Free Essay

Public Healthcare

In: Business and Management

Submitted By simran08
Words 1376
Pages 6
What is public health care and why do we need it? There is no clear definition of what public health care truly is, but many have made attempts to define the basic concepts that identify what public health care is and why we need it. Two of the most noted definitions of public health were developed by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and Winslow, who base the definition of public health on what public health actually does and how it performs its functions:“…the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life, and promoting health and efficiency through organized community effort for the sanitation of the environment, the control of communicable infections, the education of the individual in personal hygiene, the organization of medical and nursing services for the early diagnosis and preventive treatment of disease, and for the development of the social machinery to insure everyone a standard of living adequate for the maintenance of health, so organizing these benefits as to enable every citizen to realize his birthright of health and longevity.” (Turnock, 2007)There have been other definitions of public health, but none have gained as much recognition than the definitions provided by Winslow and the Institute of Medicine. Considering that the definition of public health has been quite difficult to define, the laws that govern the system must be extensive, but they also must be interpretable so that each local public health agency can adjust them to better suit their mission.
The Centers for Law and the Public’s Health (2008), in collaboration with Johns Hopkins and Georgetown Universities, have developed programs to help promote and implement the laws that govern public health. There are four Model Laws that the Centers for Law and Public Health help to implement: The Turning Point Model State Health Act (MSPHA), The Uniform Emergency Volunteer Health Practitioners Act (UEVHPA), The Model State Emergency Health Powers Act (MSEHPA), and The Model State Public Health Privacy Act (MSPHPA). The Uniform Emergency Volunteer Health Practitioners Act and The Model State Emergency Health Powers Act are usually combined together because they are both applied in regards to public health in emergency situations. These laws are called “models” because they have been developed as a template for how each state can interpret and initiate its own public health laws. There are also laws that have been specifically initiated to protect people from the transmission of certain communicable diseases, like HIV.
Public Health Law Reform
The Turning Point Model State Health Act (MSPHA) was developed as a collaborative effort between several representatives from five states, several experts in public health, and nine national organizations and government agencies. The Turning Point Public Health Statute Modernization Collaborative (2003) did not plan the model as a mandate to place strict rules on how each agency is to regulate public health; however, it “is intended as a means for state, local, and tribal governments to assess their existing public health laws and identify the changes they deem necessary.” A comparative analysis of public health law reform based on the Turning Point Model State Health Act reinforced the idea that the model is not set in stone and each state can adjust their legislation to suit their needs because there was no definitive determining factor that could explain why the Turning Point Act was successful in some areas but failed in others (Meier, et. al., 2009).
Emergency Preparedness
The Model State Emergency Health Powers Act gave state and local public health authorities the right to act in a timely manner in an effort to aid the public and prevent further health issues during the time of emergencies. The Uniform Emergency Volunteer Health Practitioners Act was initiated to expand jurisdiction for licensure to practitioners that volunteer in different states during emergencies, like those that assisted after Hurricane Katrina (Centers, 2008). Since the attacks on the US in September of 2001, there has been further government emphasis on the need for more updated public health emergency laws that focus on educating emergency volunteers about being prepared, and coordinating volunteers over multiple sectors (Benjamin, et al., 2008).
Privacy and Diseases
The Model State Public Health Privacy Act was initiated in 1999 to address the issue of privacy as it pertains to the acquisition, usage, storage, and transmission of public health records (Centers, 2008). Protecting the privacy of patients has become a major issue, especially as it pertains to certain treatments, diagnoses, and test results. Disclosure of a patient’s HIV status, for example, is a sensitive issue because there is the problem of protecting public health while not violating a person’s right to privacy. In order to respect the privacy of patients with HIV while attempting to prevent further transmission of the disease, several states have passed laws that prohibit a person that is knowingly infected with the HIV virus from engaging in sexual activities with another person without disclosing their positive status. In the most strict form of the law, there can be no sexual contact between an HIV positive person and their partner without full disclosure. In the more flexible form of the law, an HIV positive person has the choice of full disclosure, using a condom, or engaging in less risky sexual behavior. An analysis of the effectiveness of the strict versus the flexible law demonstrated that while having either type of law was better than not having any law, the flexible law produced the greatest reduction in the risk of HIV transmission (Galletly, et al., 2008). This is probably due to the fact that a person’s privacy is not violated under the flexible law.
The laws involved in regulating public health are extensive but they are not carved in stone. Each law is planned to better improve the overall health of the public. Whether the law is in regards to emergency situations, patient privacy, or policy reform, public health laws are implemented to achieve the overall mission of public health: educating the public in an effort to prevent the further transmission of diseases through unsanitary practices in order to give each individual the opportunity to live a healthy life.

