Premium Essay

Qe2 - Was It Necessary to Stimulate Economic Growth

In: Business and Management

Submitted By talk2kunal
Words 4527
Pages 19
ABSTRACT “QE 2” – Was it necessary to stimulate economic growth or is it sowing the seeds for undesirable levels of inflation in the years ahead? How would your view impact your investment strategy? | Kunal MishraRutgers Business School |

Introduction to Quantitative Easing (QE):
Quantitative easing (QE) is an unconventional monetary policy tool used by some central banks to stimulate the national economy when conventional monetary policy has become ineffective. In the late 2008 Federal Reserve pursued this unconventional policy of purchasing large quantities of long-term securities, including Treasuries, Agency bonds, and Agency Mortgage Backed Securities. The stated objective of quantitative easing is to reduce long-term interest rates in order to spur economic activity. A central bank implements quantitative easing by purchasing financial assets from banks and other private sector businesses with new money that is created electronically. This action increases the excess reserves of the banks, and also raises the prices of the financial assets bought, which further lowers their yield. The recent quantitative easing policy targeted at credit easing in the business and household sector, so that the increase in reserves is a by-product rather than an objective of monetary policy.
As a part of its expansionary monetary policy the Fed has maintained a lower short-term market interest rate through the buying of short-term government bonds, using a combination of lending facilities and open market operations. However, with the housing bubble reaching the sky, consumer spending and consumer confidence has been quite low and also with short-term interest rates at, or close to zero, normal monetary policy has lost its ability to impact the market demand that could alter the longer term interest rates.
Quantitative easing was therefore used by Ben Bernanke and...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Quantitive Easing

...Team #5: Fernando Puiggari, Afiya Williams, and Yu Tang MBAA 505: Economic Environment Of Business Prof. Victor Petenkemani Case 3: Due 10/30/2014 Quantitative Easing in the Great Recession. 1. You will consider the various impacts of QE1, QE2, and QE3. What accounts for the differences in the market reactions to these three policy actions? What the Fed did * On Sept. 8, 2008, the U.S. Treasury seized control of mortgage giants Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac and pledged a $200 billion cash injection to help the companies cope with mortgage default losses. * About a week later the government bailed out American International Group Inc with $85 billion. * The Fed refused to save Lehman Brothers and the company was forced to file for bankruptcy. Some of the largest financial institutions were on the verge of collapse as the mortgage market melted down. As the crisis hit the global market, the credit freeze spread. * The Treasury and the Federal Reserve began working on a $700 billion bailout plan. * President George W. Bush signed the bailout plan into law Oct. 3.  * Weeks later, on Oct. 29, the Fed cut the key interest rate to 1 percent. What was expected? The government claimed the bailout was necessary to provide stability in the economy and prevent disruption in the financial system. The interest rate cut aimed to revive the economy, help free up credit and make loans cheaper to consumers and businesses. What happened The......

Words: 2258 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Your Country Is in a Recession. You Feel That a Policy of Exchange Rate Depreciation Will Stimulate Aggregate Demand and Bring the Country Out of the Recession.

...that a policy of exchange rate depreciation will stimulate aggregate demand and bring the country out of the recession. This essay examines the effectiveness of using exchange rate depreciation to stimulate aggregate demand in order to bring a fictional country, Australand, out of recession. It will explain how a policy of exchange rate depreciation can increase aggregate demand and how this will stimulate economic activity and bring Australand out of recession. The process of depreciating the currency will be explained as well as possible ramifications of this policy. Alternative options to increase aggregate demand will also be explored. A recession is technically when an economy has experienced two successive quarters of negative gross domestic product (GDP) growth. For this to happen the total amount of goods and services produced by a country must contract on a quarter by quarter basis for six months or more. (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/7495340.stm) It therefore stands to reason that by increasing the total amount of goods and services Australand produces, known as aggregate output, will bring Australand out of recession. Blanchard and Sheen (2009 p39) state that in the short run the main determinent of aggregate output is demand and that changes in demand can lead to an increase in output. Aggregate demand is the total quantity demanded for output at a given price level and it is therefore necessary to increase aggregate demand in order to bring......

Words: 2222 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

The International Bond Market Impact of Unconventional Monetary Policy

...The International Bond Market Impact of Unconventional Monetary Policy Yu Zhang 130023326 University of Dundee College of Arts and Social Sciences School of Business April 2014 Content Abstract ................................................................................................................................................... 2 Chapter 1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 3 Chapter 2 Literature review.................................................................................................................. 6 Chapter 3 Data and Methodology....................................................................................................... 10 3.1 Data.............................................................................................................................................. 10 3.2 Methodology ............................................................................................................................... 10 Chapter 4 Four Central Banks’ Unconventional Monetary Policy Announcements Details ........ 13 4.1 Important Announcements........................................................................................................ 13 Table 1 Important announcements by the Federal Reserve ............................................................ 13 4.2 Quick Summary: .....................................................

