Premium Essay

Psychology

Submitted By maria6
Words 1349
Pages 6
Iterative Methods for Solving Sets of Equations

2.1 The Gauss-Seidel Method

The Gauss-Seidel method may be used to solve a set of linear or nonlinear algebraic equations. We will illustrate the method by solving a heat transfer problem. For steady state, no heat generation, and constant k, the heat conduction equation is simplified to Laplace equation

(2T = 0

For 2-dimensional heat transfer in Cartesian coordinate

[pic] + [pic] = 0

The above equation can be put in the finite difference form. We divide the medium of interest into a number of small regions and apply the heat equation to these regions. Each sub-region is assigned a reference point called a node or a nodal point. The average temperature of a nodal point is then calculated by solving the resulting equations from the energy balance. Accurate solutions can be obtained by choosing a fine mesh with a large number of nodes. We will discuss an example from Incropera’s1 text to illustrate the method.

Example 2.1-1

A long column with thermal conductivity k = 1 W/m(oK is maintained at 500oK on three surfaces while the remaining surface is exposed to a convective environment with h = 10 W/m2(oK and fluid temperature T(. The cross sectional area of the column is 1 m by 1 m. Using a grid spacing (x = (y = 0.25 m, determine the steady-state temperature distribution in the column and the heat flow to the fluid per unit length of the column.

Solution

The cross sectional area of the column is divided into many sub-areas called a grid or nodal network with 25 nodes as shown in Figure 2.1-1. There are 12 nodal points with unknown temperature, however only 8 unknowns need to be solved due to symmetry so that the nodes to the left of the centerline are the same as those to the right.
[pic]
Figure 2.1-1 The grid for the column cross sectional area.

The energy balance is now applied to...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Psychology

...Define psychology: Psychology involves the study of human and behavior, experiences and the mind. Psychology can be implemented using slews of techniques and is analyzed from different positions. Psychology has had a dynamic history; it has evolved over decades and has grown into a dependable science. More former understandings of the philosophies and ideas played a prominent role by outlining contemporary concepts. “Psychology has a long past, but only a short history.”(Ebbinhuas, 1973) Wilhem Wundt’s’ work was the blueprint of modern psychology in 1879; he instituted the laboratory dedicated to psychology in Leipzig, Germany. Wundt had a particular interest about human behavior, emotions. His techniques had special emphasis on experimental evidence that endorsed explanatory theory. Today psychology is thought of as the scientific study of human behavior and mental process. However, this was not always the case. The soul of man was the leading interest of philosophers’, followed by the mind and conscious experience, and finally observable behavior. Problems arouse with the affiliation of body and soul. It remained unsolved by philosophers because it was founded on delusive dualism and involved a separate study of physical and spiritual development. Afterwards, the spiritual panorama was supplanted by a broader word “mind”. Modern psychology is disinterested in the study of mind, rather, the mental processes have deputized mind. The “mind approach” in psychology was......

Words: 458 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Psychology

...The article that I chose is titled “Overview of Social Psychology; Sociology & Related Fields”. It begins with a detailed definition of Psychology; stating Psychology or the study of human behavior is an amply sized, expansive field that encompasses several distinct factions, each of which offers its own unique brand of specialization (Gibson, 1994). Throughout the articles overview it speaks on the different branches of psychology, counseling psychology, clinical psychology and developmental psychology. This article is a review of existing research and psychological experiments. I can tell that the information in this article is based from existing research due to the article making reference several times to different classic studies, insights and experiments that were conducted to implement the study of “Social Psychology”. The main purpose of this article was to conduct classic social psychological studies including Stanley Milgram’s experiment on obedience; the study also examined the Bystander Effect and also addressed cognitive dissonance to better understand how one’s behavior changes through a social psychological lens. Stanley Milgram’s Experiment on Obedience was titled “Behavioral Study of Obedience”, and was designed to uncover material encompassing the darker side of human behavior. Throughout the Milgram experiment they used fake actors who assumed various roles within the framework of a man made scenario to receive psychological insight towards human......