References

Benjamin, G., Moulton, A. (2008). Public health legal preparedness: a framework for action.
Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics. Retrieved July 13, 2009 http://lirnproxy.museglobal.com/MuseSessionID=eafa945bcc92ddba444e57f6a3238729/MuseHost=find.galegroup.com/MusePath/itx/retrieve.do?contentSet=IAC-Documents&resultListType=RESULT_LIST&qrySerId=Locale%28en%2C%2C%29%3AFQE%3D%28ke%2CNone%2C18%29public+health+laws%24&sgHitCountType=None&inPS=true&sort=DateDescend&searchType=AdvancedSearchForm&tabID=T002&prodId=SPJ.SP01&searchId=R2¤tPosition=9&userGroupName=lirn_main&docId=A176480615&docType=IAC

Galletly, C., Pinkerton, S. (2008). Preventing HIV transmission via HIV exposure laws: applyinglogic and mathematical modeling to compare statutory approaches to penalizing undisclosed exposure to HIV. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics. Retrieved July 13, 2009 http://lirnproxy.museglobal.com/MuseSessionID=aa30fc5d6adcc35d5420a78e6f5b558c/MuseHost=find.galegroup.com/MusePath/itx/retrieve.do?contentSet=IAC-Documents&resultListType=RESULT_LIST&qrySerId=Locale%28en%2C%2C%29%3AFQE%3D%28ke%2CNone%2C18%29public+health+laws%24&sgHitCountType=None&inPS=true&sort=DateDescend&searchType=AdvancedSearchForm&tabID=T002&prodId=SPJ.SP01&searchId=R2¤tPosition=6&userGroupName=lirn_main&docId=A186516808&docType=IAC

Meier, B., Hodge, J., Gebbie, K. (2009, March). Transitions in state public health law:Comparative analysis of state public health law reform following the Turning Point Model State Public Health Act. American Journal of Public Health. Retrieved July 13, 2009 http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=6&did=1647955821&SrchMode=1&sid=2&Fmt=3&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1247331194&clientId=83181

The Centers for Law & the Public’s Health. (2008). The Model State Emergency Health PowersAct (MSEHPA). Retrieved July 13, 2009 http://www.publichealthlaw.net/ModelLaws/MSEHPA.php

The Centers for Law & the Public’s Health. (2008). The Model State Public Health Privacy Act(MSPHPA). Retrieved July 13, 2009 http://www.publichealthlaw.net/ModelLaws/MSPHPA.php

The Centers for Law & the Public’s Health. (2008). The Uniform Emergency Volunteer HealthPractitioners Act (UEVHPA). Retrieved July 13, 2009 http://www.publichealthlaw.net/ModelLaws/UEVHPA.php

The Turning Point Public Health Statute Modernization Collaborative. (2003, September).
Turning Point: Collaborating for a new century in public health. Retrieved July 13, 2009 http://www.hss.state.ak.us/dph/improving/turningpoint/PDFs/MSPHAweb.pdf

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Hcs 535 Public Health and Healthcare

