Free Essay

Race: the Cultural and Political Power of an Illusion in Latin America

In: Historical Events

Submitted By bff101
Words 1875
Pages 8
Race: The Cultural and Political Power of an Illusion in Latin America

Race has been the most arguable and controversial subject in Latin American history. Since 16th century it has created a great deal of prejudice among Latin American people, it has been referred, as biological characteristics later modified to a social statue such are education, wealth and language. It has been under a heavy influence of cultural and political power where people were classified from their biological characteristics to their wealth. Through the time race has become the main tool for state creation and regulation. Race has become a status, which has structured and organized the nation but the term “race” has never itself been stable. In today’s Latin America modern theory of “race” has meaning of a political power, status and regulation, it’s a states way of monitoring and controlling of the heterogeneous nation. Race gradually has become a political cultural and economic power for Latin American state.
In this paper I will argue about the idea that race in Latin America gradually has became just an illusion, a tool by which people were controlled structured and manipulated. Various articles will be presented to support and illustrate the transformation of the word “race “ and its cultural and political influence on Latin America. I will talk about the colonial to republic period idea of “race “ In Latin America and how the meaning of the word was manipulated. I will discuss the colonial period of religion and its influence on “race” then I will talk about the science and a social impact on meaning of “race” and lastly I will talk about the political and economical influence on “race”.
The term race in the literature was introduced by a French phrenologist Georges Cuvier , he established the idea of inherited physical traits that are characteristics of the various human groups.(Shwarte 1995, 49) This idea of race was a controversial between sixteenth-century chroniclers and nineteen century naturalists and in late nineteenth century racial discourse emerged as a theme of citizenship. However In the twentieth century, with the different views on the definition of “race” among the scholars, UNESCO organization was the first to describe “race” to ease the ideas and conflicts after the Holocaust. UNESCO declared that race was a social myth rather then a biological fact (Brattain 2007, 1387). However the statement became very controversial among the anthropologists and scholars. They challenged the idea that one can’t just ignore the differences in between people’s ability and that race is a meaningless term created only for false “superficial traits” (Brattain 2007,1398). The idea of no existence of race has been called an “Equalitarian Dogma” arguing that South Africa had being having “race problem” for 300 years and they can’t just pretend that it hasn’t meant anything. In the article “unfixing race” Kathryn Burn describes the past of race, the negative association with the word. The prehestorical examples of racism involve a religion, seventeenth century Peru considered a Jews as “bad whites”. The Old Spanish institutions were trying to fix the cleanliness of people’s bloodlines. The illusion created by the ones in power was clear and strong as more people tried to convert under the fear of strict punishments. The unwanted “race” was targeted by the political power and also influenced by the culture of that period of time. In late sixteenth century the idea of the Spanish royalty to create “two republic” model was another attempt of the “race” destruction. The idea of physical segregation of Indians from non-Indians and force relocation didn’t turned out a success, indigenous African women, brought as slaves eventually had become wives for some of the Europeans and children of theirs have created a new race of people. They were immediately labeled as a new inferior race, a race which didn’t feet in either republic; “They gave Spanish authorities a linguistic handle on those who fit neither of the two republics- and who seemed, to their dismay, to threaten both with their disorderly conduct. These were Spaniards’ impure New World others”, quotes Burns. Another generation, which was, also under the heavy negative cultural influence was so called creoles, translating as “black born in the Indies”; the new prejudice among the culture was created which was emphasizing their birthplace. According the article race had to do with honor and quality. These people had no chance of self-identifications; they were already assigned and evaluated as inferiors, a strong illusion that governed rest of their lives.
