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Purification of Organic Compounds

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Submitted By guptaji
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3. INTRODUCTION Organic compounds are isolated either from natural sources or from reactions mixtures. These compounds are seldom pure and are usually contaminated with small amounts of other similar compounds, which are found to exist together or formed during the reaction. In order to characterize them, it is important to purify them.
4. PROCESSES FOR PURIFICATION 1. Crystallization 2. Sublimation 3. Distillation 4. Chromatography 5. Differential Extraction 6. Qualitative Analysis
5. 1. CRYSTALLIZATION Aim To separate a solid compound in pure and geometrical form. Principle A saturated solution of the impure substance in a suitable solvent is made at a temperature higher than the room temperature. On cooling this solution, the substance reappears in the form of well shaped crystals. Process Purification by crystallization involves the following steps: Choice of solvent Preparation of solution Filtration of the solution Separating the crystals Drying of crystals Example Crystallisation of Phthalic acid
6. 2. SUBLIMATION Aim To separate volatile solids, which pass directly into vapour state on heating from a non-volatile solid. Principle A mixture of solid substances, such as camphor, benzoic acid, ammonium chloride, iodine etc., containing non-volatile substances, when heated, change directly into vapour without passing through the liquid state. Process
7. Fig :-Sublimation
8. 3. DISTILLATION Aim To separate a solution of a solid in a liquid and for separating a solution of two liquids whose boiling points are different. Principle Distillation involves the conversion of a liquid into its vapors upon heating and then cooling the vapors back into the liquid. Depending on the difference in boiling points of liquids. Types of distillation Simple Distillation Fractional Distillation Distillation Under Reduced Pressure or Vacuum Distillation Steam Distillation
9. SIMPLE DISTILLATION Principle It is used for separating liquids having boiling points differing by 10-20 degrees. The liquid having the lower boiling point distills over first, and the other liquid component is left behind. In this process, vaporization and condensation occur side by side. Process Example Simple distillation of a Cyclohexane- Toluene mixtures
10. Fig : - Simple distillation
11. FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION Principle It is used for separating two liquids in any mixture, which have boiling points within a narrow range of temperatures. In such cases, simple distillation does not give complete separation and a modified version called fractional distillation is employed. Process Example Fractional Distillation of a Cyclohexane- Toluene mixtures
12. Fig : -Fractional distillation
13. DISTILLATION UNDER REDUCED PRESSURE OR VACUUM DISTILLATION Principle The lowering of pressure on the surface of a liquid lowers its boiling point. As a result of this, a liquid can be boiled and distilled, without any decomposition, at temperature much below its normal boiling point. Process
14. STEAM DISTILLATION Principle This technique is used for separating/purifying liquids, which are immiscible with water, volatile in steam, & have high vapor pressure at the boiling temperature of water. Process Example Isolation of Citral
15. 4.CHROMATOGRAPHY Aim To identify, purify and/or separate constituents of a mixture that are present in very small amounts. Principle The principle behind this technique is the differential adsorption of the various components of a mixture between two different phases that are as follows: Fixed or stationary phase Mobile or Moving phase
16. COMMONLY EMPLOYED CHROMATOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUES Column Chromatography Paper Chromatography Ascending and Descending Paper Chromatography Radial Paper Chromatography Thin Layer Chromatography
17. This is the simplest chromatography based on the differential adsorption of the constituents of a mixture. A suitable adsorbent like alumina (Al 2 O 3 ), taken in the form of a slurry in petroleum ether, constitutes the stationary phase. Fig : -Column chromatography
18. THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY Principle In this chromatography, the stationary phase is a thin layer of an adsorbent (generally alumina) coated on Flat glass strip. The solvent (mobile phase) moves up the layer due to the capillary action and thus causes the separation of constituents of the mixture. The constituents are identified by measuring their RF values. Example Separation of vitamins by thin layer chromatography
19. 5. DIFFERENTIAL EXTRACTION Principle To extract a compound that is present in very small amounts in an aqueous solution with the help of an organic liquid in which that compound is highly soluble. Process Fig :- Differential extraction Example :- Extraction of Caffeine from Tea
20. 6. QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS The systematic qualitative analysis of organic compounds includes the following different stages: Preliminary tests and physical examinations. Detection of elements Determination of functional group or groups. Determination of physical constant. Identification of the compound by search of literature with similar physical and chemical properties. Confirmation of compounds by preparing suitable derivative and specific chemical tests.
21. SUMMARY
22. CONCLUSION Purification process is widely used in industry. Distillation is among most important and widely used in industrial operation today. About 95% of all separation process today is carried out in industry with more than 40,000 distillation system. Sublimation is also use to create freeze- dried substances. e.g. tea, soup, drug. Steam distillation is employed in industry for the recovery of various essential oils from plant and flowers. Better chemical stability, crystallization process is use due it help to increase physical stability, bioavailability and sustain release.

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