...Public health and health care Concepts of Population Health HCS/535 The Center for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC, coordinate efforts in conjunction with states and other partnersto offer a system of health surveillance, which would monitor and prevent disease outbreaks, which includes bioterrorism. The goal of the agency is to implement strategies to prevent diseases as well as maintain national health statistics. Another role of the CDC is to safeguard against international disease transmission, this is vital as the agency has personnel located several countries outside the United States. Looking at the agency’s core functions, examining influences in the workplace, and identifying roles of the agency personnel is vital to understanding the CDC’s contribution(Center for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], n.d.). Core functions The primary focus of the CDC has been geared toward the protection of health and the promotion of life. This is achieved through preventing and controlling of disease, injury, and forms of disability. This will be attained through collaborative efforts with partnerships in the United States as well as throughout the world. These efforts include monitoring health, detecting and investigating health issues, performing research to improve prevention, develop and promote policies, spearhead leadership and training, and foster safe and healthy environments(Fos& Fine, 2005). Support to the Public Health System The CDC is a sub-set...

Words: 1388 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Roles in Public Healthcare

...Abstract The many types of Public health and the laws governing it, along with the various fields of expertise for physicians in the field of Public Health industry. Medical licensing and Board Certification. Ambulatory care, what it is and where it is received. Medicaid and Medicare, definitions of both, who and what they cover, when they were enacted. Health Care Terms Public Health Agencies are often considered the health care safety net by all the people who provide health care. They are the agencies that focus on prevention of disease in populations rather than the treatment of individuals. Some provide primary care such as family planning, prenatal care and the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases; because of being financially insecure they partner with private sectors i.e. volunteer agencies. Community health centers are also considered a healthcare safety net because they assist by filling in health care services gaps, and their main focus is also on the health of the population. (Health Care Delivery in the U.S.) Since the beginning of organized public health programs, physicians have been seen as essential to the delivery of public health services. In the list of numerous professions needed for the high-quality practice of public health, physicians are included with nurses, dentists, veterinarians, environmental health specialists, laboratorians, epidemiologists, health educators and others. There are many more physicians than are currently......

Words: 1332 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Preferential Healthcare

...aspect of our everyday lives. The health of an individual and a nation are crucial to the continued progression of said persons, for without our health, we are all but useless. In this essay I seek to examine the benefits of the public healthcare system over it’s private counterpart, not only in Canada, but any country attempting to utilize their society to the fullest. I will argue that the welfare-state liberalistic approach is much better because it seeks to pool the resources of the many and regulate/distribute it to the few in dire need, hopefully resulting in a diminishing number of sick and homeless. I begin my essay by highlighting the importance and function of both the welfare state liberalist’s public heath care and the neoconservative private health care. My argument stands on the grounds that public healthcare in Canada is more tenable because it works for the common good of all people, regardless of socioeconomic class while also placing a primary focus on efficiency, instead of profitability. A viable counterargument is that most working people do not find it ‘fair’ to have their hard-earned money taken to support the lazy or poor(welfare), although in reality the vast majority of these ‘lazy’ poor people or those outside of a private healthcare system are not in the position out of free will. As we examine the positives and negatives of both systems it becomes increasingly apparent that as empathetic humans we all have a right to health and to equal......

Words: 2547 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Healthcare Law

...about the programs and services that IHS has to offer to Native Americans and Alaska Natives. This site provides an interdisciplinary approach to promote and provide community health among these people. This site also provides general information about the Affordable Care Act and Indian Health Care Improvement Act, which extends current law and authorizes new programs and services within the Indian Health Service. This information is all well written and easily accessible for the general public, members of IHS, providers, and also those looking for a career opportunity in this specific field. This site also provides legal information such as eligibility and legislation for IHS, which covers 566 federally, recognized tribes in 35 different states. Overall this site is credible and well put together in order to aid the public in learning more about the health system for Native Americans and Alaska Native. NBC News. (2014). Broken promises: Reservations lack basic care. Healthcare on NBC News. Retrieved from http://www.nbcnews.com/id/31210909/ns/ health-health_care/t/broken-promises-reservations-lack-basic- care/#.VIOJX4d692c This news article provides a real life example of the Indian Health Service system failing to provide proper care to a five-year-old girl on the Crow Reservation in Montana. The article goes on to discuss the legality and weaknesses that are highly present in the IHS and also refers to the “don’t get sick after June” concept that......

