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Psychology

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LEARNING THEORY homework 1. The three main characteristics of behaviourist perspective in psychology are * They believe learning is more to do with nurture for instance people learn from the environment and are controlled by the environment which determines their behaviour. We learn new behaviour through classical or operant conditioning. * There is little difference between learning that takes place in humans and that in other animals so research can be carried out on animals as well as humans for instance Pavlov carried out a conditioning experiment on digestion on dogs * They believe all behaviour can be reduced to a stimulus and response association. Watson carried out an experiment which conditioned little Albert to fear a white rat and his hypothesis was “To predict, given the stimulus, what reaction will take place; or, given the reaction, state what the situation or stimulus is that has caused the reaction.” He 2. Classical conditioning is a process of behaviour alteration in which a subject learns to respond in a preferred manner such that a neutral stimulus (the conditioned stimulus) is repeatedly presented in association with a stimulus (the unconditioned stimulus) that causes a natural response (the unconditioned response) until the neutral stimulus alone stimulates the same response (now called the conditioned response). For example, in Pavlov's experiments, food is the unconditioned stimulus that produces salivation, a reflex or unconditioned response. The bell is the conditioned stimulus, which eventually produces salivation in the absence of food. This salivation is the conditioned response.
Skinner’s Study
B.F Skinner was a psychologist that created the term operant conditioning in other words type of learning in which a behaviour is repeated (meaning, it will occur more frequently) when it's followed by reinforcement, and...

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