Free Essay

Race with Juvenile

In: Social Issues

Submitted By SWEETD2013
Words 1431
Pages 6
Race and Ethnicity of Juvenile Offenders | Previous Page | |

In this paper this author will discuss race and ethnicity of juvenile offenders in the United States' criminal justice system. First, one must understand what race and ethnicity is. According to Wilson, J., (2000), race is defined as 'one of five categories'white; black; American Indian, Eskimo, or Aleut; Asian or Pacific Islander; or other. The term 'black' includes African Americans and people of this racial designation whose ancestral origin lies outside the United States (e.g., Haitians).' (p. 2). Ethnicity is defined as 'Ethnicity usually indicates a person's country or countries of origin.' (p. 2).

'Children are one third of our population and all of our future.' (Select Panel for the Promotion of Child Health, 1981). What society puts into the future of the children is also what they can expect to get out of them. There is an increase in juvenile offenders, especially females. According to Wilson, J., (2000), It is difficult to pull statistics on different ethnicity juvenile offenders. (p. 2). For example, to differentiate the statistics on the amount of arrests of Caribbean blacks versus native U.S. blacks is impossible because such specific ethnicities are not recorded. Therefore, how are statistics drawn to determine the race and ethnicity of juvenile offenders? Several ways: Arrest reports, self report offending data, public records, and official data taken from criminal and juvenile justice agencies. Wilson, J., (2000) does state however there is a lack of consistency in gathering data for comparison. Statistics are taken from intake at juvenile facilities, juvenile court paperwork, and FBI reports. In addition, census reports are a critical factor for assessing and tracking juveniles in households across America. It has become increasingly critical in 2010 for all households in America to fill out the census paperwork. This author accidentally threw away the census paperwork and an employee from the U.S. Census Bureau came to this author's house to hand deliver another form. Researchers who compile such research and take information from juvenile detention facilities and courthouses survey and study the information: male versus female, ethnicity versus ethnicity, and crime versus crime. Throughout the National Criminal Justice Reference Service website, comparisons were made of such to show the trends, increases, and decreases. It is important to follow the juvenile crime rates to see where our future is going, where our children will be leading the future of America tomorrow. In addition, it is important to follow which trends juveniles are following: recreational drugs, alcohol, and school dropouts. Where is the criminal justice weak? What improvements can be made to decrease and deter juvenile from repeat crimes? All of this can be possible through assessing and tracking juvenile arrests to measure the trends and to possibly prevent career criminals. The Uniform Crime Report states 'white juveniles constituted 71 percent of all juvenile arrests compared with 26 percent of black youth.' (p. 2). In addition, 'American Indian or Alaska Native and Asian or Pacific Islanders account for 1 and 2 percent.' (Federal Bureau of Investigation, 1999). Fifteen percent of those under 18 are African American and 79 percent are white while 5 percent are other races. With that being said, 42 percent of African Americans were arrested for violent crimes. (p. 3). According to Lafree, G., (1995), 'Juvenile involvement in crime by race has been generally consistent over the past several decades.' (p. 3). In addition Lafree, G., also states 'However, the racial gap in rates of homicide widened dramatically between 1986 and 1994. Black youth were responsible for the majority of the in- crease in homicides by juveniles in these years 'and for the majority of the decline thereafter.'' (p. 3). In the next paragraph this author will discuss racial and ethnic differences.

