Premium Essay

Psychosocial Development Through the Play Years

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By joashleynes
Words 2966
Pages 12
Psychosocial Development Through the Play Years

Portland Community College

Table of Contents

Introduction 3
Stages of Psychosocial Development 3 The First Two Years 3 The Play Years 4
Psychosocial Developmental Challenges 6 Possible Causes: Maltreatment 6 Possible Causes: Family Structure 7 Possible Causes: Environmental Adversity 8
Influencers of Child Psychosocial Development 9 Teachers 9 Gender Roles 10 Child’s Play 11
Conclusion 11
References 13

Introduction

Psychosocial development looks at the emotional and social development processes. There are many theories when it comes to how psychosocial development occurs, including the two most well-known theories by Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson. For the purpose of this paper I will be focusing on Erikson’s psychoanalytic theory of development for children through the play years, or age six. In addition to theories of development I will take a look into developmental challenges and the factors that affect development and the possible effects they may have. I will do this by taking a look at applicable case studies presenting their findings. The possible causes of developmental challenges that I will focus on are maltreatment, family structure and environmental adversity. I will also look into the influencers of psychosocial development on children and the impact they have on a child’s psychosocial development, including care givers, gender roles, and child’s play.

Stages of Psychosocial Development

The First Two Years

According to the text Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development connects both biosocial and psychosocial development with an emphasis on responsive maternal care (Berger 2008). During the first two years the first stage that Erikson describes is what he calls the...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Undiscussed Theory

...sunev c . BS3B 1:00pm-2:00pm(MWF) Dr. A. Legarteja Erik Homburger Erikson was a German-born American developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst known for his theory on psychosocial development of human beings Background: Born in Frankfurt, Erik Erikson's lifelong interest in the psychology of identity may be traced to his birth. He was born on June 15, 1902. The circumstances of his birth were concealed from him in his childhood. His Danish-born mother, Karla Abrahamsen, came from a prominent Jewish family in Copenhagen. At the time of her son's birth in Germany, Karla Abrahamsen had not seen her husband, Jewish stockbroker Waldemar Isidor Salomonsen, for several months. Nonetheless, the boy was registered as Erik Salomonsen .There is no more information about his biological father, except that he was a Dane and his given name probably was Erik Erikson was a student and teacher of arts. While teaching at a private school in Vienna, he became acquainted with Anna Freud, the daughter of Sigmund Freud. Erikson underwent psychoanalysis, and the experience made him decide to become an analyst himself. He was trained in psychoanalysis at the Vienna Psychoanalytic Institute and also studied the Montessori method of education, which focused on child development and sexual stages. Theories of development and the ego Erikson is credited with being one of the originators of Ego psychology, which stressed the role of the ego as being more than a servant of the id.......

Words: 1950 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Lifespan

...In the first two years, a child’s main Influences derive from his or her immediate environment. This system includes influences from parents, siblings, immediate family, caregivers, close family friends, and the limited exposure outside the home environment. As a child progresses from infancy to young childhood, his or her environment expands to include the child’s ecosystem (community, schools, church, and neighbors). Slowly through life, new influences add to the child’s history, but the most influential during these two stages are the family and early education. The main contextual influences in infancy and early childhood include parents, siblings, grandparents, and often surrogates (nannies, foster parents, adopted parents, and routine caretakers). These individual’s influence language, socialization, emotional development, temperament, attachments, and they provide the first cultural context. The family is the foundation for psychosocial, cognitive, and biosocial development. An infant is completely dependent on the parent, caretaker, or surrogate. Early experiences that mold psychosocial and cognitive development are dependent on socialization within the child’s family. A newborn quickly learns to associate a mother’s smell to comfort and nourishment. A few months later, a child delights in the faces of his or her family. Gradually, the child will begin to sort through the speech stream and learn the language spoken by his or her parents. Arranz, Oliva...

Words: 1024 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Personality Overview Paper

...Personality Overview Paper Psychodynamic theories of personality have been identified as the work of Sigmund Freud. These theories emphasize the influence of the unconscious mind and childhood experiences on personality. Psychodynamic theories include Sigmund Freud's psychosexual theory and Erik Erikson’s psychosocial stages of development. Freud believed the three main elements of personality were I'd, the ego and the superego. The id is the particle for all needs and urges, the superego is responsible for ideals and moral and the ego mmediates between the demands of the id, the superego, and reality. Erikson believed that personality elevated through a series of stages, with ccomplex conflicts arising at every stage. The perseverance in any stage depends upon overcoming these conflicts. According to Sigmund Freud, personality is pretty much established by the age of five. Early childhood experiences play a large role in the development of personality and continue to socialize behavior throughout their life. Freud's theory of psychosexual development is one of the best known, but also one of the most controversial. Freud believed that personality develops through a series of childhood stages. During these stages, the pleasure-seeking energies of the id become focused on certain erogenous areas. This psychosexual energy, also known as libido, is described as the force behind behavior. If these psychosexual stages are completed successfully, the end......