In early 20th century the Latin America was introduced a new term “eugenics” according the article Eugenics in Latin America: Its Origin and Institutional Ecology eugenics has associated with patriotism and the call for a larger role for Latin America in the world affairs. The World War I was one of the factor of the creation of this ideology and others much important and within the nation was “ underdevelopment”, the collapse of slavery, abolition of the monarchy and the great number of Europeans migration left 20th century Brazil with a highly stratified society“. Socially and really- a society that, through formally a liberal republic, was governed informally by a small, largely white elite and in which less than 2 percent of the population voted in national elections”. Says the author. A majority of the society was black and mulatos incapable to read or write. These were heavily criticized in public consciousness as a national issue called a “social question”(Stepan 1991, 37). This group of people was the biggest issue in the country; they were the group that most agitated physicians, sanitation experts, and reformers of Brazil. The cultural and political power was portraying blacks and mulatos as a bottom of the hierarchy society. “Poor were poor because they were unhygienic, dirty, ignorant, and hereditary unfit”- the author says. As the urban population was growing and the standards of life was raising the eugenics in poor brazil areas was getting worse, the people of minority were oppressed, the cultural and a political illusion was that they were destined to this. The development and growth of the science, institutes, medical and law school also opened to the new theories, Darwinists theorists truly believed in the inferiority of the black people, the message was the same from the united states that they couldn’t produce high civilization. These theories had a great impact on people’s ideology and perception of blacks and mulatos in society. Later in 1930th eugenics was contradict successfully by the modern genetic discoveries and discredited for the political reasons but the struggle for the rights and recognition was still a main issue throughout the century.
Another example of the cultural and political influence on race was the European work force immigration in South America. State department of agriculture federal constitution of 1981 had transformed San Paulo prom the province into the state, the idea was to bring enough workers from the Europe so there will not be a shortage in plantation workers. 1887 the massive European immigration started and in 1888 the number of emigrants from Europe were equaled to the number of slaves freed in the year, the number was roughly around ninety-two thousand people. The goal behind the immigration was “ to flood the labor market with workers, thus keeping the coast of labor low”(Andrews 494). San Paulo labor market invested all the funds in European workers, leaving Brazilian population inferior and out of chance to compete with them. “The province planter’s and the state apparatus which they controlled, had made their ethnic and racial preferences in workers crystal clear” states George Andrews in his article. This was an example of international currents of scientifically racism and a social Darwinism. The theory behind this was that blacks and other Brazilian racial mixes were lazy and irresponsible (Andrews 1995, 495). The argument in defense of the immigration was that by doing so they were preparing and making the black race stronger and ready for the challenges, “the right man in the right place, as Americans say and that man clearly was not going to be a black” says Andrew. The segregation of the Brazilian freed population was indeed a fact; the labor market competition was won by the white European immigration, which caused the population to flight from the plantation leaving the job to the white immigrants. However during the labor movement Brazilians were one again criticized to be week to fight for their rights and being no help to immigrant workers to help and improve their qualities of work conditions. In year 1903, article O Amigo De Povo expressed despair of the idea of ever organizing the “Brazilian Povo”; he blamed this to the fact of Brazilians ignorance, sunk in poverty and lethargy. “To make the revolution, will require wills and characters that are stronger, physically and morally, than those possessed by the Brazilians, who are the product of a debilitated nation”(Andrews 500). This period in San Paulo was a clear example of economic and cultural segregation between the two race and the “winners” were white immigrants while blacks represented the “losers”(Andrews 1995, 523). After only forty years of the segregation of labor market, the government policy turned the preferences back to the Brazilian workers and the reason was because of white immigrants demands and employment rates got much higher, but it was not easy for Brazilian workers to quickly adjust and go back to the role where they would feel equal to the society. After being deprived of work force and the income for years it would take much more time and effort for the population to adjust and find themselves.
The history of the race inequality and manipulation in order to obtain power was very common practice in Latin America. From nineteenth century to twentieth century the meaning of race has gone from a biological characteristics to cultural, linguistic, physiological and moral characteristics. The concept of race has been quite rich and in every case it has had a significant influence on the creation and development of Latin American society, it was a great tool for the ones in power to regulate and people and separate them in social casts.

