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Public Service Level 3 Citizenship

In: Other Topics

Submitted By Leahfoote98
Words 3479
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Diversity & Equality of services professional discussion

Task one –
Human Rights – United Nations Declaration of Human Rights
On 10thDecember 1948, the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights were introduced, this Declaration include 30 rights and articles. These were introduced after world war two after lives and homes lost by millions, leaders of the world came together an a new organisation was set up it was named the United Nations, this was set up to stop wars and build a better world. The first job was to draw up Human Rights, these belong to everyone.
They were developed to stop Atrocities against Jews, Prisoners of war and the population of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. (Atrocitiesis an extremely wicked or cruel act, usually causing physical or mental harm)
The (UNDHR) will affect foreign nationals because if they come from a country which is part of the UN then they will have the same rights as anyone else in the UN. However if they are from a country outside of the UN then they will have the rights from their own country, religion and cultural backgrounds. The United Nations Declaration of Human Rights will only affect people who break the law such as entering the country illegally. This will affect them on a stop and search basis involving a strip search, this may affect their religious beliefs or their Human Rights which will be breached such as the freedom of choice or the freedom to live and work anywhere within the country. For example, Romanian and Bulgarian Citizens are now being allowed to enter the UK to live and work, if on entry a Citizen from one of the above countries is stop and searched involving a strip search without good reason then it will breach article 5 of the UNDHR which states:
“No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhumane or degrading treatment or punishment.”
Due to article 5 in the UNDHR then each search carried out must be done with sufficient evidence to be taken to court if it is necessary. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-27407126 - Accessed on 24th November 2014 http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/ Police & Criminal Evidence Act (PACE) 1984–
‘The Police & Criminal Act 1984 is the code of practice which provides the core framework of police powers and safeguards around stop and search, arrest, detention, investigation, identification and interviewing detainees.’
Home Office (2013). Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 (PACE) Available: https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/police-and-criminal-evidence-act-1984-pace-current-versionsLast accessed 11/11/2014 at 09:38am.
The Pace act 1984 has its many advantages and disadvantages. The advantages of the Police and Criminal Act 1984,
The Advantages of this include; * Protects public members. * Arrest without warrant. * Supports people in individual groups in society.
The disadvantages of this include; * People may feel victimized for. * May arrest innocent people. * Stereotyping.
The pace act supports people in different individual groups in society by protecting them by making sure they have their rights once they get arrested they have certain right that they should be told about and PACE is an act that puts this act in place.
If you are black then you are at least six times as likely to be stopped and searched by the police in England and Wales as a white person, and if you are Asian, you are around twice as likely to be stopped and searched as a white person. This has a huge impact on these minorities and there view on the police: in 2007/2008, black people were subjected to around 150000 more stops and searches. Stop and search under PACE is also used more disproportionately against black people than those conducted under the terrorism act. http://www.equalityhumanrights.com/sites/default/files/documents/raceinbritain/ehrc_stop_and_search_report.pdf - Accessed 24th November 2014 at 16:35pm.

Data Protection Act 1998 –‘
‘The Data Protection Act (DPA) is a law designed to protect personal data stored on computers or in an organised paper filing system.’
Bitesize. Data Protection Act. Available: http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/ict/legal/0dataprotectionactrev1.shtml Last accessed 13/11/2014 at 09:24am.
There are Advantages and Disadvantages for the data protection act;
Advantages:
* This helps you to protect your personal data. * It protects all people not just the rich.
Disadvantages:
* People with Authority may abuse their power and break the law.
This law protects all groups in society as everyone has the right to have protection against their details this means no matter how rich or poor everyone is protected.
An example of this act being breached; Police have been given the power to hack into personal computers without a court warrant. The Home Office is facing anger and the threat of a legal challenge after granting permission. Ministers are also drawing up plans to allow police across the EU to collect information from computers in Britain. The moves will fuel claims that the Government is presiding over a steady extension of the "surveillance society" threatening personal privacy. This is breaking the data protection act because the data protection act is a form of confidentiality. The data protection act states that you are allowed to disclose any information, however if police are able to hack into computers then it will break this act because the information will no longer be disclosed. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/new-powers-for-police-to-hack-your-pc-1225802.html# - Accessed on 24/11/2014 at 12:21pm.