Words: 15890 - Pages: 64

Free Essay

Final Term Project Fin331

...FIN 331 Financial Institutions and Markets FINAL TERM PROJECT Spring Quarter Group 5 Shad Boots Alejandro Carral Antonio Fernandez Johnny Pham June 11, 2014 CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY OF LOS ANGELES CONTENTS Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................................2 Financial Markets ..........................................................................................................................................................3 Quantitative Easing ..............................................................................................................................................5 Financial Institutions .....................................................................................................................................................7 Credit Suisse ........................................................................................................................................................7 Wedbush Securities ..............................................................................................................................................9 Conclusion ................................................................................................................................................................... 11 Appendix A ......................................................

Words: 4899 - Pages: 20

Premium Essay

Lehman Brothers

...and Conditions Summary The Federal Reserve (the Fed) defines monetary policy as its actions to influence the availability and cost of money and credit. Because the expectations of market participants play an important role in determining prices and economic growth, monetary policy can also be defined to include the directives, policies, statements, and actions of the Fed that influence future perceptions. Traditionally, the Fed has implemented monetary policy primarily through open market operations involving the purchase and sale of U.S. Treasury securities. The Fed traditionally conducts open market operations by setting a target for the federal funds rate, the rate at which banks borrow and lend reserves on an overnight basis. Beginning in September 2007, in a series of 10 moves, the federal funds target was reduced from 5.25% to a range of 0% to 0.25% on December 16, 2008, where it has remained since. With the federal funds target at this zero lower bound, the Fed attempted to provide additional stimulus through unconventional policies. It provided forward guidance on its expectations for future rates, announcing that it “anticipates that, even after employment and inflation are near mandate-consistent levels, economic conditions may, for some time, warrant keeping the target federal funds rate below levels the Committee views as normal in the longer run.” The Fed also added monetary stimulus through unsterilized purchases of Treasury and mortgage-backed securities......

Words: 14323 - Pages: 58

Free Essay

World Economy

...uncertainty Answers to the big issues facing the global economy depend mainly on events in the US and eurozone, writes Chris Giles Meeting of minds: logo for the IMF­World bank events beginning in Tokyo today Bloomberg Inside » Growth glitches FT specialists report from the eurozone, China, the US and the UK Pages 2, 3 If Obama wins . . . or Romney Some differences seem more symbolic than real Page 4 Cash conundrum The IMF and World Bank have plenty of money but face new challenges Page 5 A threat of double-dip recession is stalking the world economy. Advanced economies are struggling to raise insipid growth rates, while the fast-growing emerging economies cannot maintain their previous momentum. If anything goes wrong – and there are known potential shocks in the coming months – the risk is rising of a dangerous economic slide. The Brookings Institution-Financial Times Tracking Indices for the Global Economic Recovery shows a steep drop in 2012 so far, leading professor Eswar Prasad of Brookings to describe the global economy as “on the ropes”. In the International Monetary Fund’s twice-yearly World Economic Outlook, published this week, Olivier Blanchard, the fund’s chief economist, said the world economy was hamstrung by uncertainty, which was pre- venting companies from investing and households from spending. “Worries about the ability of European policymakers to control the euro crisis and worries about the failure to date of US policymakers to......

Words: 15731 - Pages: 63

Premium Essay

The Us Fiscal Outlook & China’s Role in the Us Treasury Market

...------------------------------------------------- The US Fiscal Outlook & China’s Role in the US Treasury Market ------------------------------------------------- -Fixed income project key words FISCAL, DEBT CEILING, TREASURY, THE FED, CHINA Written by Gong Li 1155019071 Jiang Peng 1155038183 Yang Mengdi 1155020855 Zhang Yiwen 1155010794 Zheng Qianfei 1155038175 Written by Gong Li 1155019071 Jiang Peng 1155038183 Yang Mengdi 1155020855 Zhang Yiwen 1155010794 Zheng Qianfei 1155038175 CONTENT Executive Summary 1 1, The US Fiscal Outlook 3 -Recent and historical fiscal outlook 3 -The US debt ceiling and recent crises 4 -Financial cliff (2013) and its impacts to the US economy 5 -The US fiscal future 6 2, Fiscal Situation and Treasury Market 9 -The role of US department of the treasury 9 -The role of the Federal Reserve 9 -The US treasury market 10 -The Fed, the interest rates, the QE and the taper 12 -The prediction of the future interest rate 13 -Summary 14 3, China’s involvement in the US Treasury market 15 -China’s Ownership of US Treasury Securities 15 -Reasons of China’s preference for the US Treasuries 16 -The Symbiosis between China and the US in Terms of US Public Debt Holdings 18 -Our Suggestion on China’s Future Position in the US Treasury Market 20 References 22 Executive Summary The state and local governments continue to face fiscal challenges in the short- to medium-term term. According to the Government......