Work Cited
Brattain, Michelle. "Race, Racism and Antiracism: UNESCO and the Politics of Presenting Science to the Postwar," American Historical Review, Vol. 112, No. 5 (2007), p. 1386-1413.

Schwartz, Stuart, "Colonial Identities and the Sociedad de Castas," Colonial Latin American Review, Vol. 4, No.1, (1995), p. 185 – 201.

Andrews, George, "Black and White Workers: Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1888-1928," The Hispanic American Historical Review, Vol. 68, No. 3, (1995), p. 491-524.

Stepan, Nancy, The Hour of Eugenics: Race, Gender, and Nation in Latin America (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1991), 214 p.

Schwarcz, Lilia Moritz, The Spectacle of the Races: Scientists, Institutions, and the Race Question in Brazil, 1870-1930 (New York: Hill & Wang, 1999,) 358 p.

Burns, Kathryn, "Unfixing Race," in Rereading the Black Legend: The Discourses of Religious and Racial Difference in the Renaissance Empires, eds. Margaret R. Greer, Walter D. Mignolo, and Maureen Quilligan (University of Chicago, 2007), p. 188-202.

Schwartz, Stuart, "Colonial Identities and the Sociedad de Castas," Colonial Latin American Review, Vol. 4, No.1, (1995), p. 185 – 201

Similar Documents

Premium Essay


...without the prior permission of the copyright owner. ISBN (10): 1-4438-0593-9, ISBN (13): 978-1-4438-0593-3 TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgments ..................................................................................... vii Chapter One................................................................................................. 1 Introduction Jopi Nyman Part I: Crossing Racial Boundaries Chapter Two ................................................................................................ 8 Between Camps: Paul Gilroy and the Dilemma of “Race” Tuire Valkeakari Chapter Three ............................................................................................ 30 Breaking the Apartheid: Blocking Actors of Color in Globalized Multicultural Theatre Baron Kelly Chapter Four.............................................................................................. 47 Transcending the Boundaries of Race and Sexuality: James Baldwin’s Vision of Postcategorical Utopia Pekka Kilpeläinen Part II: Encounters with Whiteness Chapter Five .............................................................................................. 64 Are...

Words: 8908 - Pages: 36

Free Essay

Art Midterm Review

...sociocultural group’s history and utilize in our lives 2. Personal cultural identity: aspects include: age, gender and sexuality, social and economic class, exceptionality, geographic location, religion, political status, language, ethnicity, and racial designation. Influenced heavily by the surrounding culture. The individual’s role in these groups depends on the individual’s power and acts of discrimination. There is no such thing as African American culture, Jewish culture, or Native American culture. Key Concepts: Understand why we can only have a partial/temporal understanding of a cultural group. Understand and be familiar with the concept of personal cultural identity. 3. Indigenismo: a Latin American idea and movement pressing for a greater social and political role for the Indigenous peoples of the Americas, and the revindication of indigenous rights and including compensation for past wrongdoings of the colonial and republican states. “the search for indigenous roots.” 4. Los Tres Grandes: They all share the common art form of Mural painting; they are Diego Rivera, Jose Clemente Orozco, and David Alfaro Siqueiros. “Los Tres Grandes” came to prominence during the cultural revival in Mexico stemming from the Mexican Revolution. The presidency of General Alvaro Obregon, who was one of the many revolutionary leaders struggling for power during and immediately after the war, helped establish a political and social environment for the muralists to......

Words: 1887 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

100 Años de Soledad

...sense combined with an overall tragic irony underlying the remarkably energetic and entertaining inventiveness in the plot and the characters. Thirdly, by way of accounting, at least in part, for these complex effects, I wish to look at two particular aspects: the double sense of time in the novel and the style of magical realism. Finally, putting all these elements together, I shall address the question posed at the start. I would like to suggest that this novel does, in fact, have something very insightful and important to reveal about the social and political realities of the world it depicts and that this theme may be difficult for North Americans fully to recognize. One Hundred Years of Solitude as an Epic It seems clear to me that, in any conventional sense of the literary term, we are dealing here with an epic work: a long narrative fiction with a huge scope which holds up for our inspection a particular cultural moment in the history of a people. The novel is the history of the founding, development, and death of a human settlement, Macondo, and of the most important family in that town, the Buendias. In following the historical narrative of...