Words: 569 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Psychology

...Biological Psychology Name Institution What scientific evidence exists to support the proposition that other animals are capable of language? 1. Student Linda Salazar According to Linda Salazar, promising results from the right on time creature language studies were tossed after disclosures of methodological issues were revealed. This lent confirmation to an necessary clarification of the advancement of language, championed by a few language specialists and analysts, who guarantee that semantic attitudes are remarkably human (Kalat, 2013). Later research, deliberately intended to overcome procedural blemishes has refueled the level headed discussion, by giving confirmation to the transformative clarification of language improvement, proposing that a graduation of linguistic abilities exists in human and nonhuman primates. Analysts and commentators alike are mindful in assessing these later studies (Toates, 2001). Numerous are concentrating on the inquiries that emerged from the dialect investigations of nonhuman primates, concerning cognizance and knowledge, and their relationship to phonetic/linguistic capacity. As supported by the book, Biological Psychology by James W. Kalat, human language is a repercussion of knowledge and its blemishes with this hypothesis (Garrett, 2009). Language should likewise have developed after some time as particular mind component. In light of acoustic instruments that control conduct, intentional and automatic frameworks, I......

Words: 1557 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Psychology

...Psychology Perspectives 5 main psychology approaches: * Behaviorist Perspective * Psychodynamic Perspective * Cognitive Psychology * Biological Psychology * Evolutionary Psychology Behaviorism – different from most other approaches because they view people (and animals) as controlled by their environment and specifically that we are the result of what we have learned from our environment. * Concerned with how environmental factors (stimuli) affect observable behavior (response)) 2 main processes learn from environment: * Classical conditioning * Operant conditioning Behaviorism- scientific study of observable behavior working on basis that behavior can reduced to learned S-R (Stimulus-Response) units. Classical conditioning- studied by Russian psychologist Ivan Pavlov. Looking into natural reflexes and neutral stimuli he managed to conditioning dogs to salivate to the sound of a bell through repeated associated of the sound of the bell and food. * Principles of CC applied in many therapies include systematic desensitization for phobias and aversion therapy. Operant conditioning- B.F. Skinner investigated voluntary and involuntary behavior. Skinner felt that some behavior could be explained by the person’s motive. Therefore behavior occurs for a reason, 3 main behavior shaping techniques: * Positive reinforcement * Negative reinforcement * Punishment Psychodynamic Perspective Sigmund Freud- many expressions from our......

Words: 1685 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Psychology

...Positive Psychology An Introduction Martin E. P. Seligman Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi A science of positive subjective experience, positive individual traits, and positive institutions promises to improve quali~.' of life and prevent the pathologies that arise when life is barren and meaningless. The exclusive focus on pathology that has dominated so much of our discipline results in a model of the human being lacking the positive features that make life worth living. Hope, wisdom, creativity, future mindedness, courage, spirituality, responsibility, and perseverance are ignored or explained as transformations of more authentic negative impulses. The 15 articles in this millennial issue of the American Psychologist discuss such issues as what enables happiness, the effects of autonomy and self-regulation, how optimism and hope affect health, what constitutes wisdom, and how talent and creativity come to fruition. The authors outline a framework .['or a science of positive psychology, point to gaps in our knowledge, and predict that the next century will see a science and profession that will come to understand and build the factors that allow individuals, communities, and societies to flourish. E ntering a new millennium, Americans face a historical choice. Left alone on the pinnacle of economic and political leadership, the United States can continue to increase its material wealth while ignoring the human needs of its people and those of the rest of......

Words: 8985 - Pages: 36

Premium Essay

Psychology

...Women in Psychology When one thinks about the field of psychology and those great names that made such great contributions to the field like; Freud and Skinner to name a few come to mind, one thinks of those men who made a important finding about psychology, nonetheless those names hold great meaning to the field, but along the way there have been several influential women who have also made such great contributions to the field, may who have been theorist, pioneers and counselors. Among some of these women there is a name that stands out the most, her name is Anna Freud. This paper will discuss Anna Freud’s background, her theoretical perspective and the contributions she was able to provide to the field of psychology. Anna Freud was born on Vienna, Austria on December 3, 1895, the youngest of six children of Sigmund Freud and Martha Freud. Anna Freud had a special bond with her father, more than with her mother or any siblings; she started reading her father’s work at the age of 15. Her relationship with her siblings wasn’t quite the best; in fact Anna refers to her 2 years older sister Sophie as her rival. Anna felt relieved when Sophie went out and got marry, as the relationship wouldn’t be as competitive as it had been most of their lives. Anna gained a special interest in the field of psychology such as her father and in a time were men had made significant contributions to the field of psychology, then comes a little a girl who since a very early age learned......

