormal movement that can’t be controlled Tourette’s Syndrome-vocal tics (5 in every 10k people) Coprolalia- involuntary shouting Separation Anxiety (No Description) Conduct Disorder (No Description) ~ ~ ~ Jean Piaget- 1st a BIOLOGIST Cognitive Development- ability to understand Genetic Epistemology- study of the development of knowledge Schemas- sensory motor skills A. Assimilation (No Description) B. Accommodation (No Description) Equilibrium- Balance of adaptation Stages of Cognitive Development 1. Sensorimotor- birth- 2 years old Primary Circular Reaction | 1 to 4 months | Mental......

Words: 881 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Concepts and Theories in Politics

...Concepts and Theories in Politics Welcome to Introduction to Politics! This lecture will supplement what you will hear in class. I’m going to discuss some important methodological and substantive issues having to do with political science, including the role of concepts and theories, human nature and politics, and ideologies. If you need more background, I suggest taking a look at Sheldon Wolin, Politics and Vision; C.B. Macpherson, The Real World of Democracy; or Robert Dahl, A Preface to Democratic Theory.   To begin with, in some ways it is a misnomer to speak of political “science.” One crucial difference between political science and the natural sciences is that in the latter there is normally only one dominant paradigm at a time, while in the former there are what might be called competing paradigms. As T.S. Kuhn establishes in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, there was a paradigm shift from the Ptolemaic to the Copernican universe; in other words, from the idea that the Earth is the center of the universe we move to the idea that the Earth in fact goes around the sun, a radical conception when it was first put forward in 16th-century Europe but one that is now universally accepted. In the social sciences, however, there is no overriding consensus on how to analyze reality (or even on what counts as reality). In political science, for example, three major views may be distinguished on power and authority in the United States: (a) the pluralist model, in which...

Words: 1536 - Pages: 7