Society has stereotyped the 'ghetto' as any low-income, colored family making trouble and keeping the middle-upper class tax dollars at work by keeping the police busy with arrests. Many White Americans attach African Americans and Hispanics to high crime areas. In addition, in lieu of the recent attacks on American soil on September 11, 2001, many Americans are weary of getting on an airplane with a Middle Easterner or question those from the Middle East. According to Hawkins, D.F., (1995), 'Researchers and criminologists have long been aware of racial and ethnic differences in serious juvenile offending. Interpreting these disparities, however, is another matter; no one theory has adequately addressed the reasons for them.' (p. 4). This author believes that the way children are raised, brought up, and their moral values will determine the outcome of their future. If children come from broken homes, abusive parents and siblings whether mental abuse, physical, and/or sexual, statistics have shown the child/children are more likely to commit crimes. In addition, if children are raised by parents who are criminals themselves, then they do not know any better except what they hear and see from their parents who are also criminals. Lastly, depending on a families moral values, social network, educational upbringing, and community ties, are all important factors for the outcome of a child's life. This author does not believe it matters what race or ethnicity a juvenile is. That has nothing to do with the crimes that are committed. It is the upbringing of the child that will determine it's future; whether it is on a straight and narrow path or one that is destructed by crime. Wilson, J., (2000) also states 'both black and white juvenile violence rates are affected by the same sociostructural factors. According to Snyder, H., (2003), the causes of violence appear to be similarly rooted in structural differences across communities and cities, regardless of race.' (p. 4). From 1992 to 2001, 'arrest of juvenile females generally increased more than male arrests in most offense categories.' (p. 8). There was also an increase in juvenile female arrests for assault. From 1992 to 2001, white males who were arrested for aggravated assault decreased by 9%. (p.8). 'Of all juvenile arrests for violent crimes, 55% involved white youth, 43% involved black youth, 1% involved Asian youth, and 1% involved American Indian youth. For property crime arrests, the proportions were 68% white youth, 28% black youth, 2% Asian youth, and 1% American Indian youth.' (p. 9). Furthermore, this author will next discuss the assessment of tracking juvenile arrests as a method of measuring the amount of and trends in juvenile crimes. In the next paragraph this author will discuss ways to decrease juvenile crimes.

As stated in the previous paragraph, this author has shown that a juveniles communal ties, upbringing, and social network play an important role in his/her future. Therefore, if a child's school plays an active role in his/her life through before and after school programs, sports, and counseling services, this may better help a child get through their juvenile years crime free. In addition, if parents communicate with their children and are active in their lives, this too may reduce juvenile crime. Also, family time plays a major role in juvenile delinquency. Families who eat dinner together on a daily basis, discuss their daily activities and are tuned in to their children's lives will also help decrease juvenile delinquency. Overall, the more ties children have to their schools, neighborhoods, friends, social networks such as church and afterschool programs and sports, the less likely he/she is to commit crimes. In the next paragraph this author will conclude the above paragraphs.

In this essay this author has discussed race and ethnicity of juvenile offenders in the United States' criminal justice system. In addition, this author has summarized that a juveniles communal ties, upbringing, and social network lessen the chance of juvenile delinquency. Moreover, society needs to track juvenile arrests to determine which race and gender are contributing to juvenile delinquency.


Hawkins, D.F. 1995. Ethnicity, race, and crime: A review of selected studies. In Ethnicity, Race and Crime: Perspectives Across Time and Place, edited by D.F. Hawkins. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

LaFree, G. 1995. Race and crime trends in the United States, 1946'1990. In Ethnicity,
Race, and Crime: Perspectives Across Time and Place, edited by D.F. Hawkins. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Snyder, H., (2003). Juvenile Arrests 2001. Online article, retrieved July 5, 2010, from the National Criminal Justice Reference Service website,

Wilson, J., (2000). Race, Ethnicity, and Serious and Violent Juvenile Offending. Online article retrieved October 4, 2010, from: |

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Race, Crime, and Juvenile Justice

...Emerging Research or Policy Issue Related To The Study of Race, Crime, and Juvenile Justice. Ronita D. Hemingway CRJC 352 Special Problems in Criminal Justice Professor Lori Guevera July 7, 2014 The most important emerging research or policy issue related to the study of race, crime, and juvenile justice system is the appropriate actions in the handling of juveniles. Since the start of the juvenile court in 1899, programs and policies have been implemented. Even with the policies and programs that were implemented to deter juveniles, juvenile crimes are still major social issues within our society. As some research has pointed out, kids who display delinquent juvenile behavior early in their youth stages are at a greater risk of offending within their adolescent years. When it comes to race, crime, and the juvenile justice, violence, substance abuse, and mental health are the three main issues that should be focused upon on when dealing with male and female delinquents. Individualized rehabilitation treatment was a highly recognized policy and practice during the 1970s and 1980s. This model focused on the placement of juveniles, who offended, to be placed in a setting that is community-based and less/non-secure. In 1960, the rights of juveniles had rose, which included due process. Due process gave juveniles the right to counsel and their protection against self-incrimination, in which juvenile courts started performing in the same manner as adult courts. Other......