Words: 1404 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Psychology

...psychology C H A P T E R 1 Psychology and the Challenges of Life ❚ ❚ ❚ ❚ ❚ ❚ ❚ ❚ ❚ ❚ ❚ ❚ ❚ ❚ ❚ ❚ ❚ ❚ ❚ ❚ ❚ ❚ ❚ ❚ ❚ ❚ ❚ ❚ ❚ ❚ ❚ ❚ ❚ ❚ ❚ OUTLINE Did you know that… Module 1.1: Psychology and Adjustment Module 1.2: Human Diversity and Adjustment Module 1.3: Critical Thinking and Adjustment Module 1.4: How Psychologists Study Adjustment Module 1.5: Psychology in Daily Life: Becoming a Successful Student CHAPTER REVIEW RECITE! RECITE! RECITE! REFLECT REFLECT REFLECT YOUR PERSONAL JOURNAL Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Did you know that… ❚ Multitasking while studying can damage your grades? (p. 6) ❚ Genetics inﬂuences many psychological traits and even our preferences for different types of occupations? (p. 8) ❚ White, Euro-Americans are now a minority in the nation’s most populous state? (p. 12) ❚ Women were once not permitted to attend college in the United States? (p. 13) ❚ You could survey a million voters and still not predict the outcome of a presidential election accurately? (p. 23) ❚ You are more likely to eventually get a divorce if you live together with your future spouse before getting married? (p. 27) ❚ Cramming for a test is not more likely to earn you a good grade than spacing your study sessions? (p. 33) Oleg Prikhodko/iStockphoto ❚ ❚ ❚ ❚ ❚ ❚ ❚ ❚ ❚ ❚ B eth, 22, a fourth-year chemistry major, has been accepted into medical school in Boston. She wants to do cancer research, but this goal means another seven or eight years......

Words: 9594 - Pages: 39

Premium Essay

Psychology

...biological basses of behavior and mental events Key question: how does the nervous system produce behavior in mental events Assumptions: there must be a relationship between nervous system behavior and mental events. What is biopsychology? * The branch of psychology that studies the relationship between nervous system activity and behavior and mental events. * A new branch of neurosciences. * Makes use of the findings discovered by other branches of psychology. Brain consists of neurons and glia. Other branches of the neurosciences are 1. Biological psychiatry is interested in treatment of biological treatments of 2. Developmental neurobiology is interested in how the nervous system changes and develops 3. Neuroanatomy is interested in the structure of the nervous system and hw the different areas are connected to one and another 4. Neurochemistry is interested in how the neurons work and how they communicate with one another 5. Neurobiology is interested the structure and the mechanics of the nervous system. Biological psychology focuses on behavior (the observative behavior and the unobservative behavior) Biopsychology has six branches 1. Physiological psychology the study of neural mechanism of behavior through the manipulation of the nervous system in controlled experiments either surgically, electrically or chemically. 2. Psychopharmacology concerned with the effects of drugs on brain and behavior. Research may......

