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RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION
Introduction
RFID is a technology which enables detecting and identifying objects using electromagnetic radio waves. This is processed through exchange of information between a reader and a tag being attached to the object that includes the data associated with the object. This can be used to detect and classify vehicles, animals, patients, shipment goods and airline baggage. [1]
RFID technology involves two main components, they are transponders which are also known as tags or labels, contain the relevant information about the object and other the interrogators, also known as readers or transceivers, that extract the data from the tags. These tags can be passive or active tags. Passive tags use the energy from the EM radiation of the reader for its processing, where as active tags receive power from an internal battery for its processing and communication with the reader. An integrated electronic circuit is embedded in tags for storage and processing operations and an antenna that transmits and receives the RF signal. [2]

Figure : components of RFID
Source : http://www.docstoc.com/docs/17328767/Draft-SP800-98
The tags used in RFID are enabled with read-write operations, with a large storage capacity. Data can be modified any number of times. Tag and reader act as two way radio communication in which each antenna carries the modulation and demodulation of RF signals, with operation frequency ranges from low frequency to UHF. As radio waves are used, RFID does not require line of sight for communication and the operating distance between the reader and tag varies according to the frequency range from few centimetres to few meters. [3]

[1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio-frequency_identification
[2] [3] http://www.docstoc.com/docs/17328767/Draft-SP800-98
History
The start of RFID took place in 1915, by the...

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