Human Rights Act 1998
‘The Human Rights Act 1998 is there to protect everyone in the United Kingdom, the Human Rights Act in the United Kingdom backs-up the rights that are already outlined in the European Convention of Human Rights. Everybody has a responsibility to be aware of the rights of others and to show respect for them. This act protects the legal rights of any area whether age, race, gender or sexual orientation and the rest no matter why they are here in the UK they are always protected by the human rights because everyone has human rights and the right to live.’
In Brief.Human Rights. Available: http://www.inbrief.co.uk/human-rights/human- rights.htm Last accessed 17th November 2014 at 15:31pm.
In The Human Rights Act 1998 concludes of 16 rights in which everyone is entitled to have. Your rights shouldn’t be breached but if they are, you have the right to seek lawful action to get the best possible solution.
An alleged assault by a police officer which was filmed on a mobile phone is being investigated by the Independent Police Complaints Commission (IPCC). The footage appears to show a police officer punching a man while he is restrained by two other officers. It happened in the Pear Tree area of Derby where the man was arrested on 28 July following reports of a disturbance. The man has since been charged with criminal damage. A statement from the IPCC said it was "investigating a complaint of alleged assault by a Derbyshire Constabulary police officer".
There are advantages and disadvantages of the Human Rights Act.
Advantages:
* Everyone has equality. * Protects all citizens. * Respects all the diverse backgrounds.
Disadvantages:
* People with authority and power sometimes go against the human rights.
Disability Discrimination Act 1995 & 2005
The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 describes a disabled person as someone with ‘a physical or mental impairment which has substantial and long term effect on his ability to carry out normal day to day activity’ which has or can be expected to last for more than 12 months. If you are disabled, or have a disability, the Disability Discrimination Act makes it unlawful for you to be discriminated against in; Employment, Trade organisations and qualification bodies, Access to goods, facilities and services and also the management, buying or renting of land or property education. The act covers a variety of areas of disability from employment issues to access to transport. The Disability Discrimination Act 2005 made further substantial amendments to the DDA 1995 building on amendments made previously by other legislations. These include creating a legal duty for public authorities to actively promote disability equality. Together, the legislation provides disabled people with rights and its places duties on those who provide services, education and employment. This then would go on to encourage employers and also in many cases its employees to come together and break through rigid employment practice resulting in new ways of finding flexible ways of working which could then go on to benefit the whole of the workplace. http://www.politics.co.uk/reference/disability-discrimination Accessed 20th November 2014 at 17:00pm.
The DDA defines discrimination is a number of ways, in which four specific types of discrimination are outlined: Direct discrimination, Failure to make reasonable adjustments, Disability-related discrimination and victimisation.
An example of this act being ignored in 2013/14 took place in a Primary school after a disabled child was left out many times due to his disability. Lee Buniak aged just 6 became a target of Disability discrimination after being excluded from a schools Christmas production. The school in east London, Jenny Hammond Primary School, even refused Lee to make a Christmas card for his parents, he was refused Golden time and was the only child not to attend the school trip. The school went even further by not allowing Lee to be in the class photo and the only child not to attend the school disco. The Special Educational Needs and Disability Tribunal have ruled that the school has broken the 1995 Disability Discrimination Act. The school has been ordered to write an apology. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-204024/Disabled-boy-wins-school-bias-case.html Accessed on the 20th November 2014 at 17:15pm.
There are advantages and some disadvantages of the Disability Discrimination Act.
Advantages:
* Equality. * Helps people with disability to have fair opportunities. * Allows them to find employment. * Protection of bullies.
Disadvantages:
* They may become disliked due to unfair advantages. * Turned away. * Bullied due to differences. * May cost the workplace more money. * May in the future cause an increase in prejudice. * May also cause negative opinion of disabled people. * Danger can be increased to others.
Task 2
In the Police Force they offer equal opportunities in which everyone has an equal chance.
‘West Yorkshire Police positively encourages applications from suitably qualified candidates regardless of sex, age, race, sexual orientation, gender reassignment, pregnancy or maternity, disability, marital status, religion, faith, cultural or other difference. The Force may implement positive recruitment strategies where it considers there is evidence of under-representation of minority groups in specific areas of the organisation.’
It is important that the Public services provide an equal and diverse service to all citizens using Statutory and Non Statutory service, as the more diverse the force is the more understanding of all culture, religions and beliefs of the citizens within the communities the force covers. This means that if the Ambulance Service had a patient who was a Jehovah’s Witness and one of the staff was also a Jehovah’s Witness they would understand beliefs of the person and they would also know that this religion believes that a blood transfusion is wrong and isn’t acceptable in this religion. If in the Police Force there was an officer from a Muslim background, they would know that when arresting a Muslim they would require a Prayer mat and a Quran. In the Police Force they have a range of Under- Representation groups; these groups are Women, ethnicity, age, disability and sexual orientation. In Cheshire constabulary they have LGBT Liaison officers, these officers are from the LGBT community. They talk to the communities about LGBT and help them struggling to come to terms with being LGBT; they also assist Police Constables on arrest when arresting a homosexual citizen. All forces have a mixed force of gender including; Police Constables, Police Specials, Fire-fighters, Ambulance and the Armed Forces. In the Armed Forces, women cannot be in the Royal Marines due to it being to ‘physically challenging’. Age is a very big factor that affects the recruitment process as most public services only recruit citizens under the age of 34/35/36. In the Public services there is a range of ethnicities, but if you haven’t been a UK Citizen for over 10 years it affects the recruitment process. http://www.cheshire.police.uk/about-us/equality-diversity-and-human/lgbt.aspx - Accessed on 26th November 2014 at 15:21