Words: 516 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Psychology

...Clinical Psychology Final Project Virginia Berry June 15, 2011 PS380 Professor Husk Kaplan University Aspergers Syndrome is one of the most common autism spectrum disorders, (Hunt & Marshall, 2006). There are many symptoms that are common with children with Aspergers syndrome. One symptom may be showing intense obsession with specific subject like cars, bugs or the weather. Speaking in a monotone voice or speaking fast is another symptom of Asperger’s (MayoClinic, 2011). There are approximately 26 to 36 out of 10,000 school-age children that are diagnosed with Asperger’s syndrome (Ehlers & Gillberg, 1993). Like classic autism, there is no known factor that causes Asperger’s Syndrome. Though many parents believe there is link autism by childhood vaccinations, there is no documented proof that the two are related (Downs, 2011). Treatment for Asperger’s Syndrome can be reviewed with the four major schools of psychotherapy; structuralism, behaviorism, Gestalt psychology and psychoanalysis. Structuralism is to analyze the mind in simple components and find how the components fit into a complex form, (Britannica, 2011). Behaviorism is a theory that all behaviors are learned through conditioning. Gestalt psychology theory is based off perception, (Britannica, 2011). Psychoanalysis is based on observation of individuals that are unaware of their behavior and emotions, (APSAA, 2011). Individuals living with Asperger’s Syndrome may not benefit from all four major......

Words: 1078 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Psychology

...Cognitive psychology is the branch of psychology that studies mental processes including how people think, perceive, remember and learn. As part of the larger field of cognitive science, this branch of psychology is related to other disciplines including neuroscience, philosophy and linguistics. The core focus of cognitive psychology is on how people acquire, process and store information. There are numerous practical applications for cognitive research, such as improving memory, increasing decision-making accuracy and structuring educational curricula to enhance learning. Until the 1950s, behaviorism was the dominant school of thought in psychology. Between 1950 and 1970, the tide began to shift against behavioral psychology to focus on topics such as attention, memory and problem-solving. Often referred to as the cognitive revolution, this period generated considerable research including processing models, cognitive research methods and the first use of the term "cognitive psychology." The term "cognitive psychology" was first used in 1967 by American psychologist his book Cognitive Psychology. According to Neisser, cognition involves "all processes by which the sensory input is transformed, reduced, elaborated, stored, recovered, and used. It is concerned with these processes even when they operate in the absence of relevant stimulation, as in images and hallucinations... Given such a sweeping definition, it is apparent that cognition is involved in everything a human......

Words: 267 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Psychology

...The Field of Psychology We humans are a strange species and our behavior is often inconsistent. Some of us smile when we're angry, others cry when we're happy. And all of us expect other people to figure out what in the world we are thinking. Not only are we different from other species, we're radically different from each other. Thankfully, our differences can be examined more easily through the lens of psychology—the science that tells us how the mind, brain, and body work together. This lesson introduces you to the field of psychology—its origins, history, key perspectives, research methods, issues, and current trends. This lesson presents the following topics: • What is Psychology? • The History of Psychology • Modern Psychology Perspectives • Types of Psychological Professionals • The Science of Psychology • Ethics of Psychological Research What is Psychology? Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes. • Behavior includes outward or obvious actions or reactions such as facial expressions or movement. These actions and reactions are sometimes referred to as body language. John wants to ask Susan for a date, and Susan wants him to ask her out. John worked up his courage, was about to ask her out when he walked by her desk, but Susan looked up with a frown on her face. Assuming that she was frowning at him, John walked quickly back to his own office. Susan, who had a horrible......

Words: 3809 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

Psychology

...OF PSYCOLOGY* 1.GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY- field of psychology that explais the underline principles of human behavior-the study of how and why people behave this way or that way. 2.COMPARATIVE PSYCHOLOGY- traits of the behavior & mental processes of the different species. 3.DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-is concern itself with the study of human behavior in all its aspects of growth & development. 4.CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY-is concern with the investigation of the varied facts of marketing & buying behavior affects of advertising studies of mass media & other problems arising from the relationshipbetween the buyer & the seller. 5.EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-deals with observation and experiments in a psychological laboratory. 6.DIFFERENTIAL PSYCHOLOGY-is a branch of study which deals investigates differences & similarities existing among individuals groups and races. 7. PSYCHOLOGY-applied in medicine it concerned with the treatment of mental diseases. 8.CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGICAL-pertains to the diagnosis of psycho therapy of the milder behavior disorder. 9.EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY-deals with learning motivation & other subject in the actual eductional process. 10.SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY-is the study of the behavior of groups & individuals in their relationship to other group. 11.PERSONALITY PSYCHOLOGY-study between personality and behavior. 12.ADOLESCENE PSYCHOLOGY- study of behavior of man from poverty to later life approximately from 12-20 yrs.old. 13.SENESCENT PSYCHOLOGY- is the scientific......