Words: 2031 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

The Primary Care Clinic

...local centralized primary care facilities. The purpose of this paper is to look at forces that have influenced the development of the clinic, a mission statement, key performance indicators to measure effectiveness, decisions regarding clinic expansion, the role of the clinic in the community, and influences of public healthcare policy on outpatient clinics. Discuss the key political, economic, and social forces that may have influenced the development of the clinic. Politics can hamper development of private healthcare organizations by compromising quality, limiting accessibility or feasibility, or increasing the cost of healthcare through laws, regulations, policies, requirements of private practice, and monitoring of services (Griffith & White, 2007). The primary care clinic must balance the requirements and regulations of private practice while creating a market for quality healthcare in the community marketplace. The clinic model has advantages over other models in that it allows practitioners a level of economy in sharing their medical facilities, equipment and staff with others, minimizing overhead and allowing them to keep the rising cost of healthcare lower by sharing equity. Improved patient quality is also provided by medical specialists involved in primary care in a single cohesive environment, and patient satisfaction can be increased through a well-managed plan of diagnostic, treatment and billing services. Primary care clinics offer an outlet for......

Words: 1590 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Health Law and Regulations

...Health Law and Regulations Sara Collins HCS/545 August 17, 2015 Nathanial Elam Health Law and Regulations Over the years, health care has emerged into a well-defined complex entity. It’s very unique comparable to the healthcare in other nations. As American healthcare continued to grow and expand, so did the growth of insurance, the involvement of governmental ties, dependency of advancing technology, and the expenditures of what healthcare would bring upon the American people. This brought about the greater need for accountability for services rendered at that healthcare institution (Morrison, 2011). Healthcare regulatory agencies have also had to keep up with the evolving healthcare fields. American College of Surgeons started a standardization of practices in the healthcare fields. This later developed with various other adjoining forces into what we know today as the Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Hospitals. In 1987, this evolved into the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO). This accrediting agency had influences among the ambulatory care, assisted living, home health, behavioral, health, laboratories, long term care, and office based surgeries (Morrison, 2011). JCAHO was developed to set a standard of care that held these services accountable for. This helped to have hospitals provide the same level of quality care to the people they served from the community. This in turn provided safe......

Words: 1530 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Professional Nursing

...PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF NURSING PROFESSIONALS Professional Development of Nursing Professionals Animol Aphrem Grand Canyon University July,22 2012 To represent more than 3 million health care members nursing profession is one of the major divisions of work force in United States. Nurses played an important role in setting the 2010 Affordable Act, legislation and creating Medicare and Medicaid programs. There are lot of hurdles inhibits nurses to respond successfully with reforming healthcare system. In order to overcome these obstacles nurses are well educated and well positioned in healthcare system to lead these changes. In 2008, Institute of Medicine and Robert Johnson Foundation appointed a committee to evaluate the need for healthcare transformation. Committee made some recommendations regarding improve education and training of nurses, nurses need to achieve highest level of education, nurses should collaborate with other healthcare professional to redesign healthcare system and accurate planning of work force for data collection. According to the report the committee suggested that many problems facing nursing education system nursing education system need to be advanced. Impact of IOM report on education. In 21st century statistics shows that there are many health issues affecting American population and it will be increased to 20 percent of the population by 2030.In addition to that nation’s health care needs also increasing. Primary goal of......

Words: 1034 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Stakeholder Compare and Contrast Essay

...University September 17, 2014 When referring to healthcare, defining the quality of healthcare can be different because there are various individuals involved with different views. These individuals with different views are stakeholders. “AHRQ, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, has defined stakeholders as persons or groups that have invested interest in a clinical decision and the evidence that supports that decision.”(The Effective Health Care Program Stakeholder Guide, 2014). The stakeholders that make up healthcare (includes internal and external stakeholders) but are not limited to providers, payers, employers, employees, and patients. They care about the behavior and financial performance of the healthcare facilities. The primary stakeholders are those that are involved with economic transactions in healthcare. These stakeholders are customers, employers, etc. Secondary stakeholders are those that are indirectly engaged in economic transactions, but those that can be affected by or can be affected. These stakeholders are community members, the media, the public, etc. Each stakeholder has a different view in how and what they want when pertaining to healthcare. Stakeholders are a valuable source of information about what can and will not work in the system of care. Providers view the quality of healthcare. They are also known as the “frontline” workers. Providers show an interest in better......

