Premium Essay

Quota or Not to Quota

In: Business and Management

Submitted By orel
Words 666
Pages 3

| |Module 3 – CSR: Old School Thinking in Disguise? |

Learning outcomes

After completing this module, you should be able to: • Describe the concept of corporate social responsibility • Discern the connections and differences between sustainability and CSR • Describe the convergence of sustainability and CSR and elaborate on its implications.

Facilitation/presentation This week’s tutorial is centred on the ‘fair trade’ aspects of coffee industry and its CSR implications. Facilitating/presenting team is required to conduct research on real life examples of the coffee industry in relation to the social and environmental issues and present some of the findings in order to further the understanding of CSR in the beginning (these can be Youtube videos, newspaper articles, media releases, company websites etc.). Following the presentation, the team should use the case study below (and the following questions) to steer sub-group discussions. Once each of the sub-groups have completed their discussion, the facilitators/presenters will share their collated information with the whole class. The team is welcome to use their own case study in consultation with the tutor.

| |CSR Case study (Based on Kolk, 2012 and Arce, 2009) |
|[pic] | |
| |Coffee is a major international commodity and because of this, coffee production has the potential for...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay


...Quota Definition Quota is a limit set on the quantity of a good or a service that can be sent into the country or sent out of a country. It is a kind of trade barrier. It is a trade restriction that limits the amount of a good or a service that can be imported into a country or exported out of a country in a given period of time. An import quota is used to import fewer goods or services into the country. An export quota is used to limit a good or a service of a country for going out. Quotas are used in international trade. It is use to help regulate the volume of trade between countries. There are many advantages and disadvantages in the use of quotas in a country. Import Quota Advantages One of the advantages of import quotas is that it benefits domestic producers. When a country imposes an import quota or limits a specific good or service into a country, the domestic producers benefit most because they have less competition. This will allow the domestic companies to earn more money because they can charge a little more for their goods. Another advantage of import quotas is that it keeps people from losing their jobs in the domestic country. People will have jobs as long as the domestic company has sufficient business to sustain. When an import quota of a certain good or service is set within a country, domestic countries will be able to give their domestic producers a chance to produce more, which enables the companies to support their workers. Besides that...

Words: 616 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Quotas and Sugar

...Government quotas and subsidies are justified at times. The US sugar policy is a long standing policy that is highly beneficial to sugar growers and a source of controversy for industries that rely on sugar. Government quotas are enacted to benefit domestic industries. The most prevalent reasons for quotas are: protecting domestic employment, hedging against low foreign wages, protecting infant industries, combating unfair trade and ensuring notational security. Foreign imports produced overseas using workers making lower wages would enjoy pricing advantages to domestic goods, so they may have a quota set. Infant industries in a country have to build up to compete with imports that may enjoy and advantage in economies of scale. Unfair trade occurs when products are dumped onto a market at below market price, possibly even below production price, a quota would at least limit that kind of tactic. If a good is seen as important to the security of the economy, which is a national security interest quotas can help protect that industry (Import Quotas, 2013). Export subsidies encourage domestic industries to export goods by increasing the revenue businesses receive by exporting goods. This may be to compete with foreign goods that are subsidized themselves or have a lower price for any number of reasons. When used judiciously these protectionist policies can be beneficial to industries but there is a concern about how they may affect domestic consumers. US sugar policy sets a......

Words: 454 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Quotas in Disrimination

...Quotas: From Discrimination to Democratic Legitimacy EARLY DRAFT – NOT FOR CITATION It is an established rule of U.S. constitutional law that the state cannot impose or pursue race or gender quotas.[1] In the private sector, an employer’s pursuit of numerically fixed race or gender balance is suspect under Title VII.[2] Under both bodies of antidiscrimination law, quotas are regarded as discrimination. If a civil rights initiative can be portrayed as encouraging employers to adopt quotas, its political demise is nearly certain in the United States.[3] Narrow forms of affirmative action have survived, legally and politically, only to the extent that they can be distinguished from quotas. Quotas are so widely regarded as legally, politically, and morally repugnant that they are taboo: The “q-word”[4] is rarely the subject of any serious debate, even by those who favor stronger civil rights protections for women and minorities. The related belief in the illegitimacy of ever pursuing numerically informed demographic balance – especially along lines of race or gender -- is gaining strength in the Supreme Court’s major antidiscrimination cases in the last several years.[5] It is widely accepted – even by civil rights advocates – that pursuing racial or gender balance as a goal, “for its own sake,” would be illegitimate.[6] This principle threatens the constitutionality of race-based affirmative action, which may meet its demise in Fisher v. Texas next......