Words: 566 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Psychology

...1—What Is Psychology? Learning Goals 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Explain what psychology is and how it developed. Describe six contemporary approaches to psychology. Describe two movements that reflect a positive approach to psychology. Evaluate careers and areas of specialization in psychology. Apply some strategies that will help you succeed in psychology. After studying Chapter 1, you will be able to: Define psychology. Describe the influence that philosophy, biology, and physiology had on the beginnings of psychology as a science. Compare the two early scientific approaches in psychology: structuralism and functionalism. Describe the focus of each of the six contemporary approaches to psychology. Describe the positive psychology movement, and discuss why this movement recently emerged in psychology. Discuss career opportunities in psychology. Profile the main areas of specialization in psychology. Say how studying habits may be optimized. Understand how to be a critical thinker. CHAPTER 1: OUTLINE Psychology is a science dedicated to the study of behavior and mental processes. In this chapter you are introduced to the history of this science, a variety of contemporary perspectives in psychology, the positive psychology movement, and an overview of psychology-related careers. At the end of the chapter, the reader learns about the most effective methods of studying and learning. There are three concepts important to the definition of psychology:......

Words: 11126 - Pages: 45

Free Essay

Psychology

...eBook Psychology Myers 7th Edition PDF at Our Huge Library PSYCHOLOGY MYERS 7TH EDITION PDF ==> Download: PSYCHOLOGY MYERS 7TH EDITION PDF PSYCHOLOGY MYERS 7TH EDITION PDF - Are you searching for Psychology Myers 7th Edition Books? Now, you will be happy that at this time Psychology Myers 7th Edition PDF is available at our online library. With our complete resources, you could find Psychology Myers 7th Edition PDF or just found any kind of Books for your readings everyday. You could find and download any of books you like and save it into your disk without any problem at all. We also provide a lot of books, user manual, or guidebook that related to Psychology Myers 7th Edition PDF, such as; - Experimental Psychology Seventh Edition - Social Psychology Myers 7th Edition free Ebooks download - EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY 7th Edition in Modules David Myers - Psychology By David G Myers 7th Edition Online Pdf - Exploring Psychology 7th Edition David Myers Learning - Psychology Myers 10th Edition mybooklibraryCom - EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY Personality Model of Mind The - EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY 7th Edition David Myers Emotions - EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY 7th Edition in Modules David Myers - Psychology David Myers 10th Edition Study Guide - Part 1 Psychology 8 Edition by David Myers Prologue and - myers exploring psychology memory chapter Bing - Experimental Psychology Seventh Edition - myers introduction to psychology Bing - psychology myers 7th edition Bing PDF Downloads Blog - Health Psychology......

Words: 1662 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Psychology

...Page 1 PSYCHOLOGY IN THE CONTEXT OF HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE • What is ‘psychology’ and why is it so important in the context of health and social care? • What do we mean by ‘health’ and why is psychology central to the effective delivery of health and social care? • What are the main approaches to psychological thinking and research? • Who are psychologists and what do they contribute to the promotion of health and well-being? Introduction This chapter emphasizes the importance of psychology in the context of health and social care. For many years, psychology and the other social sciences were viewed by the medical profession as ‘soft sciences’, interesting but unimportant. With the advent of research into the links between physical and mental states in the late twentieth and early twenty-ﬁrst centuries it is now possible to demonstrate that psychology can make a fundamental difference to physical as well as mental health. In this chapter, we explore the nature of psychology and its relevance to health and social care. We outline the different schools of thought and methods of inquiry in psychology. We seek to distinguish between psychology as an academic discipline and popular notions of psychology, and identify professionals whose practice is mainly concerned with the application of psychology. In order to show how psychology can be applied to health and social care, we introduce a family scenario whose characters appear in examples throughout the book. What is......

Words: 6889 - Pages: 28