Words: 6156 - Pages: 25

Premium Essay


...Richard Kearney Paulo Freire's "Pedagogy of the Oppressed" Author(s): Mark Patrick Hederman Reviewed work(s): Source: The Crane Bag, Vol. 6, No. 2, Latin-American Issue (1982), pp. 58-63 Published by: Richard Kearney Stable URL: . Accessed: 11/03/2012 14:51 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at . JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact Richard Kearney is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to The Crane Bag. Paulo Freire's Pedagogy of the Oppressed Mark Patrick Hederman Paulo Freire's Pedagogy of the Oppressed is a study of education in the Third World, particularly Latin-America. However, its findings can be of interest in any educational situation. As Richard Shaull says in his preface to Freire's book:' There is no such thing as a neutral educational process. Education either functions as an instrument which is used to facilitate the integration of the younger generation into the logic of the present system and bring about conformity to it,...

Words: 4589 - Pages: 19

Free Essay

International Journal of Education and Development Using Information and Communication Technology

...Technology (IJEDICT), 2008, Vol. 4, Issue 1, pp. 49-65. The Internet in developing countries: a medium of economic, cultural and political domination Abdulkafi Albirini University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA ABSTRACT The last decade has witnessed an unprecedented diffusion of network technologies into developing countries. The technological discourse attending this diffusion has presented the new media as a utopian, egalitarian and empowering tool with the potential of ushering in a new era of development, democracy, and positive cultural change. This paper examines the economic, cultural, and political effects of the Internet within the historical context of developing countries. The paper traces the politically-inspired evolution of the Internet, its transfer into developing countries, and the economic, cultural, and political consequences of this transfer. Existing data indicate that the implementation of the Internet in most developing countries has served as a drain to the local resources, thus exacerbating their economic dependency on foreign nations. On a cultural level, the Internet’s predominantly Western design, content, and language have facilitated the proliferation of alien cultural patterns at the expense of the social experiences of the local cultures. Lastly, the Internet’s build-in tracking capabilities and its current manipulation for political purposes on international and national levels serves to empower the existing ruling elites in......

Words: 9084 - Pages: 37

Free Essay

One Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.

...TWENTIETH-C ENTURY H ISTORY In the series Critical Perspectives on the Past, edited by Susan Porter Benson, Stephen Brier, and Roy Rosenzweig Also in this series: Paula Hamilton and Linda Shopes, eds., Oral History and Public Memories Tiffany Ruby Patterson, Zora Neale Hurston and a History of Southern Life Lisa M. Fine, The Story of Reo Joe: Work, Kin, and Community in Autotown, U.S.A. Van Gosse and Richard Moser, eds., The World the Sixties Made: Politics and Culture in Recent America Joanne Meyerowitz, ed., History and September 11th John McMillian and Paul Buhle, eds., The New Left Revisited David M. Scobey, Empire City: The Making and Meaning of the New York City Landscape Gerda Lerner, Fireweed: A Political Autobiography Allida M. Black, ed., Modern American Queer History Eric Sandweiss, St. Louis: The Evolution of an American Urban Landscape Sam Wineburg, Historical Thinking and Other Unnatural Acts: Charting the Future of Teaching the Past Sharon Hartman Strom, Political Woman: Florence Luscomb and the Legacy of Radical Reform Michael Adas, ed., Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History Jack Metzgar, Striking Steel: Solidarity Remembered Janis Appier, Policing Women: The Sexual Politics of Law Enforcement and the LAPD Allen Hunter, ed., Rethinking the Cold War Eric Foner, ed., The New American History. Revised and Expanded Edition E SSAYS ON _ T WENTIETH- C ENTURY H ISTORY Edited by Michael......