Words: 13862 - Pages: 56

Premium Essay

Tarrifs and Quotas

...1) Distinguish between a tariff and a quota. Who benefits from and who is harmed by such restrictions on imports? A tariff is the taxes that are imposed by the government of a country on imported and exported goods. A quota is the limitation that is imposed on limiting the amount of goods that is imported and exported. The government benefits from the tariff since it increases the GDP of a particular country. Traders benefit from the gain that can be obtained through the quota. The regulations on imported goods hurts the people who has to pay higher prices for the goods that is made by such industries. Reducing the imports will reduce the income of foreigners. This in turn will reduce foreign purchases in the country that put the tariff on the imported goods. 2) What is the law of demand? Give two examples of how you have observed the law of demand at work in the “real world”. How is the law of demand related to the demand curve? Law of demand is when the price of a good or service increases then the consumer demand for that particular good or service will decrease. One example would be the gas prices. We have all seen the price of gas go up and down and then back up again. When gas prices rise people tend to not purchase gas as much as they used to causing the demand to decrease. The price of gas would cause people to conserve the gas they had and not do as much running around as they used too. Another example would be the housing market. The prices of houses......

Words: 369 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Police Quotas

...Police Quotas/Production Goals Outline 1. What is it? I.intro From corporate boardrooms to elementary school classrooms, performance measurement is everywhere. Our children are required to take standardized tests designed to ensure that school performance is up to snuff. With performance measurement appearing in such a diverse array of organizational settings, it is not surprising that it is now becoming a hot topic in policing. * Police quotas also known as production goals are the minimal amount of arrests and/or summons the police are required to give out within a monthly basis. 2. How is it used in policing? * Production goals are used to measure performance in law enforcement agencies. * Unlike arrests, there are no national data on citations issued by police agencies. Police departments traditionally maintain their own records on citations and have historically paid close attention to citation productivity. Citations are one of the basic outputs of police agencies, used much more numerously than arrests. Of the estimated 19.3 million drivers who were pulled over by police at least one time in 1999, about 54% received a traffic citation, about 26% received a warning, and only about 3% were arrested.[48] Research has shown that there is substantial interagency variation in traffic citations for moving violations.[49] Traffic...

Words: 897 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Essay On Legislative Quotas

...Legislative quotas, apply to the candidate selection process by the parties, unlike party quotas in that they are not voluntarily adopted, but rather are legally order quotas that apply to all parties. This is the most contemporary kind of quota system, and only appeared in the 1990s, in developing countries, particularly in Latin America, post-conflict Africa, the Middle East, and across Southeastern Europe. Adoption of these quotas spread rapidly in part due to an active transnational women’s movement, which through information-sharing enabled local organizations, activists and intellectuals to publicize and politicize under representation of women in politics. Such activities and an international pressure on women’s political presence led many women’s organizations to...

Words: 739 - Pages: 3

Free Essay


...Case Study on Board Quotas Prepared By- Md. Rokib Chowdhury (Id: 3-15-30-036) Md. Ifteakhar Alam (Id: 3-15-29-087) Biplab Vattacharjee (Id: 3-15-30-063) Md. Mosfiqur Rahman (Id: 3-15-30-062) Submitted to- Prof.Dr. Md. Abbas Ali Khan University of Dhaka Contents page no Summary …………………………. 3 Ques no1 …………………………. 4 Ques No2 …………………………. 7 Fig 1 ………………………….. 7 Fig 2 …………………………… 9 Ques no3 …………………………….. 9 Fig 3 ………………………………… 13 Ques no 4 ………………………………… 14 Summary Board Quotas for women is important for the participation of women in the workforce. In United States quotas for women is only 15%. Among 100 large companies in Britain quotas for woman is only 12%. In EU the Quotas contains only 9.7%, In India and China 5%. In this underrepresentation of quotas for women many countries make compulsory quotas for women on Boards. Question no: 1 Given that women participate in the labor force in roughly the same proportion as men, why do you think women occupy so few seats on boards of directors? Women are well established in professions......

Words: 3732 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Gender Quota in European Companies

...Gender Quota in European Companies Women are having a hard time reaching top positions in companies. The European Union recognizes this problem and decided to implement new laws that require quotas for women in businesses. According to the European Commission, women need to work an extra of 59 days to match the salary earned by men, which makes an average gender pay gap of 16.2% across the European Union in 2010. ("Equal pay day:," 2013). The reason why the quota system in Europe is not working is, because it has the status of a directive. Equality is one of five values on which the Union is founded. The Union is bound to strive for equality between women and men in all its activities. (3 Articles 2 and 3 TEU, Article 8 TFEU). Therefore, the EU has laws that forbid discrimination based on sex. Article two of the Maastricht Treaty (TEU) clearly states men and women are equal. (Van Ooik, & Vandamme, 2010, p. 5). In addition, article 121 of the TFEU states that men and women have the right for equal pay. Finally, article 21 of the Lisbon Treaty specifically prohibits discrimination based on sex (Van Ooik, & Vandamme, 2010, p. 161). This means that women in the EU are protected by law against discrimination based on their gender. However, in practice gender inequality still exists in European businesses. The European Union and its fight for gender equality has been a long battle. Despite EU law and directives the European Union has not been able to solve the problem....