Words: 1841 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Psychology

...and all of her child's needs are met. How could the actions that occur in the child's life now affect her later development? Similarities of Freud and Erikson Sigmund Freud's psychosexual theory and Erik Erikson's psychosocial theory are two important psychoanalytic theories on human development that could be used to explain the developmental effects of this scenario. In this lesson, we will examine what these two theories have in common and how they differ. Erikson's theory followed Freud's and was based on many of Freud's ideas. Because of this, the two theories have similarities. Both theorists recognize the importance of the unconscious on development. They also both separate development into stages of a person's life and utilize similar age divisions for these developmental stages. Differences of Freud and Erikson However, there are several differences that exist between the names of the stages and the developmental issues that are encountered during each. Part of the reason for this is that each psychologist has his own unique view of what drives a person's development. Freud's psychosexual theory emphasizes the importance of basic needs and biological forces, while Erikson's psychosocial theory is based upon social and environmental factors. Erikson also expands his theory into adulthood, while Freud's theory ends at an earlier period. Psychosexual vs. Psychosocial Stages Now, let's briefly look at Freud's...

Words: 2897 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Observation

...socially of two children, one male and one female, ages five and ten, respectively. This writer will identify the socio-economic status (SEC), age, gender, ethnic background, and family demographics of each of these children. The two children this writer has chosen come from similar living situations (i.e. they both live with single mothers), but have vast differences in their physical, cognitive, and social development. This paper will examine Erik Erikson's Eight Psychosocial Stages as explained by Dacey, Fiore, Travers (2009) in an effort to explain the noticeable differences in the two children that this writer has chosen to observe. These two children were chosen because they are both being raised in a single parent household, which is something that this writer can relate to, as this writer is a single mother. This writer will also explore the Cognitive Development Approach theories of Jean Piaget and Albert Bandura's Social Cognitive Learning in an attempt to further explain the significant differences in these two children. Childhood Observation Theories on Human Development Many psychologists have different...

Words: 2647 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Infant

...Infant Care Mari Cooper PSY 104 Instructor: Nichole Bennett April 28, 2014 Children zero to two years old are in the age period of infancy; whereas children eleven to fourteen years old are in the age period of early adolescence. Children grow and develop in many different ways. The three major domains of development discussed in our text are physical, cognitive, and psychosocial development. Child development is a field of study devoted to understanding human constancy and change from conception through adolescence. Developmental theorists typically focus on the progression of children in three domains: physical, cognitive, and psychosocial development. Physical development is the changes in body size, proportions, appearance, brain development, motor capacities, and physical health. Cognitive development is the development of thought processes and intellectual ability; including attention, memory, problem solving, and creativity. Psychosocial development is the emotional communication, self-understanding, ability to manage feelings, personal skills, friendship, and behavior. All the senses develop in the womb, but touch seems to be the first and most mature and vision is the least sensory to develop. Although, an infant’s head becomes proportionately smaller as they grow in height and develop in their lower body parts. Physical and motor skills develop rapidly in infancy. Infant’s growth occurs from top down and from the center of the body outward, according to......

Words: 1532 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Erikson Summary

...Erik Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development is one of the best-known theories of personality in psychology. Much like Sigmund Freud, Erikson believed that personality develops in a series of stages. Unlike Freud’s theory of psychosexual stages, Erikson’s theory describes the impact of social experience across the whole lifespan. One of the main elements of Erikson’s psychosocial stage theory is the development of ego identity. Ego identity is the conscious sense of self that we develop through social interaction. Erikson believed people experience a conflict that serves as a turning point in development. In Erikson’s view, these conflicts are centered on either developing a psychological quality or failing to develop that quality. During these times, the potential for personal growth is high, but so is the potential for failure. The first stage of Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development (Trust vs. Mistrust) occurs between birth and one year of age and is the most fundamental stage in life. Because an infant is utterly dependent, the development of trust is based on the dependability and quality of the child’s caregivers. If a child successfully develops trust, he or she will feel safe and secure in the world. Caregivers who are inconsistent, emotionally unavailable, or rejecting contribute to feelings of mistrust in the children they care for. Failure to develop trust will result in fear and a belief that the world is inconsistent and unpredictable. The second......

