# Quantitative Techniques

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THE QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH APPROACH
Chapter 2
RESEARCH STEPS WITHIN THE QUANTITATIVE APPROACH
• Step 1: Identify a Problem Area
• Step 2 & 3: Review & Evaluate Literature
• Step 4 & 5: Be aware of ethical & cultural issues
• Step 6: State Research Question or hypothesis
• Step 7 & 8: Select research approach & decide measures
• Step 9 & 10: Select a Sample & Data Collection Method

THE QUANTITATIVE APPROACH (Continued)
• Step 11: Collect and Code the Data
• Step 12: Data Analysis
• Step 13 & 14: Write & Disseminate the report

DEVELOPING THE RESEARCH QUESTION
– Developing Concepts
– Identifying Variables within Concepts
– Putting Value Labels on Variables
– Defining Independent and Dependent Variables
– Constructing Hypotheses
Developing Concepts
• Giving a name to an idea that you want to study (e.g., ethnicity)
Identifying Variables Within Concepts
• Consider all the dimensions that make up the concept (e.g., race, culture, identity, societal grouping)
• Selecting a dimension of the concept to be measured (e.g., ethnic group)
• Operationalization: the process of naming and defining variables for your study
Putting Labels on Variables
• Labeling the “units” to be measured for the selected dimension (e.g., Ethnic groups may include: Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic, African American, Native American)
Defining Independent and Dependent Variables
• Bivariate Relationship: a research question that includes only two variables
• a one-variable question is univariate, and a question with three or more variables is multivariate
• Dependent and Independent Variables
– Names used to specify the direction of a relationship in a research question with two or more variables
– Independent (X) Dependent (Y)
• Studying (X) High grades (Y)
• Aging (X) Vision Loss (Y)
Constructing Hypotheses
• Formulating research questions into statements –...

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