Words: 163893 - Pages: 656

Premium Essay

Managing Cultura Differences

...MANAGING CULTURAL DIFFERENCES SIXTHEDITION MANAGING CULTURAL DIFFERENCES SERIES Managing Cultural Differences: Global Leadership Strategies for the 21 st Century, Sixth Edition Philip R. Harris, Ph.D., Robert T. Moran, Ph.D., Sarah V. Moran, M.A. Managing Cultural Diversity in Technical Professions Lionel Laroche, Ph.D Uniting North American Business—NAFTA Best Practices Jeffrey D. Abbot and Robert T. Moran, Ph.D. Eurodiversity: A Business Guide to Managing Differences George Simons, D.M. Global Strategic Planning: Cultural Perspectives for Profit and Non-Profit Organizations Marios I. Katsioulodes Ph.D. Competing Globally: Mastering Cross-Cultural Management and Negotiations Farid Elashmawi, Ph.D. Succeeding in Business in Eastern and Central Europe—A Guide to Cultures, Markets, and Practices Woodrow H. Sears, Ed.D. and Audrone Tamulionyte-Lentz, M.S. Intercultural Services: A Worldwide Buyer’s Guide and Sourcebook Gary M. Wederspahn, M.A. SIXTH EDITION MANAGING CULTURAL DIFFERENCES GLOBAL LEADERSHIP STRATEGIES ST FOR THE 21 CENTURY 25TH ANNIVERSARY EDITION PHILIP R. HARRIS, PH.D. ROBERT T. MORAN, PH.D. SARAH V. MORAN, M.A. JUDITH SOCCORSY Editorial Coordinator Elsevier Butterworth–Heinemann 200 Wheeler Road, Burlington, MA 01803, USA Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP, UK Copyright © 2004, Philip R. Harris, Robert T. Moran, Sarah V. Moran. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in......

Words: 229816 - Pages: 920

Free Essay


...Critical Theories of Globalization Chamsy el-Ojeili and Patrick Hayden Critical Theories of Globalization Also by Chamsy el-Ojeili CONFRONTING GLOBALIZATION: Humanity, Justice and the Renewal of Politics FROM LEFT COMMUNISM TO POSTMODERNISM: Reconsidering Emancipatory Discourse Also by Patrick Hayden AMERICA’S WAR ON TERROR CONFRONTING GLOBALIZATION: Humanity, Justice and the Renewal of Politics COSMOPOLITAN GLOBAL POLITICS JOHN RAWLS: Towards a Just World Order THE PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN RIGHTS Critical Theories of Globalization Chamsy el-Ojeili Department of Sociology, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand Patrick Hayden School of International Relations, University of St Andrews, UK © Patrick Hayden and Chamsy el-Ojeili 2006 All rights reserved. No reproduction, copy or transmission of this publication may be made without written permission. No paragraph of this publication may be reproduced, copied or transmitted save with written permission or in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, or under the terms of any licence permitting limited copying issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency, 90 Tottenham Court Road, London W1T 4LP. Any person who does any unauthorized act in relation to this publication may be liable to criminal prosecution and civil claims for damages. The authors have asserted their rights to be identified as the authors of this work in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents...

Words: 100030 - Pages: 401

Premium Essay

Definition of Globalization

...Program on the Geopolitical Implications of Globalization and Transnational Security Definitions of Globalization: A Comprehensive Overview and a Proposed Definition Dr. Nayef R.F. Al-Rodhan Senior Scholar in Geostrategy and Director of the Program on the Geopolitical Implications of Globalization and Transnational Security Geneva Centre for Security Policy Ambassador Gérard Stoudmann Director Geneva Centre for Security Policy June 19, 2006 To comment, please email Ms. Bethany Webster at All copyrights are reserved by the authors. Avenue de la Paix 7bis P.O. Box 1295 CH-1211 Geneva 1 Telephone Telefax +41 22 906 83 17 +41 22 906 16 49 Dr. Nayef R.F. Al-Rodhan Ambassador Gérard Stoudmann Definitions of Globalization: A Comprehensive Overview and a Proposed Definition Abstract Many authors have attempted, with relative success, to define globalization in a variety of ways. Some claim that it cannot be done, others claim that it would constrain the meaning to do so, and still others have defied these two beliefs and have constructed a working definition. Despite differing opinions about developing a definition, all authors agree on one thing: that defining this term is anything but easy. This paper will attempt to provide a comprehensive overview of the existing definitions of globalization and introduce our proposed definition: “Globalization is a process that encompasses the causes, course, and consequences......