At Police forces to encourage people from under-represented groups to apply for jobs within the police force; Positive recruitment initiatives are needed, as many people are discriminated due to their sexuality and therefore will be more vulnerable to hate crime. They help people with disabilities by guaranteeing them a definite interview for a specific role if they meet the essential criteria. This would increase the applications filled for the recruitment and also boost the equal opportunities and reputation within the service, it will show they believe that no matter what they are willing to look for a place within the police force that suits your needs.

The table shows that within the Police Force 67 people within the police force are known to have a disability and 3 haven’t stated whether they have. http://www.cheshire.police.uk/search.aspx?terms=Lgbt%20Liasion%20officers – Accessed 27th November 2014 at 15:38pm.
To cater for employees needs they offer various support to Police Officers. For example LGBT officers would be prone to receive hate crime and they would need to be offered support to be able to react calmly. The police supports the needs of employee's by negotiating for better pay and conditions.
Officers from different religions such as Muslims, believe that they should pray 5 times a day. Which will affect their working hours and also if they take part in Eid this would mean the officer would not eat until dark affecting his/her energy levels and how they work. Also mandatory uniform is to be worn although Muslim officers are able to wear Turbans in some case.
‘Kent Police wants to be an inclusive and consultative organization with a workforce that reflects the population of Kent and a culture which respects and celebrates all aspects of diversity. We want to meet the needs of everyone living, working and visiting Kent by providing an accessible and responsive service. We also want to provide a service, and working environment, that is free from discrimination, harassment, bullying, or victimization.’ http://www.kent.police.uk/about_us/diversity/race_diversity_equality_strategy/Race%20%26%20Diversity%20Equ1.html# - Accessed on 27th November 2014 at 15:48pm
Prison Service
‘At SPS we actively promote equality and human rights as well as tackle entrenched inequalities by taking action using a dynamic, systematic and evidence based approach. This includes the operation of a policy of zero tolerance towards any form of homophobia or harassment on the basis of a person's sexual orientation and committed to preventing discrimination on the basis of a person's sexual orientation within the organisation.’ http://www.sps.gov.uk/EqualityandDiversity/sexual-orientation.aspx - Accessed on 27th November 2014 at 15:12pm.

Kent Police service aim to promote Equality and Diversity within the services to help retain recruits from diverse backgrounds.
‘Providing high standards of citizen-focused policing to everyone, regardless of their background or personal or social circumstances
Improving trust and confidence in policing among all members of the community, especially those who may feel disadvantaged, excluded vulnerable, isolated or marginalized and because of age, disability, ethnicity, gender, race, religion or sexuality.
Engaging, consulting and communicating with local communities and partners.
Treating everyone as individuals, without prejudice, supporting and acknowledging their rights to be different in their abilities, culture, values, lifestyles and beliefs
Working with diverse communities to minimize the impact that counter terrorism operations and activity can have on them, and to improve confidence levels.’ http://www.kent.police.uk/about_us/diversity/race_diversity_equality_strategy/Race%20%26%20Diversity%20Equ1.html# - Accessed on 27th November 2014 at 15:58pm

The police support people by gaining knowledge of different religions/races/gender or sexual orientation. Therefore if someone is a victim of hate crime or is harassed or bullied, they are able to emphasize with them. This means they will understand the feelings of; frustration, anger and hurt that they feel after being victimised for being from different backgrounds etc.