Words: 693 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Race and Ethnicity of Juvenile Offenders

...Race and Ethnicity of Juvenile Offenders Shawndena Redmond University of Phoenix CJA/423- Rita Lazar July 18, 2011 Race and Ethnicity of Juvenile Offenders Juvenile crime in the United States has reached an epidemic; the overwhelming amount of juvenile offenders ensures a booming corrections industry, unfortunately with those figures come racial and ethnic disparities. To completely understand why disparities are important, one must attempt to comprehend the base causes for the enormous amount of juvenile crime in the United States. Many developments within the criminal justice system have helped reduce the amount of racially induced arrests; however, nothing has been presented to reduce the root causes for the crime levels and the disparities that still exist. The following paper will discuss juvenile justice statistics, legislation of racial bias in the juvenile justice system, racial disparities, and root causes as well as possible solutions. Statistics To understand the evidence that is currently available, nationally, is very important when discussing disparities of a juvenile offender's race and ethnicity. The most recently available statistics are those of 2007 for juvenile offenders. First, one must understand that many cases of juvenile arrests are not reported to the Uniform Crime Report (UCR) of the Federal Bureau of Investigations due to a variety of state and federal limitations on juvenile......

Words: 2071 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Cja 423 Week 2 Assignment Race and Ethnicity Juvenile Offenders Outline and Reference

...Assignment Race and Ethnicity Juvenile Offenders Outline and Reference Get Tutorial by Clicking on the link below or Copy Paste Link in Your Browser For More Courses and Exams use this form ( ) Feel Free to Search your Class through Our Product Categories or From Our Search Bar ( ) I. Introduction II. Juvenile Offenders A. The Federal Bureau of Investigation B. Race and Ethnicity Overview C. Juvenile Justice Process 1. Arrest 2. Detention, 3. Prosecution, 4. Adjudication, 5. Transfer to adult court III. Data A. Differential rates of arrest for crime are related to race. 1. Violent crimes 2. Robbery TO Download Complete Tutorial Hit Purchase Button CJA 423 week 2 Assignment Race and Ethnicity Juvenile Offenders Outline and Reference Get Tutorial by Clicking on the link below or Copy Paste Link in Your Browser For More Courses and Exams use this form ( ) Feel Free to Search your Class through Our Product Categories or From Our Search Bar ( ) I. Introduction II. Juvenile Offenders A. The Federal Bureau of Investigation B. Race and......

Words: 2112 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Juvenile Justice

...Juvenile Crime Statistics Crystal Rick Juvenile Justice June 16, 2014 Debra Nadeau Juvenile crimes are unfortunate, but they do happen in the United States. The uniform crime report or UCR is compiled by the FBI. The FBI uses information sent from local police departments. Local police departments compile information based on crimes that are committed in their area, and about the individual that was arrested. The UCR are done yearly and compared to other years. This information is used to track the changes and the recurrences in crimes that are committed. The information is used to help police departments deal with crimes that are committed by a specific group of people. Juveniles are often looked at to attempt to lower the crimes committed by juvenile offenders. Using the report can allow the police to track trends in crimes committed by juveniles. By looking at the report every year the police can see the areas that have higher crimes. They can see if there is rise in males or females committing crimes. They can find treads in the changes of crimes committed by a certain race. This report can help them to better understand what changes to make and what is effective. If the police implement a plan to lower the juvenile crime rate, and the report shows that it is consistently working it can be implemented in other areas to lower rates in other areas. According to Puzzanchera (2009) “In 2008, law enforcement agencies in the United States made an......