Words: 523 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Hlsc111 the Person Health and Wellbeing

...The Person, Health and Wellbeing Assessment 1 – Stage 2 The word ‘loss’ can be conveyed through many forms and variations of change. In relation to a 5-year-old child, change plays a vital role with increasing the way in which a child conceptualizes and responds to forms of loss. This is based on their developmental factors. The development of a child is endured by their “growth and change that makes an individual better adapted to the environment, by enhancing the individual’s ability to engage in, understand, and experience more complex behavior, thinking and emotions.” (Ailish Gill, 2012, p.166). In addition, these developments are associated with theories such as Piaget and Eriksons, which clarify the stage of cognitive growth (Ailish Gill, 2012, p.191) and psychosocial crisis, involving transitions in important social relationships (Ailish Gill, 2012, p.189). Furthermore, this essay will discuss the fundamental factors of how a 5-year-old conceptualizes and displays developmental factors through their response to loss and how the child is influenced from a cognitive and psychosocial perspective, which displays perceptions of their loss and how they cope with the change. According to Ailison Gill (2012) “Cognitive-developmental theory is concerned with what goes on in people’s minds: how they learn, reason, solve problems, understand language, explain themselves and experiences and beliefs.” (p.191) Piaget theory addresses cognitive-developmental theory by......

Words: 1443 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Erikson Ppt

...Guilt c) Trust vs. Mistrust d) Industry vs. Inferiority e) None of the above 3. What is the positive outcome of the latency stage: a) Repeated frustration and failure which leads to feelings of inferiority b) A child will be able to initiate activities and enjoy learning c) The child will acquire skills for and develop competence in work and enjoy achievement d) Develop their own identity e) b) and c) 4. According to Erikson what should Sara’s teacher have done for work enjoyment and industry to result: a) Praise her for doing her best b) Tell her she can do better c) Encourage her to finish tasks d) b) and c) e) a) and c) 5. What stages has Sara passed through in Erikson’s theory? a) The oral-sensory stage b) The anal-muscular stage c) The locomotor stage d) a) and b) e) All of the above 6. According to Erikson, what is the important event for the stage Sara is in? a) Feeding b) Toilet Training c) Independence d) Schooling e) All of the above 7. According to Erikson, what should Sara’s teacher have done during the math and language time to ensure the students didn’t feel rushed? a) Give the students easier work b) Have the students only work on one subject for the whole time period c) Make the students complete the rest of their work for homework d) Let the students know they will have more time to......

Words: 1592 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Development Theories

...Development Theories Sara Nackowicz Psy : 104 Child and Adolescent Development Karen Williams 9/17/12 Page One Development Theories In this paper I will talk about three of the development theories which are personality structure, psychosexual development and psychosocial development. All three of these developments are very important in a child’s life and helps them become who they are and I will explain how and why in this paper. According to Sigmund Freud in our text, there are three essential components: the id, the ego, and the superego. The id stage is more of a selfish state where everything is about you and only you. For an example when you are an infant everything is about you and only you. According to Simply Psychology, “The id consists of all the inherited (i.e. biological) components of personality, including the sex (life) instinct – Eros (which contains the libido), and aggressive (death) instinct – Thanatos.” In an infant, their personality is nothing but Id and then when they become older is when the other two stages fall into place. You cry for a reason and most of the time it is either because you are hungry, dirty, sleepy or even just need to be comforted. So there for you cry because you want your caregiver to feed you, clean you, or even snuggle with you so you can fall asleep. The ego state comes around the age of two or three when as Freud states, “the job of the ego to satisfy the demands of the id and to have......

Words: 1589 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

The Affect of Developmental Factors on How a Five-Year-Old Child Copes with Loss

...The Affect of Developmental Factors on how a Five-Year-Old Child Copes with Loss Loss is an unavoidable experience for all children through the different developmental stages of life. These loses may be seen through a child losing or breaking a favourite toy, or through parents being divorced, moving houses, the loss of familiar routines, schools, or friends, and also through the death of someone close to them (Corr, Charles; Balk, David. 2010). Regardless of the type of loss experienced, it will bring sadness and grief upon the child, and the way a child deals with the loss is dependant on their cognitive and psychosocial development. There are many different theorists with varying ideas on the developmental stages of life. A five-year-old child, in Jean Piaget’s cognitive developmental theory is explained to be in the preoperational period (2 to 7 years). During this period, children develop symbolic thought marked by irreversibility, centration, and egocentrism (Gill, A., 2012). This means that children are unable to completely grasp concrete logic and are unable to take in the point of view of other people. Children also increase their use of symbols and therefore increase in playing, role-playing and pretending (Cherry, K. 2004). The psychosocial development theory by Erik Erikson, describes a five-year-old child being in the initiative versus guilt stage. In this stage, Children try to function socially with their family and with other individuals. Success in this......