Words: 6091 - Pages: 25

Premium Essay

Gold

...metal climbing to $2,400 in 2014. “Large-scale policy easing by the U.S. Federal Reserve and European Central Bank positions Gold as a useful hedge against global macro and inflation risks taking the commodity to $2000/ oz levels”, said the bank. The bank added that, “We have a sixmonth [Gold price] target of $2000 an ounce, but see scope as well for prices to rise to $2400 an ounce by the end of 2014. These targets reflect our view that the Fed will maintain mortgage purchases until the end of 2014 and will move to buy Treasuries following the end of Operation Twist in December 2012.” BNP Paribas BNP Paribas expects Gold to average $1,865 an ounce for the year. “Market sentiment towards Gold has been much more uncertain in 2012 than was the case in previous years. Yet, we expect Gold to achieve a new record high in 2013 due to further monetary easing, less tail risk related to a breakup of the euro zone and ongoing support from physical demand,” said BNP Paribas analyst Anne-Laure Tremblay in December. UBS Also in December, UBS maintained its 2013 price forecast for the yellow metal, stating that Gold would average $1,900 for the year. According to analysts at UBS, “The chief driver of the Gold price is partly the short term uncertainty around US fiscal policy, but also the view...

Words: 9281 - Pages: 38

Premium Essay

Gold Analysis

...metal climbing to $2,400 in 2014. “Large-scale policy easing by the U.S. Federal Reserve and European Central Bank positions Gold as a useful hedge against global macro and inflation risks taking the commodity to $2000/ oz levels”, said the bank. The bank added that, “We have a sixmonth [Gold price] target of $2000 an ounce, but see scope as well for prices to rise to $2400 an ounce by the end of 2014. These targets reflect our view that the Fed will maintain mortgage purchases until the end of 2014 and will move to buy Treasuries following the end of Operation Twist in December 2012.” BNP Paribas BNP Paribas expects Gold to average $1,865 an ounce for the year. “Market sentiment towards Gold has been much more uncertain in 2012 than was the case in previous years. Yet, we expect Gold to achieve a new record high in 2013 due to further monetary easing, less tail risk related to a breakup of the euro zone and ongoing support from physical demand,” said BNP Paribas analyst Anne-Laure Tremblay in December. UBS Also in December, UBS maintained its 2013 price forecast for the yellow metal, stating that Gold would average $1,900 for the year. According to analysts at UBS, “The chief driver of the Gold price is partly the short term uncertainty around US fiscal policy, but also the view that...

Words: 9281 - Pages: 38

Premium Essay

Monetary Policy

...after eight years as the head of the Federal Reserve System. So, the time is right to look back on the Bernanke era and ask how central banking has and has not changed since 2006. There is plenty in the macroeconomic record from 2006 to 2014 to keep economists and policy analysts busy for many years, so in this short piece we can only scratch the surface of what is interesting about the Bernanke era. I will focus on three issues: (i) inflation targeting, (ii) Fed lending and other interventions during the financial crisis, and (iii) post-crisis Fed policy, in particular experiments with forward guidance and quantitative easing (QE). B INFLATION TARGETING When Bernanke began his first term in 2006, I think the big change people expected was an inflation-targeting regime for U.S. monetary policy, similar to what exists in New Zealand, Canada, and the United Kingdom, for example. While that may have been in the cards, by the time Bernanke had settled into the job, events had overtaken him and he clearly ended up with much more than he bargained for. In terms of how Fed officials think about their jobs and how the public thinks about the role of the central bank, the Fed’s objectives and its toolbox are far different...