Words: 751 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Juvenile Paper

...Juvenile offenders Robin spiller CJS/221 December 8th, 2014 Alan Hazen Juvenile offenders For some youth , adolescence presents challenges beyond acne and high school crushes. Youth who become involved in the court system, either by spending time in the court system, either by spending time in juvenile detention facilities or by participating in risky behavior, require services unique to their situation. According to "Juvenile Defense Lawyer" (2014), "If your child is arrested, there is no right to bond in juvenile law cases in the State of Texas. Technically, your child temporarily becomes a ward of the state and is not considered to be in custody. After your child is detained initially, he or she does have a right to a 72-hour detainer hearing where we can fight to get your child out and put into your custody. (para. 2). The common perception of the public is that juvenile offenders are of color. One would wonder why this is the perception, it is said that based off of the geographical area of most young blacks and their social class that they are more likely than whites to end up in the system, This is not the case. Although it is a stereo-type that due to most of the African American teens being raised in a single parent home that it would be more likely for them to end up in the system. Inner city teens tend to find themselves tied in to gangs and selling drugs. It is said that teens seek this type of affection to feel the void in their lives. When......

Words: 905 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Teenagers In The Juvenile Justice System

...experiences of being abused. A portion of these teenagers end up performing deeds that violate the law and are sent to juvenile justice systems. At these juvenile justice systems, juveniles are meant to be disciplined and taught to become a better citizen; however, there have been cases that show that the juvenile court systems have not only done little to nothing to benefit the juveniles, but also held them back in both school and life. Because of the harm and delay to these juveniles’ life, juvenile justice systems are not beneficial for troubled teens. Juvenile justice systems are meant...

Words: 811 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Juvenile Crime Statistics

...Juvenile Crime Statistics Paper A person under the age of 18 years old is considerate a juvenile. A child or youth who commits a crime or is beyond the control of his or her parents is considerate a juvenile delinquent. This paper will summarize the juvenile crime statistics for 2008. The decrease in juvenile arrests will be discusses. Also the increase in drug offenses and simple assaults will be summarized. In addition, the increase and decrease of female, male, and minority arrests, and their implications will be of topic. Finally, the assessment of tracking juvenile arrests as a method of measuring the amount of and trends in juvenile crime will be done. Overall Decrease in Juvenile Arrests The decrease of juvenile arrests was evident in 2008. Juvenile arrests decreased by 3% from that of 2007. Violent crimes that include murder and non-negligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault showed a trend of declined in 2006 and 2008. In fact the rate of violent crimes decreased from 1987 to 2008. Although juvenile arrests declined to less than 10%, property crime arrests increased. According, to the Juvenile Arrests 2008 bulletin, property crimes increased between 2006 and 2008. Drug Offenses and Simple Assaults In 2008, juvenile arrests for drug offenses was of 180, 100. At 11% the arrests differ from that of the previous years. Juvenile drug offenses have increased in the last couple of years. Simple assaults decreased in 2008 to 6% of...

Words: 716 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Race and Ethnicity

...l Race and Juvenile Delinquency by Dubien Tshimanga SOCIOLOGY & ANTHROPOLOGY CAPSTONE PRINCIPIA COLLEGE APRIL 2015 ABSTRACT Throughout history, the struggle of minorities has been seen in many facets of life such as in history, literature, music and film: Martin Luther King Jr. and Mahatma Gandhi fought for the right of unrepresented minorities. Books such as Too Kill a Mocking Bird spoke to the prejudices of a community. Movies such as Roots illustrated the hardship of the slaves. From the Roman’s persecution of Christians to today’s rap song lyrics about economic disparities the plight of the minority has been fought for millennium. This research examines the struggle of minorities within the juvenile justice system and the differential rates of adjudication and length of sentencing between the white majority and the black minority juvenile offenders. During the course of this research, additional insights were gained from an internship at a youth correctional center as well as drawing on my own personal experience as a refugee from Gabon. The findings of my research demonstrate that minority offenders do receive harsher sentences than the whites, and that there are several factors contributing to higher rates of juvenile delinquency among African Americans; primarily education and community. To consider the struggle of minorities is important because it creates awareness that the maltreatment of a minority group by the dominant majority often...

