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Psychology

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By a1cmills06
Words 1086
Pages 5
Stephen Mills
Abnormal Psychology
PSY-350-OL
April 2012

1.Discuss the following personality disorders: paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal. People with paranoid personality disorder are generally characterized by having a pattern of pervasive distrust and suspiciousness of others. A person with paranoid personality disorder will nearly always believe that other people's motives are suspect or even malevolent. Individuals with this disorder assume that other people will exploit, harm, or deceive them, even if no evidence exists to support this expectation. Researchers today don't know what causes paranoid personality disorder. There are many theories, however, about the possible causes of paranoid personality disorder. Some of these theories are biological and genetic factors as well as social factors how a person interacts in their early development. If a person has this personality disorder, research suggests that there is a slightly increased risk for this disorder to be "passed down" to their children. Treatment of paranoid personality disorder typically involves long-term psychotherapy with a therapist that has experience in treating this kind of personality disorder. Medications may also be prescribed to help with specific troubling and debilitating symptoms. Schizoid Personality Disorder is characterized by a pattern of detachment from social relationships. A person with schizoid personality disorder often has difficulty expression emotions and does so typically in very restricted range. A person with this disorder may appear to lack a desire for close relationships with others. They may often prefer to spend time with themselves rather than socialize or be in a group of people. Researchers today don't know what causes schizoid personality disorder. Most professionals believe biological, genetic factors and social factors play role in this disorder. Treatment of schizoid personality disorder typically involves long-term psychotherapy with a therapist that has experience in treating this kind of personality disorder. Medications may also be prescribed to help with specific troubling and debilitating symptoms. Someone who has great difficulty in establishing and maintaining close relationships with others characterizes Schizotypal personality disorder. A person with schizotypal personality disorder may have extreme discomfort with such relationships, and therefore have less of a capacity for them. Someone with this disorder usually has cognitive or perceptual distortions as well as eccentricities in their everyday behavior. Researchers today don't know what causes Schizotypal personality disorder. Most professionals believe biological, genetic factors and social factors play role in this disorder. Treatment of Schizotypal personality disorder typically involves long-term psychotherapy with a therapist that has experience in treating this kind of personality disorder. Medications may also be prescribed to help with specific troubling and debilitating symptoms.

2.Discuss narcissistic, antisocial, and dependent personality disorders. Narcissistic Personality Disorder is characterized by an exaggerated sense of self-importance with an overpowering need for admiration, and usually a complete lack of compassion toward others. People with this disorder often believe they are of primary importance in everybody's life or to anyone they meet. This type of behavior is usually considered inappropriate for most ordinary people today. People with narcissistic personality disorder often display patronizing attitudes. Antisocial personality disorder is characterized by a disregard for other people's rights, often crossing the line and violating those rights. It usually begins in childhood or as a teen and continues into their adult lives. Individuals with Antisocial Personality Disorder frequently lack empathy. They may have an inflated and arrogant self-appraisal and may be excessively opinionated, self-assured, or cocky. These individuals may also be irresponsible and exploitative in their sexual relationships. Dependent personality disorder is characterized by the need for the person to be taken care of and a fear of being abandoned or separated from important individuals in his or her life. This leads the person to engage in dependent and submissive behaviors that are designed to elicit care-giving behaviors in others. Individuals with Dependent Personality Disorder are often characterized by pessimism and self-doubt. They take criticism and disapproval as proof of their worthlessness and lose faith in themselves. They may avoid positions of responsibility and become anxious when faced with decisions. Social relations tend to be limited to those few people on whom the individual is dependent.

3.List and explain the types of sexual abuse. There are three categories of sexual abuse pedophilia, incest, and rape. Pedophilia is a disorder in which an adult has sexual fantasies about or engages in sexual acts with a prepubescent child of the same or the opposite sex. Next is incest, which is culturally prohibited sexual relations between family members, such as brother and sister or parent and child. Finally is rape a sexual activity that occurs under actual or threated forcible coercion of one person by another.

4.Discuss the paraphilia’s, giving examples and discussing causal factors and treatments. A paraphilia is a condition in which a person's sexual arousal and gratification depend on fantasizing about and engaging in sexual behavior that is atypical and extreme. A paraphilia can revolve around three factors nonhuman objects, the suffering or humiliation of oneself or partner, or children or other nonconsenting persons. A paraphilia is distinguished by a preoccupation with the object or behavior to the point of being dependent on that object or behavior for sexual gratification. Paraphilia’s include sexual behaviors that society may view as distasteful, unusual or abnormal. There are eight specific paraphilia’s. Lets begin with (1) fetishism use of inanimate objects. (2) transvestic fetishism cross-dressing, (3) voyeurism observing private activities of unaware victims, (4) exhibitionism exposure of genitals to strangers, (5) sexual sadism inflicting humiliation or suffering, (6) sexual masochism being humiliated or forced to suffer, (7) pedophilia sexual activity with a child usually 13 years old or younger, (8) frotteurism touching, rubbing against a nonconsenting person. It is unclear what causes a paraphilia to develop. Some believe they may be repeating or reverting to a sexual habit that arose early in life. There is also the suggestion that paraphilia’s begin through a process of conditioning. Nonsexual objects can become sexually arousing if they are repeatedly associated with pleasurable sexual activity. Most of the treatment involved in the treatment of paraphilia’s has been conducted with sex offenders. Many sex offenders have paraphilia’s and in cases of non-sex offenders it is case by case and many of them don’t seek treatment. Treatment of sex offenders has not yet proved highly effective in most cases but promising research is being conducted.

Work cited:

Butcher, ames Neal, Susan Mineka, ill M. Hooley, et al. Abnormal Psychology. 14th. Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Baco, 2011.

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