Words: 6247 - Pages: 25

Premium Essay

Policy Failure

...“monetary-disorder” view of recessions. A review of cyclical instability over the last two centuries places the 2008–2009 recession in the monetary-disorder tradition, which focuses on the monetary instability created by central banks rather than on a boom-bust cycle in inancial markets. Robert L. Hetzel is Senior Economist and Research Advisor in the Research Department of the Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, where he participates in debates over monetary policy and prepares the bank’s president for meetings of the Federal Open Market Committee. Dr. Hetzel’s research on monetary policy and the history of central banking has appeared in publications such as the Journal of Money, Credit, and Banking; the Journal of Monetary Economics; the Monetary and Economics Studies series of the Bank of Japan; and the CarnegieRochester Conference Series. His writings provided one of the catalysts for the congressional hearings and Treasury studies that led to the issuance of Treasury Inlation Protected Securities (TIPS). Dr. Hetzel has given...

Words: 177093 - Pages: 709

Premium Essay

Bis Paper 65 Threat of Fiscal Dominance?

...Threat of fiscal dominance? A BIS/OECD workshop on policy interactions between fiscal policy, monetary policy and government debt management after the financial crisis Basel, 2 December 2011 Monetary and Economic Department May 2012 Papers in this volume were prepared for the joint BIS and OECD workshop on “Policy interaction: fiscal policy, monetary policy and government debt management”, held in Basel on 2 December 2011. The views expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the BIS or the central banks represented at the meeting. Individual papers (or excerpts thereof) may be reproduced or translated with the authorisation of the authors concerned. This publication is available on the BIS website (www.bis.org). © Bank for International Settlements 2012. All rights reserved. Brief excerpts may be reproduced or translated provided the source is stated. ISSN 1609-0381 (print) ISBN 92-9131-135-9 (print) ISSN 1682 7651 (online) ISBN 92-9197-135-9 (online) Preface The massive expansion of central bank balance sheets to contain the worst financial crisis in living memory raises questions about the theory and practice of monetary policy. The persistence in many advanced countries of large fiscal deficits and the prospect of high public debt/GDP ratios for many years is likely, at some point, to create policy dilemmas not only for central banks but also for public debt managers. Some countries have already had to cope with......

Words: 122666 - Pages: 491

Free Essay

Economics and Political Society Publications

...EPS perspective Too Many Too Little Debtanu Dutta Surbhi Verma EPS Co-ordinators (Batch 2012-14) eps@iimk.ac.in Manjunatha Belgere Ajinkya Lokare Faculty Advisory Board Prof. Kausik Gangopadhyay Prof. Subhasis Dey Prof. A. F. Mathew Prof. Sthanu Nair Prof. Venkat Raman Prof. Rudra Sensarma Editorial Board Biswa Prateem Das Debtanu Dutta Manjunatha Belgere Presented by Economics Politics & Social Sciences Interest Group Indian Institute of Management Kozhikode Editorial After an inspiring success of the inaugural edition, we are very happy to present you the second volume of “Pragati”, magazine from Economics, Politics and Social sciences (EPS) Interest Group of IIM Kozhikode. This time it is much inclusive and much bigger. We received articles from students of the esteemed colleges of India and published the best among them. This is a result of tireless effort and dedication from the student members of the group and endless inspiration and help from the faculty members of our “Faculty Advisory Board”. EPS Interest Group is a cohort of enthusiasts on economic, political and social issues. Main aim of this group is to create awareness about recent related issues and sensitize the community on the importance of human initiatives. As a group we facilitate debate, discussion, article writing, social live projects and other activities. Our teachers always say that creating awareness is the first step of mobilizing people. EPS strives to engage......

Words: 33803 - Pages: 136

Free Essay

As, Ca, Pdf

...ISSUES FOR IIM INTERVIEW  PROCESS © EssaysforIIM.com......

Words: 128478 - Pages: 514

Premium Essay

Supply and Demand

...Answers to in-text Questions in Economics (5th edition) Chapter 1 Page 4 ( Could production and consumption take place without money? If you think they could, give examples. Yes. People could produce things for their own consumption. For example, people could grow vegetables in their garden or allotment; they could do their own painting and decorating. Alternatively people could engage in barter: they could produce things and then swap them for goods that other people had produced. ( Before reading on, how would you define scarcity? Must goods be at least temporarily unattainable to be scarce? See page 2 of text for a definition of scarcity. Goods need not be unattainable to be scarce. Because people’s incomes are limited, they cannot have everything they want from shops, even though the shops are stocked full. If all items in shops were free, the shelves would soon be emptied! ( If we would all like more money, why does the government not print a lot more? Could it not thereby solve the problem of scarcity ‘at a stroke’? The problem of scarcity is one of a lack of production. Simply printing more money without producing more goods and services will merely lead to inflation. To the extent that firms cannot meet the extra demand (i.e. the extra consumer expenditure) by extra production, they will respond by putting up their prices. Without extra production, consumers will end up unable to buy any more than......

Words: 89665 - Pages: 359