Words: 19434 - Pages: 78

Premium Essay

Juvenile Offenders

...Juvenile Offenders Paper Race, Ethnicity, Social Structure, and Crime/CJS/221(BSGZ1HW7T1) August 31, 2015 Race v. Crime Early in this nation, crime was mostly blame on the poor, especially the ones that were new comers to America. It may appear dangerous because of the fact that many of these individuals came from different cultural, ethnic and religious backgrounds. In the late nineteenth century, each wave of immigration that brought newcomers were threatening a new crime wave. From the beginning, juvenile justice engage in class favoritism that resulted to poor children being process through the system while middle class children were excused. Poverty with dangerousness has continued until the present day. It is especially expressed with the fear of gang behavior and violence from African American and Hispanic poor children. A number of black males are committed to civility and law abiding behavior. Often they have a hard time convincing others of this, because of their skin color, age, gender, appearance and general style of self-presentation. However, young women of color, and the minority girls often grow up in the very different from those of the white females. Because of poverty and racism, which go hand in hand, these girls are force to participate in violence, drug abuse and physical abuse. They are also to be likely attracted to gang membership as well. Overall, female arrest rates tend to increase slightly compared to males. Juvenile Crime Percentage......

Words: 823 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Juvenile Implications

...The Implications of Juvenile Criminal Statistics Chanel Walker 11/2/2015 David Purdy Crj/374 University of Phoenix The Implications of Juvenile Criminal Statistics Juvenile Delinquent (n): a minor who cannot be controlled by parental authority and commits antisocial or criminal acts,as vandalism or violence. Any person under the age of 18 is considered to be a juvenile. Fbi uniform crime reporting program is the basis of how data crime statistics are reported, tracked, and observed. Based on the data, the FBI prepares its annual Crime in the United States statistical compilation, which summarizes crimes known to the police and arrests made during the reporting calendar year. This information is used to describe the extent and nature of juvenile crime that comes to the attention of the justice system according to (Charles Puzzanchera,2009) (p.1). This report will summarize the juvenile crime statistics for the year of 2008. This report summarizes the overall decrease in juvenile arrests, and will also discuss the rise and fall of arrests in male, females, and minorities. In addition the assessment of tracking juvenile arrests, as a method of measuring the amount of juvenile crime and trends will be discussed. So strap in your seat belt and be prepared for a plethora of shocking discovery. Federal Bureau of investigations monitors four trend offenses reported by law enforcement agencies which are murder, nonnegligent manslaughter, forcible rape, aggravated......

Words: 1179 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Crime and Violence

...Crime and Punishment sect. 00002 | Racial Profiling | Negative effects of race on law enforcement | Presented to Dr. Gina De Iaco | Presented by Lara Ipekian 1228828 | 11/7/2014 | | Abstract Practicing racism is the act of discriminating due to different pigmentation of skin color or culture. Racial profiling is when a person of legal authority uses their racist prejudices on a civilian while making decisions. It is hypothesized that racial minorities of a population are judged prior to knowing details about the case due to the color of their skin. There are numerous researchers who have provided enough information in order to prove that racial profiling is still an issue for either juror, policeman or any other figure of legal status. Studies show that minorities are treated unfairly in court and on the roads since the first gun law. Introduction The following dissertation will be discussing the issue of unequal distribution of law enforcement in correlation to racism. It is an atrocity that a horrible mentality created centuries ago is still being used against ethnicities in the 21st century. All races should be considered as equal to one another, whether white, black, yellow or even purple. We, humans, share the same planet. Under our skin, we share identical functioning. Somewhere between our pigmentation and our culture we have lost our rationality. For some reason, the media exposes more crime from minorities, creating prejudice. It is......

