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Quaternary Concrete

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Submitted By bhaggisaran
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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 GENERAL OVERVIEW
The Greek alphabet Sigma (σ) has become the statistical symbol and metric of process variation. The sigma scale of measurement is perfectly correlated to such characteristics as defects-per-unit, parts-per-million defectives, and the probability of a failure. A company’s performance is measured by the sigma level of their business processes. Traditionally companies accepted three or four sigma performance levels as the norm, despite the fact that these processes created between 6,200 and 67,000 defects per million opportunities The Six Sigma standard of 3.4 defects per million opportunities is a response to the increasing expectations of customers and the increased complexity of modern products and processes (Thomas Pyzdek) Six sigma is reportedly easier to apply than many other quality management programs because it provides information about the change needed and the programs to execute the change. The strategy it uses is a five-step improvement process: define, measure, analyse, improve and control (DMAIC). This process is deeply integrated with the overall goals of the organization and, as such, requires top down implementation. Six sigma is more intense, focused and detailed than any other quality improvement techniques (Sawant and Patasker 2014). DMAIC framework is a Integration of several techniques such as CTQ (Critical to quality), Process Mapping (SIPOC), DPMO (defects per million), and FMEA (failure mode and effects analysis) in a logical direction.
Construction industry has essential role in many other industries and is the infrastructure of the numerous organizations, therefore any improvement and development in construction industry results in progress of the associated business and industry. Despite the importance of high quality level in construction industry regarding to its close interaction with the...

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