Words: 867 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Business and Canadian Government Policy; Initiating a New Policy

...Canada. Canada is a country that has a global reputation of offering a successful healthcare to its populations. The Canadians enjoys free healthcare facilities because when they get sick they just need to visit the hospital or their doctors even when they do not have money. The government funds for the universal health policy by use of government revenues. The government gets the funds to pay the policies through taxation of Canadians who are well-off. Most Canadians especially the ordinary Canadians have benefited from the universal healthcare as it has increased their accessibility to health services (Fierlbeck, 2011). Although most Canadians and stakeholders consider the Canadian healthcare policy as universal, it is not comprehensive. A comprehensive healthcare policy should offer a complete healthcare package for citizens. The current healthcare policy in Canada does not substantially offer a comprehensive healthcare policy. This is because various core areas of healthcare are not covered with the current policy on healthcare. The core areas that have been left out by the policy include dental care, prescription drugs, and prescription glasses. The prescription drugs are more important as it remains hard for a person to recover without drugs. Drugs are very expensive to buy and they prices keep on increasing day by day (Morgan and Daw, 2013). The drugs are thus unaffordable to the ordinary public. If a patient cannot access the drugs, it means that the sickness period......

Words: 2579 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Healthcare Reform

...How Does Cost Affect the HealthCare Delivery System? An In-Depth Look at the Health Care Delivery System and Cost. | | Princess L. Brigham | 11/23/2010 | HSA 6414: Social Dimensions and Issues in Health Care | ABSTRACT How does cost affect the health care delivery system? This research focuses on the cost of the health care delivery system and how it affects today’s society. High costs, gap-ridden coverage, and sporadic quality are the health care problems that most concern Americans. Yet most of the policy discussion is focused on the issue of coverage. Health care is expensive because of the pervasive entitlement attitude held by literally everyone in the system: patients, providers, suppliers, insurers. Government insurance (Medicare, Medicaid, veterans, Department of Defense) covers 87 million; tax breaks subsidize 176 million in employer coverage; insurers and other third-party payers take care of the bills for 85 percent of Americans. There is little awareness of the full cost or value of medical treatment on the part of consumers or providers, and little opportunity for individuals to choose their own coverage or make informed decisions with their doctors about treatment. Health care costs are far higher in the United States than in any other advanced nation, whether measured in total dollars spent, as a percentage of the economy, or on a per capita basis. And health costs here have been rising significantly faster than the overall economy or personal......

Words: 2233 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Health Care Regulatory

...Healthcare Regulatory Paper Joint Commission in Prisons Rein Denise Fox 06/04/2012 The health care industry has to have a good leadership foundation to carry out rules, regulations, and procedures. It is important for the success of any organization. In a healthcare organization, good leadership is more than just important; it is significant to the organization’s success. The Joint Commission is an organization which requires that the health care industry provides and maintains a safe environment for patients. If the health care industry does not have good leadership, the industry will suffer the consequences and not meet standards. The Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) monitors health care organizations and ensures the facilities meet standards and then awards the facilities with accreditation. When the health care facility does not meet standards of JCAHO then the public will ponder on accreditation status and if the health care facility meets quality service; as well as standards of a safe environment. The paper will include the history of JCAHO, source of authority, structure, responsibilities, and its effects on health care. The paper will also include an example of the agency which carries out JCAHO duties. The Joint Commission was founded in 1951 and the organization’s mission is providing appropriate health care for the public, by evaluating, and inspiring the organizations to surpass in providing secure and valuable......

