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Psychology

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FRAMEWORK FOR STUDYING HUMAN RESILIENCE

By

Poonam Punni

T00037598

Assignment No. 1

Submitted to

Dr. Jean Ferri

In partial fulfillment of the requirements for

Psychology 399

TRU, Open Learning

October 7, 2012

Part A: Short-Answer questions

1. A hypothesis is an educated guess as to explain something that you do not know of. The theory would be to test that guess and see if it actually works or is true. The theory comes from when you can prove the certain thing that takes place.

2. The independent variable in the memorization test would be the two different climate settings of hot and cold. Whereas the dependent variable would be what climate group can remember the most words off the list.

3. To examine the academic achievement of a sixth-grade student the correlation method is better because it can predict a relationship between the two variables. The experimental method could not be practiced practically due to the constraints required on conducting the examination as well as issues of ethics and practicality.

4. The issue with proclaiming that poor peer acceptance leads to delinquent behaviour is that a correlational study does not imply causation. A third variable, poor impulse control can influence both poor peer acceptance and delinquent behaviour because it makes it appear that the two variables are related to one another when the relationship is actually false.

5. There is a problem with validity because researchers are trying to measure sociability of toddlers but in this research antisocial behaviour is also being measured which was not what was intended to be measured in theory.

6. A mediator explains how or why there is a relationship between the predictor variable and the outcome variable whereas the moderator variable affects the strength of the relationship between a predictor variable and an outcome variable. The moderator variable is more commonly seen in resilience research because resilience research involves examining how particular variables may protect or buffer against adverse outcomes in the presence of risk factors.

7. The risk variable is weight loss program. The moderating variable is weight loss in overweight men. The outcome variable is the weight loss program does not help overweight women.

8. The mediating variable is parental stress. The predictor variable is family poverty. The outcome variable poorer parenting practices.

9. The two main focuses of this study were to assess the long-term consequences of prenatal and perinatal stress and to document the effects of adverse early rearing conditions on children’s physical, cognitive and psychosocial development

10. The problem with retrospective research is that there are few records and memories of parents and others are often inaccurate. Also, only a small number of risk factors are usually targeted for study, for example a single parent or an alcoholic parent.

11. High-risked children were defined as those who have experienced prenatal stress, dysfunctional and impoverished homes, and those who have mentally disturbed or alcoholic parents.

12. The three adverse outcomes identified in the study are based on high-risk children who went on to develop healthy personalities, stable careers and strong interpersonal relations

13. Indicators of positive outcomes for “at-risk” individuals when they were young adults were when these individuals were able to maintain stable careers while having great interpersonal relations and healthy personalities.

14. Resilient children had had fairly high activity levels, low degrees of excitability and distress, and a high degree of sociability. Furthermore, the resilient children came from families with fewer children who were spaced farther apart. They also had the opportunity to establish a close bond with at least one caretaker who took special care of them in the early years of development. These children also seemed to find a great deal of emotional support outside their immediate family such as teachers and peers.

15. Vulnerable at risk children were considered priority for interventions with the help of support networks so that the resilient child can develop a sense of meaning in their lives and a belief that they could control their fate.

Part B: Risk and Resilience Factors

The recent shift in studying psychology which focused disparities that increase the risk of developing adverse outcomes is now moving towards a more positive psychology that focuses on examining human resilience and strengths (Cleverley & Kidd, 2011). This shift in paradigm has allowed researchers to study various resilience factors that can help identify various adverse outcomes for at-risk individuals. This assignment will be looking at two articles, Resilience and suicidality among homeless youth and Fostering social-emotional resilience among Latino youth, to locate the various risk factors as well as resilience factors associated with the individual, family, and/or community.

In the article, Resilience and suicidality among homeless youth, Cleverley & Kidd (2011) found that lower psychological distress and less suicidal ideation was associated with youths’ perceived resilience. Furthermore, Cleverley & Kidd (2011) established that the individual risk factors were distress and time on the streets whereas individual resilience factor was self-esteem as they were associated with endorsement of suicidal ideation. The adverse outcomes of this study indicate that more time on the streets wears down resilience and increases psychological distress making it a strong predictor of high suicidal ideation (Cleverley & Kidd, 2011).

In the article Fostering social-emotional resilience among Latino youth, Reyes & Elias (2011) identify risk factors as increasing levels of poverty, ethnic or racial discrimination, and acculturative stress as linked to poor outcomes. Furthermore, the resilience factors were identified as family values and the importance of the family unit. Family also stresses the obligation and support that family members owe to both immediate and extended family (Reyes & Elias, 2011). At risk Latinos will also receive intervention and support from family and friends during hard times as well as gain resilience when they have positive role models within the community (Reyes & Elias, 2011). The adverse outcomes of the above resilience have the effect of reducing competiveness among Latino students allow them to speak up when victimized, relational aggression or bullying.

After viewing the two articles, it was interesting to see the positive outcomes of resilience. Both articles demonstrated the power of resilience especially when it comes to “at-risk” individuals. However, both articles listed the limitations associated with these types of studies and both indicated that more research needs to be conducted in this area. Despite the limitations, the shift is psychology in which resilience is being study aids in understanding the individual in a more holistic manner and thus making it a very important aspect of psychology.

References

Cleverley, K., & Kidd, S. A. (2011). Resilience and suicidality among homeless youth. Journal Of Adolescence, 34(5), 1049-1054. doi:10.1016/j.adolescence.2010.11.003
Reyes, J. A., & Elias, M. J. (2011). Fostering social–emotional resilience among Latino youth. Psychology In The Schools, 48(7), 723-737. doi:10.1002/pits.20580

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