Words: 1352 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Psychosocial Development

...Emerging Crisis: A Lecture about the Psychosocial Perspective of Personality I. Introduction Coon and Mitterer (2013) stated from their book that every life is marked by a number of developmental milestones. Those milestones are notable events, markers, or turning points that affect the development of a certain individual. Some examples of these include graduating from school, reaching your dreams, getting married, getting a job, becoming a parent, retirement, and one’s own death. One of the important things that a person needs to develop is his personality. According to Merriam-Webster Dictionary, personality is the set of qualities and behaviors that makes a person different from other people. From the definition, lots of questions arise. Some examples are “What makes them different from the other?”, “Why are they behaving like that?”, and “Who am I?” In order to answer those questions, Erik Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development will help to understand the complexity of human personality. Erikson’s ‘psychosocial’ term is derived from two words – ‘psychological’ means mind and ‘social’ means external relationships (Chapman, 2013). According to Ramkumar (2002), Erik Erikson did most of his works during the 1930s to the 1950s as a psychologist. He was fascinated in child analysis. He was the student of Sigmund Freud and he was inspired by his works. From the article of Chapman (2013), Erikson’s psychosocial theory was drawn and was extended from the ideas......

Words: 6736 - Pages: 27

Free Essay

Life Span Perspective Paper

...Life Span Perspective Paper SGJ PSY/375 May 28, 2012 Life Span Perspective Paper Lifespan perspective is obtaining the knowledge of changes that occurs during human development. Development begins at the moment conception has started in the mother’s womb to death. According to Smith “The first and obvious element is change - that development involves movement from one state to another. Lifespan is simple the different stages that humans go through as their life develop over the years. The perspective of lifespan is understanding the changes that occurs in the different stages of development. There are five characteristics of development. They are: 1. Multidirectional (changes occur in all and a straight line) 2. Multicultural (cultural differences have an affect even intercontinental) 3. Multicontextual (life is affected by many context including family, history, and environment) 4. Multidisciplinary (scientific disciplines including psychology, biology, and education) 5. Plastic (an individual traits can be altered at any point in development) As I have stated lifespan is from the time of conception to death of a person development and growth. The perspective is in relationship to humans development is a lifelong changing experience. The theories of lifespan development can be viewed in Freud, and Piaget study on the subject. With Freud and Piaget influences of a person life is nature and nurture. A person’s lifespan began as a fetus, which develops...

Words: 837 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Comprehensive Analysis Case Study

...Comprehensive Analysis Case Study Cheryl M. Todd PSY7220 Capella University Abstract This comprehensive case analysis will follow Gwen Cohen-Green through the following three stages of development: early childhood, middle childhood, and early adolescence. Within each of the three stages I will identify Gwen’s social and emotional development, theories pertaining to her development, validation, and predominate factors. A complete analysis and synthesis will support the findings, and recommendations will be given to support her. Table of Contents Introduction Case Study: Early Childhood Case Study: Middle Childhood Cased Study: Early Adolescence Analysis and Synthesis Recommendations Conclusion References 1 1-5 5-10 10-15 15-16 16-17 17 18-20 Comprehensive Analysis Case Study Introduction This study will identify the child I have chosen for my case study project and follow her through each of the following stages: early childhood, middle childhood and early adolescence. Secondly, the study will include an analysis and synthesis of developmental domains and of environmental and influential factors and finally, the study will make recommendations for optimal development. Early Childhood: Case Study Gwen Cohen-Green is an only child that lives with both her mom and dad in a suburban setting. Mom and dad both work long hours with mom being the primary parent to attend conferences as well as being the disciplinarian. Gwen’s parents are...

Words: 5451 - Pages: 22

Premium Essay

Five Major Perspectives Used to Research Child Development

...theories have been developed from the five major perspectives used to research child development. These perspectives include psychoanalytic, learning, cognitive, contextual, and evolutionary/sociobiological perspectives (Papalia, Olds, & Feldman, 2008). Researchers use theories to explain child development. The theories are important because they propose ideas or explanations to describe development and to predict kinds of behaviors. In this paper, I will discuss and describe three theories of development, their key concepts, their similarities, their differences, how the domains of development influence each other, and how understanding development helps those who work with developing children. Three Theories of Development: Some important theories of child development include Freud’s psychosexual theory, Erickson’s psychosocial theory, and Piaget’s cognitive-stage theory. “Sigmund Freud believed that people are born with biological drives that must be redirected to make it possible to live in society” (Papalia et. al, 2008). He proposed that development happens throughout five stages in a child’s life. The first stage is referred to as the oral stage. It occurs between birth and 18 months. During this stage, the baby’s chief source of pleasure involves mouth-oriented activities (Papalia et. al, 2008). The second stage is referred to as the anal stage. It occurs between one year and three years of age. During this stage, the child derives sensual gratification from......

Words: 2487 - Pages: 10