Sex Discrimination Act – if someone discriminates a women the police are responsible for supporting the victim and also disciplining the person who has committed the offence. The disciplinary could vary from a fine to community service, but depending on the severity of the case, the person could also be sent to prison.

Disability Discrimination Act – if someone discriminates a person due to their disability again the police are responsible for the support and care of the victim and bringing justice to the victim.

Users can access information about the police and what they do and who they support by using the internet gaining access to the police websites, books and local police stations. There are many different police websites to access all the information regarding the support.

The police are able to recognise the needs of citizens and other groups and therefore are able to deal with a situation in different approaches to suit a range of different people’s needs; for example if they had a foreign victim who spoke little English they would then be able to get a translator of their language. They are able to emphasize with the victim and sometimes with the offender. With the offender they will offer support to also change their life’s by ensuring they won’t commit again.

The methods used by the two services are very effective as they both provide equality to people within society. The police service and the prison service both offer support and employment opportunities to the disables. Therefore the effectiveness of both these services are great successes.

Statutory and non statutory services
The definition of Statutory –
‘The law declared by statute in the broadest sense as distinguished from the common or customary law or the law developed in ecclesiastically, equality, admiralty or other courts without the aid of statute.’ http://i.word.com/idictionary/statutory - Accessed on 6th November 2014 at 09:17am.
The definition of Non Statutory –
‘Non Statutory can be regulations that are set by ministries but don’t go onto the statute book’ http://uk.answers.yahoo.com/questions/index?qid=20080913041526AA8RUQJ - Accessed on 6th November 2014 at 09:27am
The Police Service is a Statutory service meaning the provide support to the community to ensure that safety is at the best interest at all times and that justice is served to victims and their families. They are paid to support the community and ensure crime is decreased within the area. Within the Police service they also offer Non-Statutory services for example within the police force, a citizen could become and Special Constable in which they wouldn’t be paid but they would do the same job as the paid officers but do it in their free time. They would do this alongside a part time job. The need for the Police officers who get paid is so that the officers are doing full time and then would be motivated to earn money whilst reducing crime. The need for the specials would be when the cuts on the police take place they are available to offer support to the police force without being paid. Advantages | Disadvantages | People in under-represented groups will feel more involved within the public services and they will feel equal to everyone as they have been offered a job within the Public services. | Disabled people may not fit within the criteria needed therefore will be limited and they will feel as they are being discriminated. | Will stop discrimination within the work force as they will all work together and understand they have feelings etc. | Will still not stop people from being prejudice because they will always have the same feeling they had in the beginning. | More under-represented groups will have a better chance at other jobs due to them being able to have a chance within the public services, employers will also begin to employ under-represented groups. | People within the public services may still be victimised from work colleagues and also citizens who are against them. |

All in all I think the methods used by the public services, are very effective although there are some grey areas. For example within the police force there are ways that the disabled could be involved but they may feel discriminated by being judged by a disability and not their potential. The methods are a great way to approach getting equality for all under-represented groups.

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...made about the actual or preferred character of the Australian people and national culture. These embellishments were promoted by a relatively small coterie of elites, as Mark Lopez has painstakingly documented,1 and became standard formulations used in official accounts of Australian national identity and citizenship. While the sting has gone out of multiculturalism and the national debate has moved on to issues of citizenship and refugee policy, multicultural formulations still inform official documents. According to this view, Australia is now made up of people of diverse cultures that should be given equal status with the Australian mainstream. Australian citizenship is then invoked as the glue that binds these different groups into a national unity. The multicultural account of Australia as a nation of diverse cultural groups has been taken over by the Australian Citizenship Council in its prescriptions for Australian Citizenship for a New Century.2 The Citizenship Council eschews any notion of common national identity or shared culture in favour of 'public acceptance of diversity' and abstract civic values. Such values underpin citizenship, according to the Citizenship Council, and these together define and unite Australians. In the following paper we give a critical account of the evolution of multicultural policy and...

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