Words: 1556 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

The Racial Disparities and Incarceration of Juvenile Delinquents

...The Racial Disparities and Incarceration of Juvenile Delinquents Mario M. Tate University of Memphis Abstract The criminal justice system has had to enact harsher treatment due to the erratic and unpredictable nature of juvenile delinquents who refuse to follow the law. The age ranges for juveniles that are being considered in this study are 12-18 years old. I want to address the ever growing problems of racial disparity and incarceration of juvenile delinquents, who tend to not have any other options, but being arrested and are preyed upon because of their racial make-up. Single parent households, lack of education, supervision, and economics are some of the contributing factors which have lead many juveniles down the road to their deviant behavior. Data has been collected to try and understand the reasons for the defiant behavior of juveniles, so advocates may assist them in remaining with their families; through constant monitoring and evaluations of behavior and actions of our children they may stand a significant chance of growing up to be prosperous and productive adults. Also increased funding through the Juvenile Justice Prevention Act will help local state and county municipalities’ kick-start programs to assist today’s youth. Keywords: juvenile delinquents, incarceration, racial disparity, juvenile justice, racial discrimination, jail, juvenile courts The history of juvenile delinquency and racial disparity has gone hand in hand for a very long time......

Words: 4826 - Pages: 20

Free Essay

Unconscious Racial Stereotypes About Adolescent Offenders

...Police Officers and Juvenile Probation Officers racially biased? Siobhan L. Healy July 1, 2014 Author Note Summary of the article “Priming unconscious racial stereotypes about adolescent offenders” by Graham, Sandra, Department of Education, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, US, Lowery, Brian S., Graduate School of Business, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, US, 2004, retrieved on July 1, 2014 from Abstract This paper summarizes the main ideas of the article “Priming unconscious racial stereotypes about adolescent offenders” by Graham, Sandra, Department of Education, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, US, Lowery, Brian S., Graduate School of Business, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, US. The main question asked is whether decision makers within the juvenile justice system harbor unconscious racial stereotyping. For this purpose, two studies were developed to examine the above question. Experiment 1 was performed on Police Officers and Experiment 2 involved Juvenile Probation Officers. Both groups were “subliminally exposed” to words either in the Black or Neutral Race category before being given tasks unrelated to the sublime race reference and without stating the hypothetical offender’s race in that task. ......

Words: 1091 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Cjus 230 Final Paper

...The Effects of Family Structure and Values on Juvenile Delinquency Christina M. Bracey 201240 Fall 2012 CJUS 230-B02 LUO Professor DeBoer Liberty University Online October 12, 2012 Abstract The changes in family values and structure in the United States has helped contribute to juvenile delinquency today. Society needs to recognize problems within the home before trying to find solutions to problems for todays at risk youth in America. Major structural changes inside of the home could adversely affect the raising of juveniles leading to delinquency. Some of the issues I will discuss in my paper are divorce, child abuse, mothers working outside of the home, and single-parent homes. Ineffectively raising a child can cause low self-control and low self-esteem while increasing the risks of delinquency as well. I will argue that with proper supervision, counseling, and monitoring of the behavior of the juvenile, it is possible that society can help eliminate some of the crimes committed by juvenile delinquents. Thesis The changes in family values and structure in the United States has helped contribute to juvenile delinquency today Introduction Family Structure has changed noticeably in the United States over the past several decades. It refers to various family characteristics that affect relationships and how families function. These characteristics include family size, family disruption, and birth order. High rates of divorce, single-parent housing, the...

Words: 4022 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

Should Juveniles Be Tired and Punish as Adults?

...freedom change over the course of American history?” “The meaning of freedom has never changed in fact juvenile and adult prisoners never had freedom. Prisoners will always have consequences from committing crimes, and as of today this still applies to every citizen or non-citizen.” Before children had the freedom to be free and just be rebels get away from crime, maybe get a speech explaining to them don’t do it again, or furthermore a discipline butt whooping. But now there are consequences of their own actions of social inequality, and how society is both stable and changing the causes of consequences and behavior. But we are just kids we always have fun by goofing around, sometimes we may not ever learn. Should juvenile offenders be tried and punish as adults? It should depend on how serious the issue really is, because if a child attempts murder maybe he should be charged as an adult as many teenagers are trial as an adult. In my personal opinion, I don’t think children should be tried and punish as adults because children are not fully mature enough to be able to go through such a process, doing bad things gets to their own minds as their own perspective way of being “cool.” Children are not fully responsible and developed although we are responsible for our own actions but most children wouldn’t be able to handle such a situation it’s brutal. If juveniles are tried as an adult it might be a great consequence or good way to punish the child, but what good does......

Words: 713 - Pages: 3