Words: 1365 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

The Protectionism Effect: Tariffs, Quotas, and Subsidies

...Kary Bowser International Economics Professor Gelgelu 11 February 2013 The Protectionism Effect: Tariffs, Quotas, and Subsidies The most common way to protect one’s economy from import competition is to implement a tariff: a tax on imports. Generally speaking, a tariff is any tax or fee collected by a government. Sometimes the term “tariff” is used in a nontrade context, as in railroad tariffs. However, the term is much more commonly used to refer to a tax on imported goods. Tariffs have been applied by countries for centuries and have been one of the most common methods used to collect revenue for governments. This is because it is relatively simple to place customs officials at the border of a country and collect a fee on goods that enter. Administratively, a tariff is probably one of the easiest taxes to collect. (Of course, high tariffs may induce smuggling of goods through nontraditional entry points, but we will ignore that problem here.) Tariffs are worth defining early in an international trade course since changes in tariffs represent the primary way in which countries either liberalize trade or protect their economies. It isn’t the only way, though, since countries also implement quotas, subsidies, and other types of regulations that can affect trade flows between countries. These other methods will be defined and discussed later, but for now it suffices to understand tariffs since they still represent the basic policy affecting international trade patterns...

Words: 3232 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

Women's Quota in Norway a Good Pioneer for Germany?

...WOMEN’S QUOTA IN NORWAY - A GOOD PIONEER FOR GERMANY? | Table of Contents 1. Introduction 3 2. Definition Women’s/ Gender Quota 3 3. Gender quota in Norway 4 3.1 The road to the quota 4 3.2 Impacts and Changes 5 4. Gender pay gap in Germany 7 4.1 Causes for the Gender pay gap 7 4.2 gender quota in germany 8 5.Conclusion 9 List of Literature 9 Books/magazines 9 Internet Sources 10 Illustrations 10 1. Introduction The situation for women in every kind of different sectors has changed over the last centuries and decades. Nevertheless the result of an UNO- analysis in the mid 1990’s states that women have not the same chances as men in any society in the world even though that there has been made a huge progress. As Paragraph 1 of Article 3 of the German Basic Law declares, “All persons shall be equal before the law.“ In addition Paragraph 2 of the same article states, “Men and women shall have equal rights. The state shall 
promote the actual implementation of equal rights for women and men and take steps to eliminate disadvantages that now exist.“ In contrast to this Article of the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) describes that after a study made in 2012 Germany has one of the biggest wage gap between men and women among all countries in Europe. The study says as well that there are fewer women in management positions. This arouses the question “What are......

Words: 2899 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Individual Transferable Quota Management for Open Access Fisheries

...Critically assess ‘Individual Transferable Quotas’ as a way of managing an Open Access Fishery Open Access Fisheries have long been susceptible to irrational over-exploitation by fishermen. The nature of such an open and accessible resource coupled with the issue of overfishing has resulted in a growing area of research and academia in sustainable management strategies. Economists became aware of the common property problems of the fishery through H. Scott Gordon in 1954 and have been concerned with effective measures of management ever since1. The economist, Parzival Copes 1986, pin points the problem that fisheries are absent of individual property rights. This, he argued, produces no incentive for fishermen to ‘husband the resource’ and invariably leads to excessive exploitation1. It is this exploitation that is a concern for governments worldwide as populations rise and the demand for such resources increase. This essay will look at one way of managing an Open Access Fishery, a strategy of Individual Transferable Quotas (ITQ), and will assess the effectiveness of such an approach. An early output-limitation management strategy has been to impose a total allowable catch (TAC) in fisheries to try and prevent exploitation and conserve fish stocks. These limits on the amount that fishermen can harvest each season are aimed at allowing conservation objectives to be met, but in reality they resulted in a racing mentality, a ‘race for fish,’ as soon as the fishing season......