Words: 12255 - Pages: 50

Free Essay


...Anti-Hegemonic Party State………………………………………………….18 Chapter 2: Anti-Hegemonic Party State and Domestic Features of Political Regimes…………………………………………………………………………………………… 44 Chapter 3: Anti-Hegemonic Party State and Exogenous Perspective on Political Regimes……………………………………………………………………………………………75 Part II: History Chapter 4: The Global Rise of Anti-Hegemonic Party States and Globalization Backlash 1917-1945...…………………………………………………………….91 Chapter 5: The Big Leap of Anti-Hegemonic Party States: The Second Wave 1946-1975…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………111 Chapter 6: Globalization Anew and the Marginalization of Anti-Hegemonic Party States 1976-2010………………………………………………………142 Conclusions Introduction: Globalization and Anti-Hegemonic Party State In 1997 the European Commission defined Globalization “as the process by which markets and production in different countries are becoming increasingly interdependent due to the dynamics of trade in goods and services and flows of capital and technology. It is not a new phenomenon but the continuation of developments that have been in train for some considerable time”.[1] Wider definitions incorporate more spheres than the economy, including the intensification of worldwide social, political, and cultural relations as well while stressing their growing extensity, intensity, velocity, and depth.[2] A......

Words: 33126 - Pages: 133

Premium Essay

Disent in America

...Dissent is a feeling or philosophy of non-agreement or opposition to a prevailing idea or institution. It is older than the United States, serving as a privilege and obligation to its citizens. The history of the United States is an ideal example of how dissent ultimately changes society by offering new ideas and perspective. Important issues that dissenters advocated such as taxation, slavery, women’s rights, civil rights, and anti-war sentiments define America. In order for a society to be successful, it must encourage dissent and protect the rights of its dissenters. Dissenters fought to create change and gain rights they believed were denied to them and others. Religious dissent forced European groups such as the Quakers and Puritans, who were persecuted for their beliefs, to seek life in the colonies. During the Pre-Revolutionary Age, Christianity affected all aspects of an individual’s life. Christianity was the basis of decision making in politics and society. Governments often ruled over their subjects, with the notion that they had approval from God and would therefore be granted his mercy for slaughtering innocent individuals, whether it was through crusades or witch hunts. At the time of the seventeenth century, kings and queens final decisions ruled which branch of Christianity to follow; with the constant upheaval in rulers, and exile towards Protestants during the Catholic era and Calvinists during the Church of England era, radical religious ideals began...

Words: 6255 - Pages: 26

Premium Essay

Origin of Fascism

...Wiki Loves Africa: share African cultural fashion and adornment pictures with the world! Fascism From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia For the original version of the ideology developed in Italy, see Italian Fascism. For the book edited by Roger Griffin, see Fascism (book). "Fascist" redirects here. For the insult, see Fascist (insult). Part of a series on | Fascism | | Core tenets[show] | Topics[show] | Ideas[show] | People[show] | Literature[show] | Organizations[show] | History[show] | Lists[show] | Variants[show] | Related topics[show] | * Fascism portal * Politics portal | * v * t * e | Fascism /ˈfæʃɪzəm/ is a form of radical authoritarian nationalism[1][2] that came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe. Influenced by national syndicalism, fascism originated in Italy during World War I, in opposition to liberalism, Marxism, and anarchism. Fascism is usually placed on the far-right within the traditional left–right spectrum.[3][4] Fascists saw World War I as a revolution. It brought revolutionary changes in the nature of war, society, the state, and technology. The advent of total war and total mass mobilization of society had broken down the distinction between civilian and combatant. A "military citizenship" arose in which all citizens were involved with the military in some manner during the war.[5][6] The war had resulted in the rise of a powerful state capable of mobilizing millions of people to serve on the front lines or provide......

