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Public Health

In: Social Issues

Submitted By chuchu1
Words 1273
Pages 6
P2
Considerably public health has developed over many years and changes occurred over time reflecting concerns on the health of the nation during each period. This changes have produced the public health system that is in place till this present time. The early reformers of social and economic conditions played a huge impact in balancing the health status of the nation in a way that, every individual will benefit from it. Health professionals increase their medical knowledge greatly relative to how diseases where spread and also various progress where made in helping to decrease the incidence of the contagious disease which killed several people.
As part of P1 assignment I discussed the key aspects of the public health strategies in the UK. Several changes which took place within the Public Health System are as a result of awareness promotions and awareness which is highlighted in general by individuals and groups across the nation. The government take into considerations the health needs of the people and acts on the findings demonstrated through national statistics. The government act on these findings by passing laws that are considered to power the overall health and well-being of the nation.

In the 19th century, scientist discovered that microorganisms are responsible for the killer diseases like cholera and tuberculosis, and the public health was officially lunched in an effort to provide clean water supplies and waste disposal systems. Poor law system (1834) which was an act established by the parliament in 1834 under Lord Early Grey who reformed the country’s poverty in the 19th century. The poor law was meant to reduce the cost of looking after the poor, prevent beggars and impose a system which would be the same all over the country. People that were poor were put into work houses and wear clothed and had food to eat. This poverty relief system came into place by Edwin Chadwick, John Snow and John Simon.
Edwin Chadwick (1800-1890) was an English reformer who reformed the poor law. During the time of influenza and typhoid epidemic in 1837 and 1838, the government appointed Chadwick to carry out an investigation and research on the sanitary condition of the population. In his findings, he wrote a report outlining his investigations on the sanitary conditions of the laboring population which was published in 1842. He argued that the disease was directly related to the living condition which needs urgent attention for public health. Shortly after the report was produced new measure were taken into by promoting the safe disposal of human waste and rubbish. Edwin Chadwick strongly believe that poor sanitary condition caused the disease. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/PHchadwick.htm
John Snow (1813 - 1858) was a British physician who is considered as one of the founders of epidemiology for his work relating to the cholera outbreak in 1854. Snow was a recognized for being an anesthetist and epidemiologist who was very interested in cleanliness and hygiene practices put in place to prevent disease. Snow worked closely with the cholera outbreak in London and linked it to contaminated water. In 1854, Snow identified a water pump in Broad Street located near one of the cess pits where the disposal of waste took place. The pump however, was discovered to have leaking faeces waste draining onto it and therefore contaminating the water. Snow linked the Broad Street pump with the outbreak of disease. Snow investigated further after his findings at deaths in areas where water from water pumps upstream of sewage and also those from downstream and found a correlation. Higher mortality rates were linked to the pump on Broad Street. 'He had the handle of the pump removed, and immediately cases of cholera began to diminish.
Joseph Bazalgette was a chief Engineer in London Metropolitan Board of Works. His Main Duty is formation of extensive network of sewer under the streets of central London. Bazalgette responded to the great stink1885 of a sewer network for central London, the houses of parliament become affected with smell and gave him the go ahead for the starting point of the sewer system. He made the greatest contribution by improving the health of Victorian Londoners and the bulk by the new sewers which remains in use today in London. In addition, he changed the look of riverside London and the nature of River Thames by building 83 miles of sewers that stops raw sewage from running into Thames.
John Simon is the fourth founder of public health. He is a professional physician who succeeded Edwin Chadwick in his application to health administration. In 1855 He became a medical officer to the board of health. He helped to put into place their first sanity act, in 1866 he put into responsibility of inspection on local authorities which extended the rand of sanity power which could target any local authorities that do not compel with the sanity act.

20th century, in 1942 Beverage Report produced to support those I society that where considered to be poor. Sir William Beverage was appointed by the government to write a report. The aim of the report was because after the second world war there were well built outlook about British people on how they should be rewarded for their sacrifice and participation. In December 1942 Beverage published a report that states that all people who were ill, unemployed, retired or widowed could have some benefit of this money being paid. National Health services was created by Clement Atlee’s Labour government after the second world war which focused on the proposal of the Beverage report in 1942. Following the debate organized by the British Medical Association(BMA), then the white paper publication in 1943. The formation of HNS in England and Wales was well known by the National Health Service Act (1946) then fish idea was put into place on the 5th of July 1948 under the Health Housing Minister Aquarian Bevan. General taxation was founded by NHS. NHS services was provided by the same Doctor same hospital yet service was still free at the point of use meaning that everyone was eligible for free health services even the temporary residents in UK.

In the 21st century, the white paper choosing Health. Making healthier choices easier (2004). It came to attention that the interest in health increases and a new approach suggested towards public health witch would focus on the fast change happening in society and the increase of technological society in which we live in today. The paper published the government responsibility to promote social justice and how they should deal with the wider causes of illness and inequality taking in holistic approach and the need for support and to enable specific individuals to make the right choices and also make adequate and suitable changes to their life. the ideologies that the document had been supporting by three designers which were as follow:
To protect children, not to let one person’s choice to affect another adversely, working together to make communities and organisations connect and achieve an effective partnership.
This white paper focused on the following arears:
Health protection Agency (HPA), The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), Voluntary Sector, Target Setting, SMART, Greenpeace. Friend of the Earth(FOE), World Health Organization (WHO), Cancer Research UK,

Reference
Baker, L. (2008). BTEC National Health and social care book 2 page 13. http://www.nurseweek.com/features/99-12/public.html http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/snow_john.shtml http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/education/lesson08.htp http://www.nomadtrust.org.uk/page.asp?cID=22 http://www.malp.co.uk/resources/general/poor law.htm

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