Words: 2119 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Influence Government Policy on Tariff Duties and Quotas on Supply and Demand

...Pengertian Supply dan Demand Supply (permintaan) adalah keinginan konsumen membeli suatu barang pada berbagai tingkat harga selama periode waktu tertentu sedangkan demand (penawaran atau permintaan) adalah jumlah barang yang produsen ingin tawarkan atau jual pada berbagai tingkat harga selama satu periode tertentu. Beberapa faktor yang dapat mempengaruhi permintaan suatu barang, antara lain: harga barang itu sendiri, harga barang lain yang terkait, tingkat pendapatan per kapita, selera atau kebiasaan, jumlah penduduk, perkiraan harga di masa mendatang, distribusi pendapatan dan usaha-usaha produsen untuk meningkatkan penjualan. Selain itu terdapat faktor-faktor yang menentukan tingkat penawaran adalah harga jual barang yang bersangkutan, serta faktor-faktor lainnya yang dapat disederhanakan sebagai faktor non harga seperti harga faktor produksi, biaya produksi, teknologi produksi, jumlah pedagang atau penjual, tujuan perusahaan dan kebijakan pemerintah. Pada laporan ini, saya akan menganalisa dampak dari kebijakan pemerintah yang mempengaruhi permintaan dan penawaran terhadap suatu barang di negaranya. Kebijakan Pemerintah Kegagalan menentukan harga suatu barang di pasar, seringkali menuntut intervensi pemerintah. Namun yang harus diperhatikan adalah tidak semua intervensi pemerintah memberikan hasil yang baik, walaupun tujuannya baik. Banyak faktor yang menyebabkannya. Salah satu masalah terbesar yang dihadapi pemerintah dalam menentukan kebijaksanaan adalah adanya......

Words: 1540 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Did the Removal of the Milk Quota System Along with the Increased Payment of Cap Reform Have a Negative Impact on Farm-Level Supply and Income of which is the milk quota system. The milk quota system was introduced to the EU in 1984 and the idea was embraced because it offered a way to control milk production, stabilize milk price and farm income (Seville 2009; Petit 1987). As the markets become more free-flowing and globalized, disputes about the system arose. Since the implementation of the system, the negative aspects of it have reared its ugly heads. It not only put a cap on milk production,but also lost the competitive edge in the world market due to the stabilization of milk prices (Seville 2009). Therefore, the reforms made on June 26th 2003 in Luxembourg have proposed major changes to the European Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Direct subsidies were to be independent from production and strict compliance with EU standards on environment and health was enforced. In reality, milk producers take market demand into consideration rather than the influence from subsidies to determine their production quota. (Bouamra-Mechemache and Requillart 2004). However, EU dairy market is still regulated by the mandatory quota system because the agreement of the regime lasts until the end of 2015. In addition to that, there has been a milk quota increase of 1.5% in three years since 2006 (Zervoudaki 2011). Furthermore, within the Health Check of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), the European Commission accepted the proposal to make amendments to the system and suggested an increase of quota by 1% annually from 2009...

Words: 2363 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Human Resource Management

...MANAGEMENT Group 6 – Case Study Presentation | Chapter 6 – Recruiting Human Resource TO QUOTA OR NOT TO QUOTA INTRODUCTION Quotas are simply defined as fixed number or amount of people or things in particular. However, Scott (2014)[9] defines quota in HRM as affirmative action guidelines which require covered employers to meet certain goals and timetables for hiring and/or promoting women and minorities. In human resource management quotas are associated with changing demographic composition and diversity of workforce across one or more distributive categories such as gender, ethnicity, age, sexual orientation, disability and education backgrounds. As per our case-study, (Stone 2013, pp. 243-244) [1] highlights that despite women had been in workforce for decades, there is gender bias in recruiting board executives. Organisations have utilised multiple strategies to overcome this phenomenon of which quota has been an integral part. Implementation of quota has affected organisations bilaterally entangling ethical dilemmas which led to generalised perception of the aforesaid topic. Galbraith (2012) [7] states that a balanced boardroom has both positive and negative effects. However, extensive research has shown general acceptance of quotas in the international framework. Erika Watson (2012) [10] published in a research article stating Norway as the first country in world to enforce quota law of 40% women on their board. Similar approaches were further accepted by......

Words: 1267 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Economics of Global Trade and Finance Semester 1 Notes

...Module 1: Commercial policy Origin of Commercial Policy Ricardo in 1817 proposed the theory of comparative cost advantage which brought out the capacity of one nation to produce more of a good with the same amount of input than another country. To prove Comparative cost advantage in India arises due to a billion people having advantage in production of goods or services that require large amounts of labor. Factors like ability to speak English, low labor costs due to large workforce, cheaper internet, and telephone communications add to the advantage. International trade cycle The commercial policy adapts a change as per the changing international trade cycle. The international trade shows stages like emerging exports with mass production followed by foreign competition and finally competition from imports. 1. Exports May be only manufacturer of new product Overseas customers learn of product, export market develops 2. Foreign production Export volume grows Production technology becomes stable Reduced costs for transportation Exports diminish 3. Foreign competition Foreign manufacturers gain experience Compete in export markets 4. Import competition Foreign producers obtain economies of scale Compete in quality and undersell domestic company in domestic market. Due to this dynamic business setting, the trade policy has to emerge and adapt it self to international demands and cause economic development. Comparative advantage theory of......

Words: 2566 - Pages: 11