Words: 17730 - Pages: 71

Free Essay


...THE CONSEQUENCES OF MASS COMMUNICATION Cultural and Critical Perspectives on Mass Media and Society Kirk Hallahan ii For Jean and Jenna Copyright info to be set by McGraw-Hill. iii Foreward This book is a brief survey of contemporary ideas about the cultural impact of mass media on society. The use of consequences in the title reflects the fact that most cultural researchers prefer this term (instead of media effects) to describe media's influence on human experience. During the past 30 years, culture has emerged as a major theoretical framework in which to investigate media. Chapter I examines how media influence culture generally, as suggested by various contemporary media scholars and others. Chapter II then focuses on critical-cultural theories about the nature of media power and its potentially negative influence. This book can adopted as a supplementary text in introductory mass media courses along with a survey text such as Joseph R. Dominick's The Dynamics of Mass Communication (available from McGraw-Hill). It also can serve as a foundational text for other assigned readings in advanced courses dealing with mass media and society, communication theory, or cultural studies. Students are encouraged to focus thoughtfully on the main ideas, not attempt to merely memorize details. Important concepts and names appear in boldface and are defined in italics. The abridged Subject Index lists the page with the primary discussion of each topic. Sidebars......

Words: 41097 - Pages: 165

Free Essay


...HISTORY AND THEORY STUDIES FIRST YEAR Terms 1 and 2 Course Lecturers: CHRISTOPHER PIERCE / BRETT STEELE (Term 1) Course Lecturer: PIER VITTORIO AURELI (Term 2) Course Tutor: MOLLIE CLAYPOOL Teaching Assistants: FABRIZIO BALLABIO SHUMI BOSE POL ESTEVE Course Structure The course runs for 3 hours per week on Tuesday mornings in Terms 1 and 2. There are four parallel seminar sessions. Each seminar session is divided into parts, discussion and submission development. Seminar 10.00-12.00 Mollie Claypool, Fabrizio Ballabio, Shumi Bose and Pol Esteve Lecture 12.00-13.00 Christopher Pierce, Brett Steele and Pier Vittorio Aureli Attendance Attendance is mandatory to both seminars and lectures. We expect students to attend all lectures and seminars. Attendance is tracked to both seminars and lectures and repeated absence has the potential to affect your final mark and the course tutor and undergraduate coordinator will be notified. Marking Marking framework adheres to a High Pass with Distinction, High Pass, Pass, Low Pass, Complete-toPass system. Poor attendance can affect this final mark. Course Materials Readings for each week are provided both online on the course website at and on the course library bookshelf. Students are expected to read each assigned reading every week to be discussed in seminar. The password to access the course readings is “readings”. TERM 1: CANONICAL BUILDINGS, PROJECTS, TEXTS In this first term......

Words: 22588 - Pages: 91

Premium Essay

Best Business Research Papers

...Bachelor of Commerce Best Business Research Papers | September 2008 | Volume 1 Faculty of Business University of Victoria, BSS Office, Room 283 PO Box 1700 STN CSC Victoria BC V8W 2Y2 Canada Phone (250) 472-4728 Fax (250) 721-7066 | Seeing new horizons. September 2008 | Volume 1 Bachelor of Commerce Best Business Research Papers Bachelor of Commerce Best Business Research Papers Volume 1, September 2008 Table of Contents NOTE FROM THE EDITOR Anthony Goerzen 1 THE DUTCH BUSINESS SYSTEM IN TRANSITION: AN APPLICATION OF WHITLEY’S BUSINESS SYSTEMS APPROACH FOR THE USE OF EXECUTIVES, MANAGERS, AND POLICY MAKERS Eric Brewis 2 SWENSEN’S MUST ENGAGE IN MARKET PENETRATION AND DIVERSIFICATION TO RETAIN ITS LEADING POSITION IN THE THAILAND MARKET Kailee Douglas 13 DISNEYLAND PARIS: EUROPEANIZING A RESORT Amanda Louie 22 IKEA: A STRATEGY FOR SUCCESS Garret Luu 31 COMPULSORY LICENSING IN THAILAND Simran Mann 38 CHANGING POVERTY AND INEQUITY THROUGH BUSINESS Matthew R. Tanner 47 SWEDEN IS A NESTING GROUND FOR YOUNG START-UP ENTREPRENEURS James Whyte 56 Note from the Editor In business today, “globalization” is a key concept with the firms across nations intertwined as never before. With overseas customers, suppliers, operations, and competitors, today’s managers need an international outlook. Therefore, the mission of the University of Victoria’s Bachelor of Commerce program is......

Words: 31372 - Pages: 126