Words: 384 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Health Manager

...Professional Competence at the Medical Council, explain the implications for health managers. Healthcare is changing. A generation ago, a doctor could complete training equipped with the knowledge and skills to remain fit-for-purpose throughout their career. Developments such as the internet now make it easier for doctors to access ever-accumulating bodies of knowledge from all over the globe which they can use to continually improve patient care. Similarly, patients’ expectations have changed as a result of being able to access an abundance of information about healthcare online. This progression in the doctor-patient relationship has created a need for transparent arrangements to help assure the public that doctors are keeping up-to-date and are committed to lifelong learning and skills development. Prof. Kieran C Murphy In May, the Medical Council will launch new professional competence schemes, which will be operated by Postgraduate Training Bodies. Registered medical practitioners will be subject to a statutory obligation to maintain professional competence. Health service managers will need to take cognisance that, for employed doctors, their employer will have a legal duty to facilitate the maintenance of professional competence. This development will positively impact the quality and safety of healthcare. The Medical Council consulted with a range of stakeholders including doctors and the public on the new professional competence schemes during development in 2010.......

Words: 1028 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Service Management

...Describe how the development of integrated healthcare systems has created an impetus for installing computer networks. Glandon, Smaltz and Slovensky (2010) stated that integrated healthcare systems helped create the impetus for installing computer networks because information housed in one system may be “ incompatible with the data format” of information stored in another system. Information technology has an important and expanding role in the delivery of high quality healthcare services. Until recently health informatics systems have generally been developed as independent centralized databases. With computing communications technologies now being introduced into major hospitals, many new information services can now be provided to enhance the patient-care provider interaction. The main applications are the office suit and web-browsers. Most companies are moving toward web interface applications and internet explorer is the front runner for testing purposes. References Egan, G. (2005). Computers and networks in medical and healthcare systems. Glandon, G.L., Smaltz, D.H., & Slovensky, D.J. (2008). Austin and boxerman's Information systems for healthcare management (7th ed.). Chicago. Illinois: Health Administration Press. Suggest how the use of a patient ID bracelet containing a bar-code representation of the patient’s ID and a bar-code scanner can lead to improved quality of care in a hospital. new technology, such as patient ID and a bar-code scanner,......

Words: 2311 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Significance of Nursing in the Implementation of Health Care Reform

...newly insured Americans are discussed. The act also provides for professional training and development of advanced practice nurses to meet the demands of increased care and increased patient load. Keywords: healthcare reform, nursing education, nursing roles Significance Of Nursing In The Implementation Of Health Care Reform Healthcare reform has captured our time and attention during the past few months, it has been a long and heated discussion. As the healthcare and its underlying payment system evolve in the face of the new Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; healthcare for all, a long time dream of many nurses, will be realized. This act requires all Americans to be covered by health insurance by 2014. Goals of the act are to not only enhance access to affordable care but also focus on wellness and prevention, bring care back to being patient centered, emphasize chronic illness management, assist patients in making informed choices and improving coordination of care. It also emphasizes distributing highly educated nurses closer to medically underserved populations and lays the ground work to help lessen the shortage of nurses, nurse practitioners and nursing faculty (Carlson, 2010). Every healthcare...

Words: 2240 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Health Care Quality Management

...ASSIGNMENT: Using theory on healthcare quality. Critically evaluate approaches that you, as a healthcare manager, could use to improve the quality of care provided by your organization. Introduction The concept of "quality" has been contemplated throughout history and continues to be a topic of intense interest today. Quality of service is rendered extremely important in any industry and it has been a subject of study and research in many fields. (Reeves and Bednar, 1994) This essay will look at definitions of quality in healthcare; examine the theories of quality in healthcare and approaches taken toward evaluating and improving quality of health services in Uganda’s public health sector with the main focus on the implementation of Millennium Development Goals. The discussion will focus on patient satisfaction as an aspect of quality and how it influences quality of care provided from a District healthcare manager’s perspective, analyse factors that influence patient satisfaction, how the MDGs aim to improve the quality of care provided to patients by exposing the gaps between healthcare management perceptions of service quality and how the service is actually being delivered to the consumers. Social constructionism in healthcare In social constructionism it is important to look at social settings and human way of life when focusing on healthcare in different cultures and societies. Class and social stratification can have profound implications for the way we......

Words: 3563 - Pages: 15